Algeria

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After more than a century of rule by France, Algerians fought through much of the 1950s to achieve independence in 1962. Algeria's primary political party, the National Liberation Front (FLN), was established in 1954 as part of the struggle for independence and has largely dominated politics since. The Government of Algeria in 1988 instituted a multi-party system in response to public unrest, but the surprising first round success of the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) in the December 1991 balloting led the Algerian army to intervene and postpone the second round of elections to prevent what the secular elite feared would be an extremist-led government from assuming power. The army began a crackdown on the FIS that spurred FIS supporters to begin attacking government targets. Fighting escalated into an insurgency, which saw intense violence from 1992-98, resulting in over 100,000 deaths - many attributed to indiscriminate massacres of villagers by extremists. The government gained the upper hand by the late-1990s, and FIS's armed wing, the Islamic Salvation Army, disbanded in January 2000.

Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA, with the backing of the military, won the presidency in 1999 in an election widely viewed as fraudulent and has won subsequent elections in 2004, 2009 and 2014. The government in 2011 introduced some political reforms in response to the Arab Spring, including lifting the 19-year-old state of emergency restrictions and increasing women's quotas for elected assemblies while also increasing subsidies to the populace. Algeria’s reliance on hydrocarbon revenues to finance the government and large subsidies for the population is under stress because of declining oil prices.

Geography

Location

Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco and Tunisia

Geographic coordinates

28.00° N, 3.00° E

Area 10/257

total: 2,381,741 sq km

land: 2,381,741 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas

Land boundaries

total: 6,734 km

border countries (7): Libya 989 km, Mali 1,359 km, Mauritania 460 km, Morocco 1,900 km, Niger 951 km, Tunisia 1,034 km, Western Sahara 41 km

Coastline

998 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 nm

Climate

arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer

Terrain

mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous coastal plain

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Chott Melrhir -40 m

highest point: Tahat 3,003 m

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc

Land use

agricultural land: 17.3%

arable land 3.1%; permanent crops 0.4%; permanent pasture 13.8%

forest: 0.6%

other: 82% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

5,700 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

11.67 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 5.72 cu km/yr (26%/16%/58%)

per capita: 182 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards

mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mudslides and floods in rainy season

Environment - current issues

soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage, petroleum refining wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in particular, becoming polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizer runoff; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

largest country in Africa

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Algerian(s)

adjective: Algerian

Ethnic groups

Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%

note: although almost all Algerians are Berber in origin (not Arab), only a minority identify themselves as Berber, about 15% of the total population; these people live mostly in the mountainous region of Kabylie east of Algiers; the Berbers are also Muslim but identify with their Berber rather than Arab cultural heritage; Berbers have long agitated, sometimes violently, for autonomy; the government is unlikely to grant autonomy but has offered to begin sponsoring teaching Berber language in schools

Languages

Arabic (official), French (lingua franca), Berber or Tamazight (official); dialects include Kabyle Berber (Taqbaylit), Shawiya Berber (Tacawit), Mzab Berber, Tuareg Berber (Tamahaq)

Religions

Muslim (official; predominantly Sunni) 99%, other (includes Christian and Jewish)

Population 34/238

39,542,166 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 28.75% (male 5,820,027/female 5,547,573)

15-24 years: 16.64% (male 3,368,415/female 3,213,185)

25-54 years: 42.84% (male 8,569,397/female 8,369,078)

55-64 years: 6.42% (male 1,289,595/female 1,248,385)

65 years and over: 5.35% (male 977,744/female 1,138,767) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 52.6%

youth dependency ratio: 43.6%

elderly dependency ratio: 9.1%

potential support ratio: 11% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 27.5 years

male: 27.2 years

female: 27.8 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 60/233

1.84% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 63/224

23.67 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 203/225

4.31 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 148/222

-0.92 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 70.7% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 2.77% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

ALGIERS (capital) 2.594 million; Oran 858,000 (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female

total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 75/184

140 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 83/224

total: 20.98 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 22.7 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 19.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 81/224

total population: 76.59 years

male: 75.29 years

female: 77.96 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 65/224

2.78 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

61.4% (2006)

Health expenditures 135/191

6.6% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

1.21 physicians/1,000 population (2007)

Hospital bed density

1.7 beds/1,000 population (2004)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 84.3% of population

rural: 81.8% of population

total: 83.6% of population

unimproved:

urban: 15.7% of population

rural: 18.2% of population

total: 16.4% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 89.8% of population

rural: 82.2% of population

total: 87.6% of population

unimproved:

urban: 10.2% of population

rural: 17.8% of population

total: 12.4% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.04% (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

10,500 (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

200 (2014 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 116/191

23.6% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight 102/138

3.7% (2005)

Education expenditures 97/173

4.3% of GDP (2008)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 14 years

male: 14 years

female: 14 years (2011)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 47/134

total: 24.8%

male: 21.6%

female: 39.8% (2013 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: People's Democratic Republic of Algeria

conventional short form: Algeria

local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Sha'biyah

local short form: Al Jaza'ir

etymology: the country name derives from the capital city of Algiers

Government type

republic

Capital

name: Algiers

geographic coordinates: 36.45° N, 3.03° E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

48 provinces (wilayas, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanrasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen

Independence

5 July 1962 (from France)

National holiday

Revolution Day, 1 November (1954)

Constitution

adopted 8 September 1963; amended several times, last in 2008 to remove presidential term limits; note - President BOUTEFLIKA in 2014 and mid-2015 introduced some constitutional reforms (2015)

Legal system

mixed legal system of French civil law and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials including several Supreme Court justices

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: the mother must be a citizen of Algeria

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (since 28 April 1999)

head of government: Prime Minister Abdelmalek SELLAL (since 28 April 2014)

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in two rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 17 April 2014 (next to be held in April 2019); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA reelected president for a fourth term; percent of vote - Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (FLN) 81.5%, Ali BENFLIS (FLN) 12.2%, Abdelaziz BELAID (Future Front) 3.4%, other 2.9%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament consists of the Council of the Nation (upper house with 144 seats; one-third of members appointed by the president, two-thirds indirectly elected by simple majority vote by an electoral college composed of local council members; members serve 6-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years) and the National People's Assembly (lower house with 489 seats including 8 seats for Algerians living abroad); members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)

elections: Council of the Nation - last held on 29 December 2012 (next to be held in December 2017); National People's Assembly - last held on 10 May 2012 (next to be held in 2017)

election results: Council of the Nation - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; National People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FLN 221, RND 70, AAV 47, FFS 21, PT 17, FNA 9, El Adala 7, MPA 6, PFJ 5, FC 4, PNSD 4, other 32, independent 19; seats by party as of 5 October 2015 - FLN 220, RND 68, AAV 50, FFS 28, PT 24, FNA 10, FJD 8, MPA 7, FC 5, PFJ 5, ANR 4, PNSD 4, AHD 54 3, PED 3, FNJS 3, UFDS 3, other minor parties 16, independent 19, representing Algerian diaspora 8, vacant 1

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of 150 judges organized into 4 divisions: civil and commercial; social security and labor; criminal; and administrative; Constitutional Council (consists of 9 members including the court president); note - Algeria's judicial system does not include sharia courts

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the High Council of Magistracy, an administrative body presided over by the president of the republic, and includes the republic vice-president and several members; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Council members - 3 appointed by the president of the republic, 2 each by the 2 houses of the Parliament, 1 by the Supreme Court, and 1 by the Council of State; Council president and members appointed for single 6-year terms with half the membership renewed every 3 years

subordinate courts: appellate or wilaya courts; first instance or daira tribunals

Political parties and leaders

Algerian National Front or FNA [Moussa TOUATI]

Algerian Popular Movement or MPA [Amara BENYOUNES]

Algerian Rally or RA [Ali ZAGHDOUD]

Algeria's Hope Rally or TAJ [Amar GHOUL]

Dignity or El Karama [Mohamed BENHAMOU]

Ennour El Djazairi Party (Algerian Radiance Party) or PED [Badreddine BELBAZ]

Front for Change or FC [Abdelmadjid MENASRA]

Front for Justice and Development or El Adala [Abdallah DJABALLAH]

Future Front or El Mostakbel [Abdelaziz BELAID]

Green Algeria Alliance or AAV (includes Islah, Ennahda Movement, and MSP)

Islamic Renaissance Movement or Ennahda Movement [Fatah RABEI]

Movement of the Society of Peace or MSP [Abderrazak MOKRI]

National Democratic Rally (Rassemblement National Democratique) or RND [Ahmed OUYAHIA]

National Front for Social Justice or FNJS [Khaled BOUNEDJEMA]

National Liberation Front or FLN [Amar SAIDANI]

National Party for Solidarity and Development or PNSD

National Reform Movement or Islah [Djahid YOUNSI]

National Republican Alliance

New Dawn Party or PFJ

New Generation or Jil Jadid [Soufiane DJILALI]

Oath of 1954 or Ahd 54 [Ali Fawzi REBAINE]

Party of Justice and Liberty [Mohammed SAID]

Rally for Culture and Democracy or RCD [Mohcine BELABBAS]

Socialist Forces Front or FFS [Mustafa BOUCHACHI]

Union of Democratic and Social Forces or UFDS [Noureddine BAHBOUH]

Youth Party or PJ [Hamana BOUCHARMA]

Workers Party or PT [Louisa HANOUNE]

note: a law banning political parties based on religion was enacted in March 1997

Political pressure groups and leaders

Algerian League for the Defense of Human Rights or LADDH [Noureddine BENISSAD]

SOS Disparus [Nacera DUTOUR]

Youth Action Rally or RAJ

International organization participation

ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, BIS, CAEU, CD, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

Flag description

two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white; a red, five-pointed star within a red crescent centered over the two-color boundary; the colors represent Islam (green), purity and peace (white), and liberty (red); the crescent and star are also Islamic symbols, but the crescent is more closed than those of other Muslim countries because Algerians believe the long crescent horns bring happiness

National symbol(s)

star and crescent, fennec fox; national colors: green, white, red

National anthem

name: "Kassaman" (We Pledge)

lyrics/music: Mufdi ZAKARIAH/Mohamed FAWZI

note: adopted 1962; ZAKARIAH wrote "Kassaman" as a poem while imprisoned in Algiers by French colonial forces

Economy

Economy - overview

Algeria's economy remains dominated by the state, a legacy of the country's socialist postindependence development model. In recent years the Algerian Government has halted the privatization of state-owned industries and imposed restrictions on imports and foreign involvement in its economy.

Hydrocarbons have long been the backbone of the economy, accounting for roughly 60% of budget revenues, 30% of GDP, and over 95% of export earnings. Algeria has the 10th-largest reserves of natural gas in the world and is the sixth-largest gas exporter. It ranks 16th in oil reserves. Hydrocarbon exports have enabled Algeria to maintain macroeconomic stability and amass large foreign currency reserves and a large budget stabilization fund available for tapping. In addition, Algeria's external debt is extremely low at about 2% of GDP. However, Algeria has struggled to develop non-hydrocarbon industries because of heavy regulation and an emphasis on state-driven growth.

The government's efforts have done little to reduce high youth unemployment rates or to address housing shortages. A wave of economic protests in February and March 2011 prompted the Algerian Government to offer more than $23 billion in public grants and retroactive salary and benefit increases, moves which continue to weigh on public finances. Since late 2014, declining oil prices forced the government to spend down its reserves at a high rate in order to sustain social spending on salaries and subsidies, particularly since the government has been unable to boost exports of hydrocarbons or significantly grow its nonoil sector.

Long-term economic challenges include diversifying the economy away from its reliance on hydrocarbon exports, bolstering the private sector, attracting foreign investment, and providing adequate jobs for younger Algerians.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 35/230

$570.6 billion (2015 est.)

$554 billion (2014 est.)

$533.7 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$175.1 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 104/225

3% (2015 est.)

3.8% (2014 est.)

2.8% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 111/230

$14,400 (2015 est.)

$14,000 (2014 est.)

$13,500 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 11/179

31.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

43.3% of GDP (2014 est.)

45.1% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 39.1%

government consumption: 21.3%

investment in fixed capital: 39.6%

investment in inventories: 7.6%

exports of goods and services: 27.4%

imports of goods and services: -35%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 10.3%

industry: 46%

services: 43.7% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits; sheep, cattle

Industries

petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing

Industrial production growth rate 161/202

0.4% (2015 est.)

Labor force 48/233

11.77 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 10.8%, 30.9%

industry: 58.4%, 13.4%

services: (2003 est.)

Unemployment rate 122/207

11% (2015 est.)

10.6% (2014 est.)

Population below poverty line

23% (2006 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.8%

highest 10%: 26.8% (1995)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 90/144

35.3 (1995)

Budget

revenues: $49.38 billion

expenditures: $69.01 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 96/219

28.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 204/220

-11.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 167/176

9.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

7.2% of GDP (2014 est.)

note: data cover central government debt as well as debt issued by subnational entities and intra-governmental debt

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 176/226

5.1% (2015 est.)

2.9% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 97/156

4% (31 December 2010)

4% (31 December 2009)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 110/184

8% (31 December 2015 est.)

8% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 38/192

$89.89 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$109 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 47/193

$164.5 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$152.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 59/191

$57.98 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$35.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares

$NA

Current account balance 191/197

-$30.96 billion (2015 est.)

-$9.635 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 60/224

$36.3 billion (2015 est.)

$63.23 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products 97% (2009 est.)

Exports - partners

Egypt 17%, Iran 13.3%, US 10.8%, NZ 7.8%, Republic of the Congo 7.5%, UAE 7.1%, Benin 4.9%, Thailand 4.1% (2014)

Imports 50/223

$52.65 billion (2015 est.)

$58.62 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods

Imports - partners

China 14.1%, France 10.8%, Italy 8.6%, Spain 8.6%, Germany 6.5%, US 4.9% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 15/170

$155.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$179.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 132/206

$4.839 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$5.231 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 70/120

$30.13 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$28.98 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 78/105

$2.679 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$2.589 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

Algerian dinars (DZD) per US dollar -

100.6 (2015 est.)

80.58 (2014 est.)

80.58 (2013 est.)

77.54 (2012 est.)

72.94 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 51/220

53.99 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 54/219

42.87 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 56/218

985 million kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - imports 64/219

936 million kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 47/214

15.2 million kW (2013 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 55/214

98% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 38/214

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 138/214

1.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 110/212

0.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 18/214

1.42 million bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 15/214

1.158 million bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - imports 77/214

5,900 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 16/215

12.2 billion bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 34/214

484,500 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 37/212

390,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 17/214

432,700 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 54/213

94,180 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Natural gas - production 11/216

79.65 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 27/215

36.65 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports 8/215

43 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports 153/214

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 9/212

4.505 trillion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 36/212

133.9 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 46/219

total subscriptions: 3.1 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 8 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 33/217

total: 37.3 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 96 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: privatization of Algeria's telecommunications sector began in 2000; three mobile cellular licenses have been issued and, in 2005, a consortium led by Egypt's Orascom Telecom won a 15-year license to build and operate a fixed-line network in Algeria; the license will allow Orascom to develop high-speed data and other specialized services and contribute to meeting the large unfulfilled demand for basic residential telephony; Internet broadband services began in 2003

domestic: a limited network of fixed lines with a teledensity of less than 10 telephones per 100 persons has been offset by the rapid increase in mobile-cellular subscribership; in 2011, mobile-cellular teledensity was roughly 100 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 213; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-4 fiber-optic submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; microwave radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and Tunisia; participant in Medarabtel; satellite earth stations - 51 (Intelsat, Intersputnik, and Arabsat) (2011)

Broadcast media

state-run Radio-Television Algerienne operates the broadcast media and carries programming in Arabic, Berber dialects, and French; use of satellite dishes is widespread, providing easy access to European and Arab satellite stations; state-run radio operates several national networks and roughly 40 regional radio stations (2007)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 25, FM 1, shortwave 8 (1999)

Television broadcast stations

46 (plus 216 repeaters) (1995)

Internet country code

.dz

Internet hosts 178/232

676 (2012)

Internet users 55/217

total: 6.5 million

percent of population: 16.7% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 36/236

157 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 64

over 3,047 m: 12

2,438 to 3,047 m: 29

1,524 to 2,437 m: 17

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 1 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 93

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 18

914 to 1,523 m: 39

under 914 m: 34 (2013)

Heliports

3 (2013)

Pipelines

condensate 2,600 km; gas 16,415 km; liquid petroleum gas 3,447 km; oil 7,036 km; refined products 144 km (2013)

Railways 45/136

total: 3,973 km

standard gauge: 2,888 km 1.432-m gauge (283 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 1,085 km 1.055-m gauge (2014)

Roadways 42/223

total: 113,655 km

paved: 87,605 km (includes 645 km of expressways)

unpaved: 26,050 km (2010)

Merchant marine 78/156

total: 38

by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 8, chemical tanker 3, liquefied gas 11, passenger/cargo 3, petroleum tanker 4, roll on/roll off 3

foreign-owned: 15 (UK, 15) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Djendjene, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda

LNG terminal(s) (export): Arzew, Bethioua, Skikida

Military and Security

Military branches

People's National Army (Armee Nationale Populaire, ANP), Land Forces (Forces Terrestres, FT), Navy of the Republic of Algeria (Marine de la Republique Algerienne, MRA), Air Force (Al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Jaza'eriya, QJJ), Territorial Air Defense Force (2009)

Military service age and obligation

17 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; 19-30 years of age for compulsory service; conscript service obligation is 18 months (6 months basic training, 12 months civil projects) (2012)

Military expenditures 8/132

4.48% of GDP (2012)

4.36% of GDP (2011)

4.48% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Algeria and many other states reject Moroccan administration of Western Sahara; the Polisario Front, exiled in Algeria, represents the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic; Algeria's border with Morocco remains an irritant to bilateral relations, each nation accusing the other of harboring militants and arms smuggling; dormant disputes include Libyan claims of about 32,000 sq km still reflected on its maps of southeastern Algeria and the National Liberation Front's (FLN) assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures in southeastern Morocco

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 90,000 (Western Saharan Sahrawi, mostly living in Algerian-sponsored camps in the southwestern Algerian town of Tindouf) (2014)

IDPs: undetermined (civil war during 1990s) (2013)