Angola

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Angola is still rebuilding its country since the end of a 27-year civil war in 2002. Fighting between the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS, and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas SAVIMBI, followed independence from Portugal in 1975. Peace seemed imminent in 1992 when Angola held national elections, but fighting picked up again in 1993. Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost - and 4 million people displaced - during the more than a quarter century of fighting. SAVIMBI's death in 2002 ended UNITA's insurgency and cemented the MPLA's hold on power. President DOS SANTOS pushed through a new constitution in 2010; elections held in 2012 saw him installed as president. Angola assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2015-16 term.

Geography

Location

Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates

12.30° S, 18.30° E

Area 23/257

total: 1,246,700 sq km

land: 1,246,700 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries

total: 5,369 km

border countries (4): Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,646 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province), Republic of the Congo 231 km, Namibia 1,427 km, Zambia 1,065 km

Coastline

1,600 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate

semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)

Terrain

narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Moca 2,620 m

Natural resources

petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium

Land use

agricultural land: 47.3%

arable land 3.8%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 43.3%

forest: 46.8%

other: 5.9% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

860 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

148 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 0.71 cu km/yr (45%/34%/21%)

per capita: 40.27 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards

locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau

Environment - current issues

overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

the province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Angolan(s)

adjective: Angolan

Ethnic groups

Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%

Languages

Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages

Religions

indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (1998 est.)

Population 59/238

19,625,353

note: preliminary results from Angola's 2014 national census estimate the country's population to be 24.3 million (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 42.95% (male 4,297,988/female 4,131,037)

15-24 years: 20.65% (male 2,061,704/female 1,990,206)

25-54 years: 29.46% (male 2,916,132/female 2,865,417)

55-64 years: 3.98% (male 379,531/female 401,563)

65 years and over: 2.96% (male 269,164/female 312,611) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 99.9%

youth dependency ratio: 95.2%

elderly dependency ratio: 4.6%

potential support ratio: 21.6% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 18 years

male: 17.8 years

female: 18.2 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 16/233

2.78% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 9/224

38.78 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 29/225

11.49 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 71/222

0.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 44% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 4.97% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

LUANDA (capital) 5.506 million; Huambo 1.269 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female

total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

18 (2008/09 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 25/184

477 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 8/224

total: 78.26 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 81.96 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 74.38 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 207/224

total population: 55.63 years

male: 54.49 years

female: 56.84 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 9/224

5.37 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

17.7% (2008/09)

Health expenditures 172/191

3.8% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

0.17 physicians/1,000 population (2009)

Hospital bed density

0.8 beds/1,000 population (2005)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 75.4% of population

rural: 28.2% of population

total: 49% of population

unimproved:

urban: 24.6% of population

rural: 71.8% of population

total: 51% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 88.6% of population

rural: 22.5% of population

total: 51.6% of population

unimproved:

urban: 11.4% of population

rural: 77.5% of population

total: 48.4% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

2.41% (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

304,400 (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

11,770 (2014 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 147/191

8.5% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight 45/138

15.6% (2007)

Education expenditures 127/173

3.5% of GDP (2010)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 11 years

male: 14 years

female: 9 years (2011)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Angola

conventional short form: Angola

local long form: Republica de Angola

local short form: Angola

former: People's Republic of Angola

etymology: name derived by the Portuguese from the title "ngola" held by kings of the Ndongo (Ndongo was a kingdom in what is now northern Angola)

Government type

republic; multiparty presidential regime

Capital

name: Luanda

geographic coordinates: 8.50° S, 13.13° E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Kwando Kubango, Kwanza Norte, Kwanza Sul, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire

Independence

11 November 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday

Independence Day, 11 November (1975)

Constitution

previous 1975, 1992; latest passed by National Assembly 21 January 2010, adopted 5 February 2010 (2015)

Legal system

civil legal system based on Portuguese civil law; no judicial review of legislation

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Angola

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); Vice President Manuel Domingos VICENTE (since 26 September 2012); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); Vice President Manuel Domingos VICENTE (since 26 September 2012)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second consecutive or discontinuous term); note - according to the 2010 constitution, ballots are cast for parties rather than candidates, and the leader of the winning party becomes president

election results: NA; as leader of the MPLA, Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS elected president following legislative elections on 31 August 2012, inaugurated on 26 September 2012 to serve the first of a possible two terms under the 2010 constitution

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats; members directly elected in a single national constituency and in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 31 August 2012 (next to be held in 2017)

election results: percent of vote by party - MPLA 71.8%, UNITA 18.7%, CASA-CE 6.0%, PRS 1.7%, FNLA 1.1%, other 0.7%; seats by party - MPLA 175, UNITA 32, CASA-CE 8, PRS 3, FNLA 2

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Tribunal da Relacao (consists of the chief justice and 16 judges; Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional - legislative review (consists of 11 members)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president upon recommendation of the Supreme Judicial Council, an 18-member body presided over by the president; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges - 4 nominated by the president, 4 elected by National Assembly, 2 elected by Supreme National Council, 1 elected by competitive submission of curricula; judges serve single 7-year terms

subordinate courts: provincial and municipal courts

Political parties and leaders

Broad Convergence for the Salvation of Angola Electoral Coalition or CASA-CE [Abel CHIVUKUVUKU]

National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA [Lucas NGONDA]

National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [Isaias SAMAKUVA] (largest opposition party)

Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS] (ruling party in power since 1975)

Social Renewal Party or PRS [Eduardo KUANGANA]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Angolan Revolutionary Movement or ARM

Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita Henriques TIAGO]

note: FLEC's small-scale armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province persists despite the signing of a peace accord with the government in August 2006; several factions of FLEC have broken off over the past 30 years, including the FLEC-PM [Rodrigues MINGAS], which was responsible for a deadly attack on the Togolese soccer team in 2010

International organization participation

ACP, AfDB, AU, CEMAC, CPLP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OPEC, SADC, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Flag description

two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle); red represents liberty, black the African continent, the symbols characterize workers and peasants

National symbol(s)

Palanca Negra Gigante (giant black sable antelope); national colors: red, black, yellow

National anthem

name: "Angola Avante" (Forward Angola)

lyrics/music: Manuel Rui Alves MONTEIRO/Rui Alberto Vieira Dias MINGAO

note: adopted 1975

Economy

Economy - overview

Angola's economy is overwhelmingly driven by its oil sector. Oil production and its supporting activities contribute about 50% of GDP, more than 70% of government revenue, and more than 90% of the country's exports. Diamonds contribute an additional 5% to exports. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for most of the people, but half of the country's food is still imported. Increased oil production supported growth averaging more than 17% per year from 2004 to 2008. A postwar reconstruction boom and resettlement of displaced persons has led to high rates of growth in construction and agriculture as well. Some of the country's infrastructure is still damaged or undeveloped from the 27-year-long civil war. However, the government since 2005 has used billions of dollars in credit lines from China, Brazil, Portugal, Germany, Spain, and the EU to help rebuild Angola's public infrastructure. Land mines left from the war still mar the countryside, and as a result, the national military, international partners, and private Angolan firms all continue to remove them. The global recession that started in 2008 stalled economic growth. In particular, lower prices for oil and diamonds during the global recession slowed GDP growth to 2.4% in 2009, and many construction projects stopped because Luanda accrued $9 billion in arrears to foreign construction companies when government revenue fell in 2008 and 2009. Angola formally abandoned its currency peg in 2009, and in November 2009 signed onto an IMF Stand-By Arrangement loan of $1.4 billion to rebuild international reserves. Consumer inflation declined from 325% in 2000 to less than 9% in 2014. Falling oil prices and slower than expected growth in non-oil GDP have reduced growth prospects for 2015. Angola has responded by reducing government subsidies and by proposing import quotas and a more restrictive licensing regime. Corruption, especially in the extractive sectors, is a major long-term challenge.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 65/230

$185.2 billion (2015 est.)

$179 billion (2014 est.)

$170.8 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$102 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 81/225

3.5% (2015 est.)

4.8% (2014 est.)

6.8% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 151/230

$7,600 (2015 est.)

$7,300 (2014 est.)

$7,000 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 168/179

2.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

13.5% of GDP (2014 est.)

21.5% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 54.4%

government consumption: 20.5%

investment in fixed capital: 15.7%

investment in inventories: 0.1%

exports of goods and services: 43.8%

imports of goods and services: -34.5%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 10.2%

industry: 61.4%

services: 28.4% (2011 est.)

Agriculture - products

bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, cassava (manioc, tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish

Industries

petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing, brewing, tobacco products, sugar; textiles; ship repair

Industrial production growth rate 121/202

1.8% (2015 est.)

Labor force 52/233

10.51 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 85%

industry and services: 15% (2003 est.)

Unemployment rate

NA%

Population below poverty line

40.5% (2006 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 0.6%

highest 10%: 44.7% (2000)

Budget

revenues: $35.43 billion

expenditures: $41.83 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 63/219

34.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 186/220

-6.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 67/176

56.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

34.9% of GDP (2014 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 207/226

10.1% (2015 est.)

7.3% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 28/156

9% (31 December 2014)

25% (31 December 2010)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 22/184

17.5% (31 December 2015 est.)

16.38% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 64/192

$23.01 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$30.11 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 68/193

$51.71 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$45.06 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 90/191

$16.81 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$23.12 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Current account balance 177/197

-$7.784 billion (2015 est.)

-$1.951 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 58/224

$37.38 billion (2015 est.)

$59.98 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

crude oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton

Exports - partners

China 48.1%, US 8.9%, India 8.8%, Spain 5.6% (2014)

Imports 70/223

$21.93 billion (2015 est.)

$29.24 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles, military goods

Imports - partners

China 23.7%, Portugal 16.3%, US 8.1%, South Korea 7.1%, Brazil 5%, South Africa 4.2%, France 4.1% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 61/170

$18.46 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$27.09 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 75/206

$28.62 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$24 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 89/120

$13.01 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$10.57 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 53/105

$27.25 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$23.44 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

kwanza (AOA) per US dollar -

121.9 (2015 est.)

98.3 (2014 est.)

98.3 (2013 est.)

95.47 (2012 est.)

93.74 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 117/220

5.475 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 118/219

4.842 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 100/218

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 116/219

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 117/214

1.53 million kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 149/214

50.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 42/214

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 49/214

49.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 153/212

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 14/214

1.742 million bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 8/214

1.815 million bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - imports 156/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 18/215

9.011 billion bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 84/214

40,010 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 75/212

112,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 71/214

21,740 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 59/213

75,790 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Natural gas - production 66/216

925 million cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 98/215

495 million cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports 57/215

0 cu m (2012 est.)

Natural gas - imports 156/214

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 40/212

275 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 75/212

31.61 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 117/219

total subscriptions: 280,000

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 69/217

total: 14.1 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 74 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: limited system; state-owned telecom had monopoly for fixed lines until 2005; demand outstripped capacity, prices were high, and services poor; Telecom Namibia, through an Angolan company, became the first private licensed operator in Angola's fixed-line telephone network; by 2010, the number of fixed-line providers had expanded to 5; Angola Telecom established mobile-cellular service in Luanda in 1993 and the network has been extended to larger towns; a privately owned, mobile-cellular service provider began operations in 2001

domestic: about two fixed lines per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity about 50 telephones per 100 persons in 2011

international: country code - 244; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 29 (2009)

Broadcast media

state controls all broadcast media with nationwide reach; state-owned Televisao Popular de Angola (TPA) provides terrestrial TV service on 2 channels; a third TPA channel is available via cable and satellite; TV subscription services are available; state-owned Radio Nacional de Angola (RNA) broadcasts on 5 stations; about a half dozen private radio stations broadcast locally (2008)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 21, FM 6, shortwave 7 (2001)

Television broadcast stations

6 (2000)

Internet country code

.ao

Internet hosts 116/232

20,703 (2012)

Internet users 81/217

total: 3.7 million

percent of population: 19.4% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 32/236

176 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 31

over 3,047 m: 7

2,438 to 3,047 m: 8

1,524 to 2,437 m: 12

914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 145

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 31

914 to 1,523 m: 66

under 914 m: 43 (2013)

Heliports

1 (2013)

Pipelines

gas 352 km; liquid petroleum gas 85 km; oil 1,065 km; oil/gas/water 5 km (2013)

Railways 61/136

total: 2,852 km

narrow gauge: 2,729 km 1.067-m gauge; 123 km 0.600-m gauge (2014)

Roadways 75/223

total: 51,429 km

paved: 5,349 km

unpaved: 46,080 km (2001)

Waterways 54/107

1,300 km (2011)

Merchant marine 123/156

total: 7

by type: cargo 1, chemical tanker 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 1

foreign-owned: 1 (Spain 1)

registered in other countries: 17 (Bahamas 6, Curacao 2, Cyprus 1, Liberia 1, Malta 7) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Namibe

LNG terminal(s) (export): Angola Soyo

Military and Security

Military branches

Angolan Armed Forces (Forcas Armadas Angolanas, FAA): Army, Navy (Marinha de Guerra Angola, MGA), Angolan National Air Force (Forca Aerea Nacional Angolana, FANA; under operational control of the Army) (2012)

Military service age and obligation

20-45 years of age for compulsory male and 18-45 years for voluntary male military service (registration at age 18 is mandatory); 20-45 years of age for voluntary female service; 2-year conscript service obligation; Angolan citizenship required; the Navy (MGA) is entirely staffed with volunteers (2013)

Military expenditures 13/132

3.63% of GDP (2012)

3.5% of GDP (2011)

3.63% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Democratic Republic of Congo accuses Angola of shifting monuments

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 12,944 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2014)

Illicit drugs

used as a transshipment point for cocaine destined for Western Europe and other African states, particularly South Africa