Anguilla

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Colonized by English settlers from Saint Kitts in 1650, Anguilla was administered by Great Britain until the early 19th century, when the island - against the wishes of the inhabitants - was incorporated into a single British dependency along with Saint Kitts and Nevis. Several attempts at separation failed. In 1971, two years after a revolt, Anguilla was finally allowed to secede; this arrangement was formally recognized in 1980, with Anguilla becoming a separate British dependency.

Geography

Location

Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates

18.15° N, 63.10° W

Area 227/257

total: 91 sq km

land: 91 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative

about one-half the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries

0 km

Coastline

61 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 3 nm

exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

Climate

tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds

Terrain

flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point: Crocus Hill 65 m

Natural resources

salt, fish, lobster

Land use

agricultural land: 0%

arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0%

forest: 61.1%

other: 38.9% (mostly rock with some commercial salt ponds) (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

NA

Natural hazards

frequent hurricanes and other tropical storms (July to October)

Environment - current issues

supplies of potable water sometimes cannot meet increasing demand largely because of poor distribution system

Geography - note

the most northerly of the Leeward Islands in the Lesser Antilles

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Anguillan(s)

adjective: Anguillan

Ethnic groups

black 90.1%, mixed 4.6%, white 3.7%, other 1.5% (2001 est.)

Languages

English (official)

Religions

Protestant 83.3% (includes Anglican 29%, Methodist 23.9%, Pentecostal 7.7%, Seventh Day Adventist 7.6%, Church of God 7.6%, Baptist 7.3%, Presbytarian .2%), Roman Catholic 5.7%, other Christian 1.5%, other 5.1%, unspecified 0.3%, none 4% (2001 est.)

Population 221/238

16,418 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 22.84% (male 1,917/female 1,833)

15-24 years: 14.06% (male 1,150/female 1,159)

25-54 years: 44.73% (male 3,312/female 4,032)

55-64 years: 9.88% (male 783/female 839)

65 years and over: 8.48% (male 690/female 703) (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 34.3 years

male: 32.5 years

female: 36.1 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 48/233

2.03% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 156/224

12.67 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 199/225

4.57 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 8/222

12.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 100% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 1.19% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

THE VALLEY (capital) 1,000 (2014)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.82 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.98 male(s)/female

total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 210/224

total: 3.37 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 3.78 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 2.95 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 23/224

total population: 81.31 years

male: 78.71 years

female: 83.98 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 163/224

1.75 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

43%

note: percent of women aged 15-45 (2003)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 94.6% of population

total: 94.6% of population

unimproved:

urban: 5.4% of population

total: 5.4% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 97.9% of population

total: 97.9% of population

unimproved:

urban: 2.1% of population

total: 2.1% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths

NA

Education expenditures 146/173

2.8% of GDP (2008)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Anguilla

etymology: the name Anguilla means "eel" in various Romance languages (Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, French) and likely derives from the island's lengthy shape

Government type

NA

Capital

name: The Valley

geographic coordinates: 18.13° N, 63.03° W

time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

none (overseas territory of the UK)

Independence

none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday

Anguilla Day, 30 May (1967)

Constitution

several previous; latest 1 April 1982; amended 1990 (2013)

Legal system

common law based on the English model

Citizenship

see United Kingdom

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Christina SCOTT (since 23 July 2013)

head of government: Chief Minister Hubert HUGHES (since 16 February 2010)

cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from among elected members of the House of Assembly

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed chief minister by the governor

Legislative branch

description: unicameral House of Assembly (11 seats; seven members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, two appointed by the governor, and two ex officio members - the attorney general and deputy governor; members serve five-year terms)

elections: last held on 22 April 2015 (next to be held in 2015)

election results: percent of vote by party - AUF 54.4%, AUM 38.3%, DOVE 1.4%, independent 5.9%; seats by party - AUF 6, independent 1

Judicial branch

highest court(s): the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (ECSC) is the itinerant superior court of record for the 9-member Organization of Eastern Caribbean States to include Anguilla; the ECSC - headquartered on St. Lucia - is headed by the chief justice and is comprised of the Court of Appeal with 3 justices and the High Court with 16 judges; sittings of the Court of Appeal and High Court rotate among the 9 member states; High Court judges reside in 7 member states, though none resides on Anguilla

judge selection and term of office: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court chief justice appointed by Her Majesty, Queen ELIZABETH II; other justices and judges appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission; Court of Appeal justices appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 65; High Court judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 62

subordinate courts: Magistrate's Court; Juvenile Court

Political parties and leaders

Anguilla United Front or AUF [Victor BANKS] (an alliance of the Anguilla Democratic Party or ADP and the Anguilla National Alliance or ANA)

Anguilla United Movement or AUM [Dr. Ellis WEBSTER]

Democracy, Opportunity, Vision, and Empowerment Party or DOVE [Sutcliffe HODGE]

International organization participation

Caricom (associate), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), OECS, UNESCO (associate), UPU

Flag description

blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Anguillan coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms depicts three orange dolphins in an interlocking circular design on a white background with a turquoise-blue field below; the white in the background represents peace; the blue base symbolizes the surrounding sea, as well as faith, youth, and hope; the three dolphins stand for endurance, unity, and strength

National symbol(s)

dolphin

National anthem

name: "God Bless Anguilla"

lyrics/music: Alex RICHARDSON

note: local anthem adopted 1981; as a territory of the United Kingdom, "God Save the Queen" is official (see United Kingdom)

Economy

Economy - overview

Anguilla has few natural resources, and the economy depends heavily on luxury tourism, offshore banking, lobster fishing, and remittances from emigrants. Increased activity in the tourism industry has spurred the growth of the construction sector contributing to economic growth. Anguillan officials have put substantial effort into developing the offshore financial sector, which is small but growing. In the medium term, prospects for the economy will depend largely on the tourism sector and, therefore, on revived income growth in the industrialized nations as well as on favorable weather conditions.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 221/230

$175.4 million (2009 est.)

$191.7 million (2008 est.)

$108.9 million (2004 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate)

$175.4 million (2009 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 218/225

-8.5% (2009 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 230/230

$0 (2008 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 74.9%

government consumption: 20.7%

investment in fixed capital: 20.9%

investment in inventories: 0%

exports of goods and services: 38.8%

imports of goods and services: -55.3%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 2.6%

industry: 24.6%

services: 72.7% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

small quantities of tobacco, vegetables; cattle raising

Industries

tourism, boat building, offshore financial services

Industrial production growth rate 117/202

2% (2015 est.)

Labor force 220/233

6,049 (2001)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture/fishing/forestry/mining: 4%

manufacturing: 3%

construction: 18%

transportation and utilities: 10%

commerce: 36%

services: 29% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate 92/207

8% (2002)

Population below poverty line

23% (2002 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Budget

revenues: $64.48 million

expenditures: $71.63 million (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 53/219

36.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 150/220

-4.1% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 151/176

20.1% of GDP (2015 est.)

20.8% of GDP (2014 est.)

Fiscal year

1 April - 31 March

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 79/226

1.3% (2015 est.)

-0.3% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 48/156

6.5% (31 December 2010)

6.5% (31 December 2009)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 96/184

9% (31 December 2015 est.)

9.09% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 191/192

$19.74 million (31 December 2015 est.)

$19.08 million (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 186/193

$393 million (31 December 2015 est.)

$385.3 million (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 173/191

$440.6 million (31 December 2015 est.)

$435.6 million (31 December 2014 est.)

Current account balance 61/197

-$50.1 million (2015 est.)

-$46.9 million (2014 est.)

Exports 218/224

$6 million (2015 est.)

$6.3 million (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

lobster, fish, livestock, salt, concrete blocks, rum

Imports 214/223

$128.6 million (2015 est.)

$128.7 million (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

fuels, foodstuffs, manufactures, chemicals, trucks, textiles

Debt - external 201/206

$8.8 million (1998)

$41.04 million (31 December 2013 est.)

Exchange rates

East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar -

2.7 (2015 est.)

2.7 (2014 est.)

2.7 (2013 est.)

2.7 (2012 est.)

2.7 (2011 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 206/219

total subscriptions: 5,900

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 37 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 209/217

total: 26,000

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 162 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: modern internal telephone system

domestic: fixed-line teledensity is roughly 40 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 170 per 100 persons

international: country code - 1-264; landing point for the East Caribbean Fiber System submarine cable with links to 13 other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; microwave radio relay to island of Saint Martin/Sint Maarten (2011)

Broadcast media

1 private TV station; multi-channel cable TV subscription services are available; about 10 radio stations, one of which is government-owned (2007)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 3, FM 11, shortwave 2 (2009)

Television broadcast stations

1 (1997)

Internet country code

.ai

Internet hosts 192/232

269 (2012)

Internet users 208/217

total: 3,700

percent of population: 26% (2009)

Transportation

Airports 197/236

2 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2013)

Roadways 211/223

total: 175 km

paved: 82 km

unpaved: 93 km (2004)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Blowing Point, Road Bay

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

none

Illicit drugs

transshipment point for South American narcotics destined for the US and Europe