Armenia facts on every entity in the world

Armenia prides itself on being the first nation to formally adopt Christianity (early 4th century). Despite periods of autonomy, over the centuries Armenia came under the sway of various empires including the Roman, Byzantine, Arab, Persian, and Ottoman. During World War I in the western portion of Armenia, the Ottoman Empire instituted a policy of forced resettlement coupled with other harsh practices that resulted in at least 1 million Armenian deaths. The eastern area of Armenia was ceded by the Ottomans to Russia in 1828; this portion declared its independence in 1918, but was conquered by the Soviet Red Army in 1920.

Armenian leaders remain preoccupied by the long conflict with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily Armenian-populated region, assigned to Soviet Azerbaijan in the 1920s by Moscow. Armenia and Azerbaijan began fighting over the area in 1988; the struggle escalated after both countries attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By May 1994, when a cease-fire took hold, ethnic Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also seven surrounding regions, approximately 14 percent of Azerbaijan’s territory. The economies of both sides have been hurt by their inability to make substantial progress toward a peaceful resolution.

Turkey closed the common border with Armenia in 1993 in support of Azerbaijan in its conflict with Armenia over control of Nagorno-Karabakh and surrounding areas, further hampering Armenian economic growth. In 2009, senior Armenian leaders began pursuing rapprochement with Turkey, aiming to secure an opening of the border, but Turkey has not yet ratified the Protocols normalizing relations between the two countries. In January 2015, Armenia joined Russia, Belarus, and Kazakhstan as a member of the Eurasian Economic Union.



Southwestern Asia, between Turkey (to the west) and Azerbaijan

Geographic coordinates

40.00° N, 45.00° E

Area 143/257

total: 29,743 sq km

land: 28,203 sq km

water: 1,540 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries

total: 1,570 km

border countries (4): Azerbaijan 996 km, Georgia 219 km, Iran 44 km, Turkey 311 km


0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)


highland continental, hot summers, cold winters


Armenian Highland with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley


mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Debed River 400 m

highest point: Aragats Lerrnagagat' 4,090 m

Natural resources

small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, bauxite

Land use

agricultural land: 59.7%

arable land 15.8%; permanent crops 1.9%; permanent pasture 42%

forest: 9.1%

other: 31.2% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

2,740 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

7.77 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 2.86 cu km/yr (40%/6%/54%)

per capita: 929.7 cu m/yr (2010)

Natural hazards

occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts

Environment - current issues

soil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT; the energy crisis of the 1990s led to deforestation when citizens scavenged for firewood; pollution of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the draining of Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan), a result of its use as a source for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies; restart of Metsamor nuclear power plant in spite of its location in a seismically active zone

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Geography - note

landlocked in the Lesser Caucasus Mountains; Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan) is the largest lake in this mountain range

People and Society


noun: Armenian(s)

adjective: Armenian

Ethnic groups

Armenian 98.1%, Yezidi (Kurd) 1.1%, other 0.7% (2011 est.)


Armenian (official) 97.9%, Kurdish (spoken by Yezidi minority) 1%, other 1% (2011 est.)


Armenian Apostolic 92.6%, Evangelical 1%, other 2.4%, none 1.1%, unspecified 2.9% (2011 est.)

Population 136/238

3,056,382 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 19.05% (male 310,893/female 271,479)

15-24 years: 14.42% (male 225,029/female 215,700)

25-54 years: 43.47% (male 638,983/female 689,519)

55-64 years: 12.35% (male 171,584/female 205,751)

65 years and over: 10.71% (male 130,804/female 196,640) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 41.3%

youth dependency ratio: 26%

elderly dependency ratio: 15.3%

potential support ratio: 6.5% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 34.2 years

male: 32.3 years

female: 36.1 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 211/233

-0.15% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 145/224

13.61 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 61/225

9.34 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 196/222

-5.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)


urban population: 62.7% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: -0.11% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

YEREVAN (capital) 1,044 (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.13 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.15 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.83 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

23.5 (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 123/184

25 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 111/224

total: 13.51 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 14.95 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 11.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 121/224

total population: 74.37 years

male: 71.13 years

female: 78.03 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 177/224

1.64 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

54.9% (2010)

Health expenditures 152/191

4.5% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

2.7 physicians/1,000 population (2013)

Hospital bed density

3.9 beds/1,000 population (2012)

Drinking water source


urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population


urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access


urban: 96.2% of population

rural: 78.2% of population

total: 89.5% of population


urban: 3.8% of population

rural: 21.8% of population

total: 10.5% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.22% (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

4,000 (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

200 (2014 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 68/191

19.9% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight 89/138

5.3% (2010)

Education expenditures 132/173

2.3% of GDP (2013)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 12 years

male: 11 years

female: 14 years (2009)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 13/134

total: 36.1%

male: 31.8%

female: 41.5% (2013 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Armenia

conventional short form: Armenia

local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun

local short form: Hayastan

former: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, Armenian Republic

note: the etymology of the country's name remains obscure; according to tradition, the country is named after Hayk, the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and the great-great-grandson of Noah; Hayk's descendant, Aram, purportedly is the source of the name Armenia

Government type



name: Yerevan

geographic coordinates: 40.10° N, 44.30° E

time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

11 provinces (marzer, singular - marz); Aragatsotn, Ararat, Armavir, Geghark'unik', Kotayk', Lorri, Shirak, Syunik', Tavush, Vayots' Dzor, Yerevan


21 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday

Independence Day, 21 September (1991)


previous 1915, 1978; latest adopted 5 July 1995; amended 2005; note - in March 2015, a concept for constitutional reforms approved by the president (2015)

Legal system

civil law system

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Armenia

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Serzh SARGSIAN (since 9 April 2008)

head of government: Prime Minister Hovik ABRAHAMYAN (since 13 April 2014)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in two rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 18 February 2013 (next to be held in February 2018); prime minister appointed by the president based on majority support in the National Congress; the prime minister and Council of Ministers must resign if the National Congress refuses to accept their program

election results: Serzh SARGSIAN reelected president in one round; percent of vote - Serzh SARGSIAN (RPA) 58.6%, Raffi HOVHANNISIAN (Heritage Party) 36.7%, Hrant BAGRATIAN (ANM) 2.2%, other 2.5%

note: constitutional changes adopted in December 2015 will transform the government to a parliamentary system by 2018; the next president will be elected by parliament, will serve a seven-year term, and will not be eligible for a second term; the prime minister will be elected based on majority support of the legislature

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly (Parliament) or Azgayin Zhoghov (131 seats; 90 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 41 directly elected by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 6 May 2012 (next to be held in the spring of 2017)

election results: percent of vote by party - RPA 44%, Prosperous Armenia 30.1%, ANC 7.1%, Heritage Party 5.8%, ARF (Dashnak) 5.7%, Rule of Law 5.5%, other 1.8%; seats by party - RPA 69, Prosperous Armenia 37, ANC 7, Rule of Law 6, Heritage Party 5, ARF (Dashnak) 5, independent 2

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Court of Cassation (consists of the court chairman and organized into a criminal chamber and a civil and administrative chamber, each with a court chairman and 2 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Court of Cassation judges nominated by the Judicial Council, a 9-member body of selected judges and legal scholars; judges appointed by the president; Constitutional Court judges - 4 appointed by the president, and 5 elected by National Assembly; judges of both courts can serve until retirement at age 65

subordinate courts: 2 Courts of Appeal (for civil cases and for criminal and military cases); district courts; Administrative Court

Political parties and leaders

Armenian National Congress or ANC (bloc of independent and opposition parties) [Levon TER-PETROSSIAN]

Armenian National Movement or ANM [Ararat ZURABIAN]

Armenian Revolutionary Federation or ARF ("Dashnak" Party) [Hrant MARKARIAN]

Heritage Party [Raffi HOVHANNISIAN]

People's Party of Armenia [Stepan DEMIRCHIAN]

Prosperous Armenia [Naira ZOHRABYAN]

Republican Party of Armenia or RPA [Serzh SARGSIAN]

Rule of Law Party (Orinats Yerkir) [Artur BAGHDASARIAN]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Aylentrank (Impeachment Alliance) [Nikol PASHINIAN]

Yerkrapah Union [Manvel GRIGORIAN]

International organization participation


Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and orange; the color red recalls the blood shed for liberty, blue the Armenian skies as well as hope, and orange the land and the courage of the workers who farm it

National symbol(s)

Mount Ararat, eagle, lion; national colors: red, blue, orange

National anthem

name: "Mer Hayrenik" (Our Fatherland)

lyrics/music: Mikael NALBANDIAN/Barsegh KANACHYAN

note: adopted 1991; based on the anthem of the Democratic Republic of Armenia (1918-1922) but with different lyrics


Economy - overview

Under the old Soviet central planning system, Armenia developed a modern industrial sector, supplying machine tools, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics, in exchange for raw materials and energy. Armenia has since switched to small-scale agriculture and away from the large agroindustrial complexes of the Soviet era. Armenia has only two open trade borders - Iran and Georgia - because its borders with Azerbaijan and Turkey have been closed since 1991 and 1993, respectively, as a result of Armenia's ongoing conflict with Azerbaijan over the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh region. Armenia's geographic isolation, a narrow export base, and pervasive monopolies in important business sectors have made it particularly vulnerable to the sharp deterioration in the global economy and the economic downturn in Russia. Armenia is particularly dependent on Russian commercial and governmental support and most key Armenian infrastructure is Russian-owned and/or managed, especially in the energy sector, including electricity and natural gas. Remittances from expatriates working in Russia are equivalent to about 20% of GDP and partly offset the country's severe trade imbalance. Armenia joined Russia in the Eurasian Economic Union upon the bloc's launch in January 2015, even though the ruble's sharp depreciation in December 2014 led to currency instability, inflation, and significant decrease of export from Armenia to Russia. Armenia joined the WTO in January 2003. The government has made some improvements in tax and customs administration in recent years, but anti-corruption measures have been ineffective. Armenia will need to pursue additional economic reforms and to strengthen the rule of law in order to regain economic growth and improve economic competitiveness and employment opportunities, especially given its economic isolation from two of its nearest neighbors, Turkey and Azerbaijan.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 135/230

$25.22 billion (2015 est.)

$24.61 billion (2014 est.)

$23.79 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$10.61 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 125/225

2.5% (2015 est.)

3.4% (2014 est.)

3.5% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 144/230

$8,400 (2015 est.)

$8,200 (2014 est.)

$8,000 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 127/179

13.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

14.3% of GDP (2014 est.)

15% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 82.8%

government consumption: 12.6%

investment in fixed capital: 20%

investment in inventories: -0.5%

exports of goods and services: 29.5%

imports of goods and services: -44.4%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 23.3%

industry: 30.1%

services: 46.7% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

fruit (especially grapes), vegetables; livestock


diamond processing, metal-cutting machine tools, forging and pressing machines, electric motors, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric, chemicals, trucks, instruments, microelectronics, jewelry, software, food processing, brandy, mining

Industrial production growth rate 162/202

0.3% (2015 est.)

Labor force 132/233

1.508 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 39%

industry: 17%

services: 44% (2011 est.)

Unemployment rate 162/207

17.8% (2014 est.)

17.8% (2014 est.)

Population below poverty line

32% (2013 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.7%

highest 10%: 24.8% (2012)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 118/144

30.3 (2012)

31.3 (2011)


revenues: $2.541 billion

expenditures: $2.849 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 131/219

24% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 109/220

-2.9% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 87/176

47.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

43.5% of GDP (2014 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 182/226

5.6% (2015 est.)

3% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 19/156

10.5% (10 February 2015)

8% (11 January 2012)

note: this is the Refinancing Rate, the key monetary policy instrument of the Armenian National Bank

Commercial bank prime lending rate 25/184

17.3% (31 December 2015 est.)

16.41% (31 December 2014 est.)

note: average lending rate on loans up to one year

Stock of narrow money 149/192

$1.127 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$1.118 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 153/193

$2.038 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$1.723 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 117/191

$6.212 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$5.219 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 119/121

$132.1 million (31 December 2012 est.)

$139.6 million (31 December 2011)

$144.8 million (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance 105/197

-$625 million (2015 est.)

-$849 million (2014 est.)

Exports 150/224

$1.496 billion (2015 est.)

$1.665 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

pig iron, unwrought copper, nonferrous metals, gold, diamonds, mineral products, foodstuffs, energy

Exports - partners

Russia 20.3%, China 11.3%, Germany 10.4%, Canada 6.1%, US 5.8%, Bulgaria 5.6%, Iran 5.6%, Georgia 5.5%, Iraq 5.3%, Netherlands 4.9%, Belgium 4.1% (2014)

Imports 143/223

$3.117 billion (2015 est.)

$3.734 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

natural gas, petroleum, tobacco products, foodstuffs, diamonds, pharmaceuticals, cars

Imports - partners

Russia 24.9%, China 9.5%, Germany 6.4%, Turkey 5.3%, Iran 4.7%, Ukraine 4.6%, Italy 4.1% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 126/170

$1.209 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$1.489 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 111/206

$8.537 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$8.695 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 98/120

$4.817 billion (2013)

Exchange rates

drams (AMD) per US dollar -

480.9 (2015 est.)

415.92 (2014 est.)

415.92 (2013 est.)

401.76 (2012 est.)

372.5 (2011 est.)


Electricity - production 105/220

7.622 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 116/219

5.043 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 47/218

1.696 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - imports 93/219

98 million kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 82/214

4.021 million kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 177/214

32.2% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 2/214

34.3% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 67/214

33.5% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 152/212

0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)

Crude oil - production 105/214

0 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 95/214

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports 155/214

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 104/215

0 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 153/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 157/212

8,700 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 152/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 141/213

8,722 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Natural gas - production 154/216

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 80/215

2.01 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - exports 56/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports 48/214

2.061 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 109/212

0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 97/212

12.12 million Mt (2012 est.)


Telephones - fixed lines 94/219

total subscriptions: 560,000

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 18 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 130/217

total: 3.5 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 113 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: telecommunications investments have made major inroads in modernizing and upgrading the outdated telecommunications network inherited from the Soviet era; now 100% privately owned and undergoing modernization and expansion; mobile-cellular services monopoly terminated in late 2004, and a second and third provider began operations in 2005 and 2009 respectively

domestic: reliable modern fixed-line and mobile-cellular services are available across Yerevan and in major cities and towns; significant but ever-shrinking gaps remain in mobile-cellular coverage in rural areas

international: country code - 374; Yerevan is connected to the Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic cable through Iran; additional international service is available by microwave radio relay and landline connections to the other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States, through the Moscow international switch, and by satellite to the rest of the world; satellite earth stations - 3 (2008)

Broadcast media

2 public TV networks operating alongside about 40 privately owned TV stations that provide local to near nationwide coverage; major Russian broadcast stations are widely available; subscription cable TV services are available in most regions; Public Radio of Armenia is a national, state-run broadcast network that operates alongside 21 privately owned radio stations; several major international broadcasters are available (2015)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 9, FM 16, shortwave 1 (2006)

Television broadcast stations

48 (private television stations alongside 2 public networks; major Russian channels widely available) (2006)

Internet country code


Internet hosts 73/232

194,142 (2012)

Internet users 117/217

total: 1.3 million

percent of population: 43.6% (2014 est.)


Airports 154/236

11 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 10

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)


gas 2,233 km (2013)

Railways 96/136

total: 780 km

broad gauge: 780 km 1.520-m gauge (780 km electrified)

note: 726 km operational (2014)

Roadways 143/223

total: 7,792 km (2013)

Military and Security

Military branches

Armenian Armed Forces: Ground Forces, Air Force and Air Defense; "Nagorno-Karabakh Republic": Nagorno-Karabakh Self-Defense Force (NKSDF) (2011)

Military service age and obligation

18-27 years of age for voluntary or compulsory military service; 2-year conscript service obligation; 17 year olds are eligible to become cadets at military higher education institutes, where they are classified as military personnel (2012)

Military expenditures 10/132

4.29% of GDP (2014)

4.1% of GDP (2013)

3.92% of GDP (2012)

3.87% of GDP (2011)

3.92% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

the dispute over the break-away Nagorno-Karabakh region and the Armenian military occupation of surrounding lands in Azerbaijan remains the primary focus of regional instability; residents have evacuated the former Soviet-era small ethnic enclaves in Armenia and Azerbaijan; Turkish authorities have complained that blasting from quarries in Armenia might be damaging the medieval ruins of Ani, on the other side of the Arpacay valley; in 2009, Swiss mediators facilitated an accord reestablishing diplomatic ties between Armenia and Turkey, but neither side has ratified the agreement and the rapprochement effort has faltered; local border forces struggle to control the illegal transit of goods and people across the porous, undemarcated Armenian, Azerbaijani, and Georgian borders; ethnic Armenian groups in the Javakheti region of Georgia seek greater autonomy from the Georgian Government

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 14,994 (Syria - ethnic Armenians) (2014)

IDPs: 8,400 (conflict with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh) (2014)

stateless persons: 206 (2014)

Illicit drugs

illicit cultivation of small amount of cannabis for domestic consumption; minor transit point for illicit drugs - mostly opium and hashish - moving from Southwest Asia to Russia and to a lesser extent the rest of Europe