Ashmore and Cartier Islands facts on every entity in the world

These uninhabited islands came under Australian authority in 1931; formal administration began two years later. Ashmore Reef supports a rich and diverse avian and marine habitat; in 1983, it became a National Nature Reserve. Cartier Island, a former bombing range, became a marine reserve in 2000.



Southeastern Asia, islands in the Indian Ocean, midway between northwestern Australia and Timor island

Geographic coordinates

12.14° S, 123.05° E

Area 250/257

total: 5 sq km

land: 5 sq km

water: 0 sq km

note: includes Ashmore Reef (West, Middle, and East Islets) and Cartier Island

Area - comparative

about eight times the size of the National Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries

0 km


74.1 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 12 nm

exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation




low with sand and coral


mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: unnamed location 3 m

Natural resources


Land use

agricultural land: 0%

forest: 0%

other: 100% (all grass and sand) (2011 est.)

Natural hazards

surrounded by shoals and reefs that can pose maritime hazards

Environment - current issues

illegal killing of protected wildlife by traditional Indonesian fisherman, as well as fishing by non-traditional Indonesian vessels, are ongoing problems

Geography - note

Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve established in August 1983; Cartier Island Marine Reserve established in 2000

People and Society


no indigenous inhabitants

note: Indonesian fishermen are allowed access to the lagoon and fresh water at Ashmore Reef's West Island; access to East and Middle Islands is by permit only


Country name

conventional long form: Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands

conventional short form: Ashmore and Cartier Islands

etymology: named after British Captain Samuel ASHMORE, who first sighted his namesake island in 1811, and after the ship Cartier, from which the second island was discovered in 1800

Legal system

the laws of the Commonwealth of Australia and the laws of the Northern Territory of Australia, where applicable, apply


see Australia

Flag description

the flag of Australia is used


Economy - overview

no economic activity


Ports and terminals

none; offshore anchorage only

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef