Austria

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Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and subsequent occupation by the victorious Allies in 1945, Austria's status remained unclear for a decade. A State Treaty signed in 1955 ended the occupation, recognized Austria's independence, and forbade unification with Germany. A constitutional law that same year declared the country's "perpetual neutrality" as a condition for Soviet military withdrawal. The Soviet Union's collapse in 1991 and Austria's entry into the European Union in 1995 have altered the meaning of this neutrality. A prosperous, democratic country, Austria entered the EU Economic and Monetary Union in 1999.

Geography

Location

Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates

47.20° N, 13.20° E

Area 114/257

total: 83,871 sq km

land: 82,445 sq km

water: 1,426 sq km

Area - comparative

about the size of South Carolina; slightly more than two-thirds the size of Pennsylvania

Land boundaries

total: 2,524 km

border countries (8): Czech Republic 402 km, Germany 801 km, Hungary 321 km, Italy 404 km, Liechtenstein 34 km, Slovakia 105 km, Slovenia 299 km, Switzerland 158 km

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain and some snow in lowlands and snow in mountains; moderate summers with occasional showers

Terrain

mostly mountains (Alps) in the west and south; mostly flat or gently sloping along the eastern and northern margins

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m

highest point: Grossglockner 3,798 m

Natural resources

oil, coal, lignite, timber, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, magnesite, tungsten, graphite, salt, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 38.4%

arable land 16.5%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 21.1%

forest: 47.2%

other: 14.4% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

1,170 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

77.7 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 3.66 cu km/yr (18%/79%/3%)

per capita: 452.4 cu m/yr (2008)

Natural hazards

landslides; avalanches; earthquakes

Environment - current issues

some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Austrian(s)

adjective: Austrian

Ethnic groups

Austrians 91.1%, former Yugoslavs 4% (includes Croatians, Slovenes, Serbs, and Bosniaks), Turks 1.6%, German 0.9%, other or unspecified 2.4% (2001 census)

Languages

German (official nationwide) 88.6%, Turkish 2.3%, Serbian 2.2%, Croatian (official in Burgenland) 1.6%, other (includes Slovene, official in South Carinthia, and Hungarian, official in Burgenland) 5.3% (2001 est.)

Religions

Catholic 73.8% (includes Roman Catholic 73.6%, other Catholic .2%), Protestant 4.9%, Muslim 4.2%, Orthodox 2.2%, other 0.8% (includes other Christian), none 12%, unspecified 2% (2001 est.)

Population 95/238

8,665,550 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 14.05% (male 622,856/female 594,349)

15-24 years: 11.55% (male 510,614/female 490,390)

25-54 years: 42.98% (male 1,861,777/female 1,862,705)

55-64 years: 12.51% (male 535,691/female 548,022)

65 years and over: 18.92% (male 706,288/female 932,858) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 49.2%

youth dependency ratio: 21.2%

elderly dependency ratio: 28%

potential support ratio: 3.6% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 43.6 years

male: 42.5 years

female: 44.6 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 153/233

0.55% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 204/224

9.41 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 58/225

9.42 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 24/222

5.56 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 66% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 0.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

VIENNA (capital) 1.753 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

28.5 (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 178/184

4 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 206/224

total: 3.45 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 3.82 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.06 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 22/224

total population: 81.39 years

male: 78.76 years

female: 84.15 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 203/224

1.46 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

69.6%

note: percent of women aged 18-46 (2008/09)

Health expenditures 11/191

11% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

4.83 physicians/1,000 population (2011)

Hospital bed density

7.6 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths

NA

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 93/191

20.1% (2014)

Education expenditures 44/173

5.8% of GDP (2011)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 16 years

male: 15 years

female: 16 years (2012)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 108/134

total: 9.2%

male: 8.9%

female: 9.4% (2013 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Austria

conventional short form: Austria

local long form: Republik Oesterreich

local short form: Oesterreich

etymology: the name Oesterreich means "eastern realm" or "eastern march" and dates back to the 10th century; the designation refers to the fact that Austria was the easternmost extension of Bavaria, and in fact of all the Germans; the word Austria is a Latinization of the German name

Government type

federal republic

Capital

name: Vienna

geographic coordinates: 48.12° N, 16.22° E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

9 states (Bundeslaender, singular - Bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten (Carinthia), Niederoesterreich (Lower Austria), Oberoesterreich (Upper Austria), Salzburg, Steiermark (Styria), Tirol (Tyrol), Vorarlberg, Wien (Vienna)

Independence

12 November 1918 (republic proclaimed); notable earlier dates: 976 (Margravate of Austria established); 17 September 1156 (Duchy of Austria founded); 11 August 1804 (Austrian Empire proclaimed)

National holiday

National Day, 26 October (1955); note - commemorates the passage of the law on permanent neutrality

Constitution

several previous; latest adopted 1 October 1920, revised 1929, replaced May 1934 (authoritarian-corporate constitution), replaced by German Weimar constitution in 1938 following German annexation; latest reinstated 1 May 1945 (1920 constitution with 1929 revisions); amended many times, last in 2015 (2015)

Legal system

civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Court

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Austria

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Suffrage

16 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Heinz FISCHER (since 8 July 2004)

head of government: Chancellor Werner FAYMANN (SPOe) (since 2 December 2008); Vice Chancellor Michael SPINDELEGGER (OeVP) (since 21 April 2011)

cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 25 April 2010 (next to be held on 25 April 2016); chancellor appointed by the president but determined by the majority coalition parties in the Federal Assembly; vice chancellor appointed by the president on the advice of the chancellor

election results: Heinz FISCHER reelected president; percent of vote - Heinz FISCHER (SPOe) 79.3%, Barbara ROSENKRANZ (FPOe) 15.2%, Rudolf GEHRING 5.4%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung consists of the Federal Council or Bundesrat (62 seats; members appointed by state parliaments with each state receiving 3 to 12 seats in proportion to its population; members serve 5- or 6-year terms) and the National Council or Nationalrat (183 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: National Council - last held on 29 September 2013 (next to be held by September 2018)

election results: National Council - percent of vote by party - SPOe 26.8%, OeVP 24.0%, FPOe 20.5%, Greens 12.4%, Team Stronach 5.7%, NEOS 5.0%, other 5.6%; seats by party - SPOe 52, OeVP 47, FPOe 40, Greens 24, Team Stronach 11, NEOS 9

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Oberster Gerichtshof (consists of 85 judges organized into 17 senates or panels of 5 judges each); Constitutional Court or Verfassungsgerichtshof (consists of 20 judges including 6 substitutes; Administrative Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof - 2 judges plus other members depending on the importance of the case)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by executive branch departments and appointed by the president; judges serve for life; Constitutional Court judges nominated by several executive branch departments and approved by the president; judges serve for life; Administrative Court judges recommended by executive branch departments and appointed by the president; terms of judges and members determined by the president

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (4); Regional Courts (20); district courts (120); county courts

Political parties and leaders

Alliance for the Future of Austria or BZOe [Gerald GROSZ]

Austrian People's Party or OeVP [Reinhold MITTERLEHNER]

Communist Party of Austria or KPOe [Mirko MESSNER]

Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Heinz Christian STRACHE]

The Greens [Eva GLAWISCHNIG]

NEOS - The New Austria [Matthias STROLZ]

Social Democratic Party of Austria or SPOe [Werner FAYMANN]

"Team Stronach" [Frank STRONACH]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Austrian Trade Union Federation or OeGB (nominally independent but primarily Social Democratic)

Federal Economic Chamber (OeVP-dominated)

Labor Chamber or AK (Social Democratic-leaning think tank)

OeVP-oriented Association of Austrian Industrialists or IV

Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action

other: three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or OeVP representing business, labor, farmers, and other nongovernment organizations in the areas of environment and human rights

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red; the flag design is certainly one of the oldest - if not the oldest - national banners in the world; according to tradition, in 1191, following a fierce battle in the Third Crusade, Duke Leopold V of Austria's white tunic became completely blood-spattered; upon removal of his wide belt or sash, a white band was revealed; the red-white-red color combination was subsequently adopted as his banner

National symbol(s)

golden eagle, edelweiss, Alpine gentian; national colors: red, white

National anthem

name: "Bundeshymne" (Federal Hymn)

lyrics/music: Paula von PRERADOVIC/Wolfgang Amadeus MOZART or Johann HOLZER (disputed)

note: adopted 1947; the anthem is also known as "Land der Berge, Land am Strome" (Land of the Mountains, Land on the River); Austria adopted a new national anthem after World War II to replace the former imperial anthem composed by Franz Josef HAYDN, which had been appropriated by Germany in 1922 and was thereafter associated with the Nazi regime; a gendered version of the lyrics was adopted by the Austrian Parliament in fall 2011 and became effective 1 January 2012

Economy

Economy - overview

Austria, with its well-developed market economy, skilled labor force, and high standard of living, is closely tied to other EU economies, especially Germany's. Its economy features a large service sector, a relatively sound industrial sector, and a small, but highly developed agricultural sector. Economic growth was anemic at less than 0.5% in 2013 and 2014, and growth in 2015 reached 0.8%. Austria's 5.8% unemployment rate, while low by European standards, is at an historic high for Austria. Without extensive vocational training programs and generous early retirement, the unemployment rate would be even higher. Public finances have not stabilized even after a 2012 austerity package of expenditure cuts and new revenues. On the contrary, in 2014, the government created a "bad bank" for the troubled nationalized "Hypo Alpe Adria" bank, pushing the budget deficit up by 0.7% of GDP to 2.1% and public debt to 83.4% of the GDP. Although Austria's fiscal position compares favorably with other euro-zone countries, it faces several external risks, such as Austrian banks' continued exposure to Central and Eastern Europe, repercussions from the Hypo Alpe Adria bank collapse, political and economic uncertainties caused by the European sovereign debt crisis, the current crisis in Russia/Ukraine, the recent appreciation of the Swiss Franc, and political developments in Hungary.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 47/230

$403.8 billion (2015 est.)

$400.7 billion (2014 est.)

$399.3 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$372.6 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 187/225

0.8% (2015 est.)

0.4% (2014 est.)

0.3% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 27/230

$47,500 (2015 est.)

$47,100 (2014 est.)

$46,900 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 55/179

24% of GDP (2015 est.)

23.5% of GDP (2014 est.)

24.2% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 53.2%

government consumption: 19.6%

investment in fixed capital: 22.1%

investment in inventories: 0.8%

exports of goods and services: 52.2%

imports of goods and services: -47.9%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 1.4%

industry: 27.9%

services: 70.7% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

grains, potatoes, wine, fruit; dairy products, cattle, pigs, poultry; lumber

Industries

construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, metals, chemicals, lumber and wood, paper and paperboard, communications equipment, tourism

Industrial production growth rate 141/202

1.1% (2015 est.)

Labor force 95/233

3.827 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 5.5%

industry: 26%

services: 68.5% (2012 est.)

Unemployment rate 64/207

5.8% (2015 est.)

5.6% (2014 est.)

Population below poverty line

4.2% (2013 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 4%

highest 10%: 22% (2011 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 135/144

26.3 (2007)

31 (1995)

Budget

revenues: $189.2 billion

expenditures: $196.8 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 14/219

50.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 77/220

-2.1% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 29/176

83.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

84.6% of GDP (2014 est.)

note: this is general government gross debt, defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year; it covers the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA95): currency and deposits (AF.2), securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives (AF.3, excluding AF.34), and loans (AF.4); the general government sector comprises the sub-sectors of central government, state government, local government and social security funds; as a percentage of GDP, the GDP used as a denominator is the gross domestic product in current year prices

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 66/226

0.9% (2015 est.)

1.5% (2014 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 181/184

1.9% (31 December 2015 est.)

2.15% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 22/192

$185.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$191.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

Stock of broad money 26/193

$428.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$439.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 27/191

$474.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$507.3 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 43/121

$106 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$82.37 billion (31 December 2011)

$67.68 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance 27/197

$6.137 billion (2015 est.)

$3.228 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 32/224

$141.4 billion (2015 est.)

$164.3 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, paper and paperboard, metal goods, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles, foodstuffs

Exports - partners

Germany 30.4%, Italy 6.5%, France 5%, US 4.7%, Switzerland 4.5%, Slovakia 4.2% (2014)

Imports 30/223

$139.8 billion (2015 est.)

$167.5 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal goods, oil and oil products; foodstuffs

Imports - partners

Germany 41.9%, Italy 6.5%, Switzerland 4.6%, Czech Republic 4.3%, Netherlands 4.1% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 55/170

$24.94 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$23.29 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Debt - external 20/206

$820 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

$812 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 21/120

$327.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$318.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 20/105

$375.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$366.3 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

0.89 (2015 est.)

0.75 (2014 est.)

0.76 (2013 est.)

0.78 (2012 est.)

0.72 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 40/220

68.02 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - consumption 39/219

69.01 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - exports 10/218

17.69 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 8/219

24.96 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 36/214

22.98 million kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 194/214

20.8% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 45/214

0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 27/214

67.2% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 29/212

12% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Crude oil - production 74/214

17,250 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 97/214

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports 37/214

158,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 80/215

47.5 million bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 55/214

194,600 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 46/212

260,700 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 57/214

48,820 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 46/213

121,300 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production 61/216

1.244 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 50/215

7.764 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - exports 36/215

2.373 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - imports 26/214

10.17 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 81/212

9.656 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

NA Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 45/219

total subscriptions: 3.27 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 38 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 71/217

total: 13 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 150 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: highly developed and efficient

domestic: fixed-line subscribership has been in decline since the mid-1990s with mobile-cellular subscribership eclipsing it by the late 1990s; the fiber-optic net is very extensive; all telephone applications and Internet services are available

international: country code - 43; satellite earth stations - 15; in addition, there are about 600 VSATs (very small aperture terminals) (2007)

Broadcast media

Austria's public broadcaster, Osterreichischer Rundfunk (ORF), was the main broadcast source until commercial radio and TV service was introduced in the 1990s; cable and satellite TV are available, including German TV stations (2008)

Radio broadcast stations

FM 65 (plus several hundred repeaters), shortwave 1 (2009)

Television broadcast stations

9 (2010)

Internet country code

.at

Internet hosts 30/232

3.512 million (2012)

Internet users 53/217

total: 7.2 million

percent of population: 83.7% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 90/236

52 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 24

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 13 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 28

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 24 (2013)

Heliports

1 (2013)

Pipelines

gas 4,736 km; oil 663 km; refined products 157 km (2013)

Railways 29/136

total: 5,267.7 km

standard gauge: 5,267.7 km 1.435-m gauge (3,556.4 km electrified) (2014)

Roadways 39/223

total: 124,508 km

paved: 124,508 km (includes 1,719 km of expressways) (2012)

Waterways 89/107

358 km (2011)

Merchant marine 134/156

registered in other countries: 3 (Cyprus 1, Kazakhstan 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals

river port(s): Enns, Krems, Linz, Vienna (Danube)

Military and Security

Military branches

Land Forces (KdoLdSK), Air Forces (KdoLuSK)

Military service age and obligation

registration requirement at age 17, the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; 18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory military service (6 months), or optionally, alternative civil/community service (9-12 months); males 18 to 50 years old in the militia or inactive reserve are subject to compulsory service; in a January 2012 referendum, a majority of Austrians voted in favor of retaining the system of compulsory military service (with the option of alternative/non-military service) instead of switching to a professional army system (2015)

Military expenditures 115/132

0.55% of GDP (2015 projected)

0.62% of GDP (2014)

0.63% of GDP (2013)

0.68% of GDP (2012)

0.7% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 11,906 (Afghanistan); 19,577 (Russia) (2014)

stateless persons: 570 (2014)

Illicit drugs

transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; increasing consumption of European-produced synthetic drugs