Bolivia

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Bolivia, named after independence fighter Simon BOLIVAR, broke away from Spanish rule in 1825; much of its subsequent history has consisted of a series of nearly 200 coups and countercoups. Democratic civilian rule was established in 1982, but leaders have faced difficult problems of deep-seated poverty, social unrest, and illegal drug production.

In December 2005, Bolivians elected Movement Toward Socialism leader Evo MORALES president - by the widest margin of any leader since the restoration of civilian rule in 1982 - after he ran on a promise to change the country's traditional political class and empower the nation's poor, indigenous majority. In December 2009 and October 2014, President MORALES easily won reelection. His party maintained control of the legislative branch of the government, which has allowed him to continue his process of change. In October 2011, the country held its first judicial elections to select judges for the four highest courts. MORALES has publicly described the elected judiciary as a failed experiment that has not resolved judicial backlogs or extended pre-trial detention. He has called for a public referendum on the judicial system.

Geography

Location

Central South America, southwest of Brazil

Geographic coordinates

17.00° S, 65.00° W

Area 28/257

total: 1,098,581 sq km

land: 1,083,301 sq km

water: 15,280 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly less than three times the size of Montana

Land boundaries

total: 7,252 km

border countries (5): Argentina 942 km, Brazil 3,403 km, Chile 942 km, Paraguay 753 km, Peru 1,212 km

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid

Terrain

rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano), hills, lowland plains of the Amazon Basin

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Rio Paraguay 90 m

highest point: Nevado Sajama 6,542 m

Natural resources

tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver, iron, lead, gold, timber, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 34.3%

arable land 3.6%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 30.5%

forest: 52.5%

other: 13.2% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

3,000 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

622.5 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 2.64 cu km/yr (25%/14%/61%)

per capita: 305.8 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards

flooding in the northeast (March to April)

volcanism: volcanic activity in Andes Mountains on the border with Chile; historically active volcanoes in this region are Irruputuncu (elev. 5,163 m), which last erupted in 1995, and Olca-Paruma

Environment - current issues

the clearing of land for agricultural purposes and the international demand for tropical timber are contributing to deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor cultivation methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture); desertification; loss of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water supplies used for drinking and irrigation

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note

landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Bolivian(s)

adjective: Bolivian

Ethnic groups

mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry) 68%, indigenous 20%, white 5%, cholo/chola 2%, black 1%, other 1%, unspecified 3% ; 44% of respondents indicated feeling part of some indigenous group, predominantly Quechua or Aymara

note: results among surveys vary based on the wording of the ethnicity question and the available response choices; the 2001 national census did not provide "mestizo" as a response choice, resulting in a much higher proportion of respondents identifying themselves as belonging to one of the available indigenous ethnicity choices; the use of "mestizo" and "cholo" varies among response choices in surveys, with surveys using the terms interchanageably, providing one or the other as a response choice, or providing the two as separate response choices (2009 est.)

Languages

Spanish (official) 60.7%, Quechua (official) 21.2%, Aymara (official) 14.6%, foreign languages 2.4%, Guarani (official) 0.6%, other native languages 0.4%, none 0.1%

note: Bolivia's 2009 constitution designates Spanish and all indigenous languages as official; 36 indigenous languages are specified, including some that are extinct (2001 est.)

Religions

Roman Catholic 76.8%, Evangelical and Pentecostal 8.1%, Protestant 7.9%, other 1.7%, none 5.5% (2012 est.)

Population 82/238

10,800,882 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 32.85% (male 1,807,779/female 1,740,188)

15-24 years: 19.65% (male 1,074,697/female 1,047,575)

25-54 years: 36.69% (male 1,932,183/female 2,030,485)

55-64 years: 5.75% (male 288,621/female 332,824)

65 years and over: 5.06% (male 241,447/female 305,083) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 63.7%

youth dependency ratio: 53.1%

elderly dependency ratio: 10.6%

potential support ratio: 9.4% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 23.7 years

male: 22.9 years

female: 24.4 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 77/233

1.56% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 71/224

22.76 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 148/225

6.52 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 139/222

-0.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 68.5% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 2.26% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

Santa Cruz 2.107 million; LA PAZ (capital) 1.816 million; Cochabamba 1.24 million; Sucre (constitutional capital) 372,000 (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

21.2

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2008 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 58/184

206 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 58/224

total: 37.49 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 41.06 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 33.75 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 161/224

total population: 68.86 years

male: 66.08 years

female: 71.78 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 68/224

2.73 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

60.5% (2008)

Health expenditures 122/191

6.1% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

0.47 physicians/1,000 population (2011)

Hospital bed density

1.1 beds/1,000 population (2012)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 96.7% of population

rural: 75.6% of population

total: 90% of population

unimproved:

urban: 3.3% of population

rural: 24.4% of population

total: 10% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 60.8% of population

rural: 27.5% of population

total: 50.3% of population

unimproved:

urban: 39.2% of population

rural: 72.5% of population

total: 49.7% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.29% (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

17,900 (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

700 (2014 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 109/191

15.8% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight 95/138

4.5% (2008)

Education expenditures 24/173

6.4% of GDP (2012)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 13 years

male: 13 years

female: 13 years (2007)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 122/134

total: 6.2%

male: 5.1%

female: 7.8% (2011 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Plurinational State of Bolivia

conventional short form: Bolivia

local long form: Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia

local short form: Bolivia

etymology: the country is named after Simon BOLIVAR, a leader in the 19th century South American wars for independence

Government type

republic; note - the new constitution defines Bolivia as a "Social Unitarian State"

Capital

name: La Paz (administrative capital); Sucre (constitutional capital)

geographic coordinates: 16.30° S, 68.09° W

time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

9 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Beni, Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Oruro, Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija

Independence

6 August 1825 (from Spain)

National holiday

Independence Day, 6 August (1825)

Constitution

many previous; latest drafted 6 August 2006 - 9 December 2008, approved by referendum 25 January 2009, effective 7 February 2009; amended 2013 (2015)

Legal system

civil law system with influences from Roman, Spanish, canon (religious), French, and indigenous law

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent: yes

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years

Suffrage

18 years of age, universal and compulsory

Executive branch

chief of state: President Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (since 22 January 2006); Vice President Alvaro GARCIA Linera (since 22 January 2006); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (since 22 January 2006); Vice President Alvaro GARCIA Linera (since 22 January 2006)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 12 October 2014 (next to be held in 2019); note - a presidential candidate wins an election one of 3 ways

election results: Juan Evo MORALES Ayma reelected president; percent of vote - Juan Evo MORALES Ayma 61%; Samuel DORIA MEDINA Arana 24.5%; Jorge QUIROGA 9.1%; other 5.4%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Plurinational Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa Plurinacional consists of the Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (36 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (130 seats; 70 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 53 indirectly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote, and 7 - apportioned to non-contiguous, rural areas in 7 of the 9 states - directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: Chamber of Senators and Chamber of Deputies - last held on 12 October 2014 (next to be held in 2019)

election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MAS 25, UD 9, PDC 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MAS 88, UD 32, PDC 10

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo de Justicia (consists of 12 judges); Plurinational Constitutional Tribunal (consists of 7 primary and 7 alternate magistrates); Plurinational Electoral Organ (consists of 7 members)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Plurinational Constitutional Tribunal judges elected by popular vote from list of candidates pre-selected by Plurinational Legislative Assembly for 6-year terms); Plurinational Electoral Organ members - 6 judges elected by the Assembly and 1 appointed by the president; judges and members serve 6-year terms; note - the 2009 constitution reformed the procedure for selecting judicial officials for the Supreme Court, Constitutional Tribunal, and the Plurinational Electoral Organ by direct national vote, which occurred in October 2011

subordinate courts: Agro-Environmental Court; Council of the Judiciary; District Courts (in each of the 9 administrative departments)

Political parties and leaders

Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez]

Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Juan Evo MORALES Ayma]

United Democrats or UD [Samuel DORIA MEDINA Arana]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Bolivian Workers Central or COB

Federation of Neighborhood Councils of El Alto or FEJUVE

Landless Movement or MST

National Coordinator for Change or CONALCAM

Sole Confederation of Campesino Workers of Bolivia or CSUTCB

other: Cocalero groups; indigenous organizations (including Confederation of Indigenous Peoples of Eastern Bolivia or CIDOB and National Council of Ayullus and Markas of Quollasuyu or CONAMAQ); Interculturales union or CSCIB; labor unions (including the Central Bolivian Workers' Union or COB and Cooperative Miners Federation or FENCOMIN)

International organization participation

CAN, CD, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; red stands for bravery and the blood of national heroes, yellow for the nation's mineral resources, and green for the fertility of the land

note: similar to the flag of Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; in 2009, a presidential decree made it mandatory for a so-called wiphala - a square, multi-colored flag representing the country's indigenous peoples - to be used alongside the traditional flag

National symbol(s)

llama, Andean condor; national colors: red, yellow, green

National anthem

name: "Cancion Patriotica" (Patriotic Song)

lyrics/music: Jose Ignacio de SANJINES/Leopoldo Benedetto VINCENTI

note: adopted 1852

Economy

Economy - overview

Bolivia is a resource rich country with strong growth attributed to captive markets for natural gas exports – to Brazil and Argentina. Gas accounts for roughly 50% of Bolivia's total exports and will fund more than half of its 2015 budget. However, the country remains one of the least developed countries in Latin America because of state-oriented policies that deter investment and growth.

Following a disastrous economic crisis during the early 1980s, reforms spurred private investment, stimulated economic growth, and cut poverty rates in the 1990s. The period 2003-05 was characterized by political instability, racial tensions, and violent protests against plans - subsequently abandoned - to export Bolivia's newly discovered natural gas reserves to large Northern Hemisphere markets. In 2005, the government passed a controversial hydrocarbons law that imposed significantly higher royalties and required foreign firms then operating under risk-sharing contracts to surrender all production to the state energy company in exchange for a predetermined service fee. The global recession slowed growth, but Bolivia recorded the highest growth rate in South America during 2009 and has averaged 5.3% growth each year since 2009. High commodity prices between 2010 and 2013 sustained rapid growth and large trade surpluses. The global decline in oil prices in late 2014 exerted downward pressure on the price Bolivia receives for exported gas and resulted in lower GDP growth rates and losses in government revenue in 2015.

A lack of foreign investment in the key sectors of mining and hydrocarbons, along with conflict among social groups, pose challenges for the Bolivian economy. In 2015, President Evo MORALES expanded efforts to court international investment and boost Bolivia’s energy production capacity. MORALES passed an investment law and promised not to nationalize additional industries in an effort to improve the investment climate.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 94/230

$73.88 billion (2015 est.)

$70.97 billion (2014 est.)

$67.29 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$33.54 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 61/225

4.1% (2015 est.)

5.5% (2014 est.)

6.8% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 156/230

$6,500 (2015 est.)

$6,300 (2014 est.)

$6,000 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 119/179

14.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

20.5% of GDP (2014 est.)

23.9% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 63.2%

government consumption: 15%

investment in fixed capital: 19.9%

investment in inventories: 0.9%

exports of goods and services: 41.5%

imports of goods and services: -40.5%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 13.2%

industry: 38.3%

services: 48.5% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

soybeans, quinoa, Brazil nuts, sugarcane, coffee, corn, rice, potatoes, chia, coca

Industries

mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages, tobacco, handicrafts, clothing, jewelry

Industrial production growth rate 65/202

3.6% (2015 est.)

Labor force 82/233

4.962 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 32%

industry: 20%

services: 47.9% (2009 est.)

Unemployment rate 86/207

7.4% (2015 est.)

7.3% (2014 est.)

note: data are for urban areas; widespread underemployment

Population below poverty line

45%

note: based on percent of population living on less than the international standard of $2/day (2011 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 0.8%

highest 10%: 33.6% (2012 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 31/144

46.6 (2012)

57.9 (1999)

Budget

revenues: $16.28 billion

expenditures: $18.04 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 18/219

48.6% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 174/220

-5.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 121/176

37.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

35.8% of GDP (2014 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 161/226

4.2% (2015 est.)

5.8% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 81/156

4.5% (31 December 2013)

4% (31 december 2012)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 102/184

8.5% (31 December 2015 est.)

9.69% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 80/192

$9.727 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$8.386 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 89/193

$20.19 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

$17.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 88/191

$18.46 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$14.55 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 75/121

$9.684 billion (31 December 2013)

$7.689 billion (31 December 2012)

$6.089 billion (31 December 2011)

Current account balance 135/197

-$1.517 billion (2015 est.)

$10 million (2014 est.)

Exports 92/224

$9.591 billion (2015 est.)

$12.15 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

natural gas, mineral ores, gold, soybeans and soy products, tin

Exports - partners

Brazil 29.8%, Argentina 19.7%, US 15.6%, Colombia 5.3%, Peru 4.1% (2014)

Imports 97/223

$10.43 billion (2015 est.)

$9.935 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery, petroleum products, vehicles, iron and steel, plastics

Imports - partners

China 17.2%, Brazil 15.8%, US 11.7%, Argentina 10.9%, Peru 6.2%, Japan 4.9%, Chile 4.1% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 70/170

$14.68 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$15.12 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 112/206

$8.228 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$7.895 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 90/120

$10.56 billion (31 December 2013)

$8.809 billion (31 December 2012)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 104/105

$0 (31 December 2013 est.)

$0 (31 December 2012 est.)

Exchange rates

bolivianos (BOB) per US dollar -

6.91 (2015 est.)

6.91 (2014 est.)

6.91 (2013 est.)

6.94 (2012 est.)

6.99 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 106/220

7.375 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - consumption 108/219

6.456 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 109/218

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 123/219

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 114/214

1.649 million kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 112/214

68.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 54/214

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 76/214

30% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 90/212

1.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 55/214

51,130 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 91/214

60.71 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports 163/214

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 58/215

209.8 million bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 81/214

48,990 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 88/212

71,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 157/214

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 123/213

15,560 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production 32/216

20.8 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 70/215

3.2 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports 16/215

17.6 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports 165/214

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 39/212

281.5 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 84/212

17.28 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 83/219

total subscriptions: 880,000

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 8 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 84/217

total: 10.5 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 98 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: Bolivian National Telecommunications Company was privatized in 1995 but re-nationalized in 2007; the primary trunk system is being expanded and employs digital microwave radio relay; some areas are served by fiber-optic cable; system operations, reliability, and coverage have steadily improved

domestic: most telephones are concentrated in La Paz, Santa Cruz, and other capital cities; mobile-cellular telephone use expanding rapidly and, in 2011, teledensity reached about 80 per 100 persons

international: country code - 591; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)

Broadcast media

large number of radio and TV stations broadcasting with private media outlets dominating; state-owned and private radio and TV stations generally operating freely, although both pro-government and anti-government groups have attacked media outlets in response to their reporting (2010)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 171, FM 73, shortwave 77 (1999)

Television broadcast stations

48 (1997)

Internet country code

.bo

Internet hosts 75/232

180,988 (2012)

Internet users 78/217

total: 3.9 million

percent of population: 36.6% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 7/236

855 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 21

over 3,047 m: 5

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 6

914 to 1,523 m: 6 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 834

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 47

914 to 1,523 m: 151

under 914 m: 631 (2013)

Pipelines

gas 5,457 km; liquid petroleum gas 51 km; oil 2,511 km; refined products 1,627 km (2013)

Railways 48/136

total: 3,504 km

narrow gauge: 3,504 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)

Roadways 59/223

total: 80,488 km

paved: 6,850 km

unpaved: 73,638 km (2010)

Waterways 13/107

10,000 km (commercially navigable almost exclusively in the northern and eastern parts of the country) (2012)

Merchant marine 98/156

total: 18

by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 14, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 2

foreign-owned: 5 (Syria 4, UK 1, (2010)

Ports and terminals

river port(s): Puerto Aguirre (Paraguay/Parana)

note: Bolivia has free port privileges in maritime ports in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Paraguay

Military and Security

Military branches

Bolivian Armed Forces: Bolivian Army (Ejercito Boliviano, EB), Bolivian Naval Force (Fuerza Naval Boliviana, FNB; includes Marines), Bolivian Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana, FAB) (2013)

Military service age and obligation

18-49 years of age for 12-month compulsory male and female military service; Bolivian citizenship required; 17 years of age for voluntary service; when annual number of volunteers falls short of goal, compulsory recruitment is effected, including conscription of boys as young as 14; 15-19 years of age for voluntary premilitary service, provides exemption from further military service (2013)

Military expenditures 64/132

1.47% of GDP (2012)

1.47% of GDP (2011)

1.47% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Chile and Peru rebuff Bolivia's reactivated claim to restore the Atacama corridor, ceded to Chile in 1884, but Chile offers instead unrestricted but not sovereign maritime access through Chile for Bolivian natural gas; contraband smuggling, human trafficking, and illegal narcotic trafficking are problems in the porous areas of the border with Argentina

Illicit drugs

world's third-largest cultivator of coca (after Colombia and Peru) with an estimated 30,000 hectares under cultivation in 2011, a decrease of 13 percent over 2010; third largest producer of cocaine, estimated at 265 metric tons potential pure cocaine in 2011, a 29 percent increase over 2010; transit country for Peruvian and Colombian cocaine destined for Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, and Europe; weak border controls; some money-laundering activity related to narcotics trade; major cocaine consumption (2013)