Bosnia and Herzegovina

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Bosnia and Herzegovina declared sovereignty in October 1991 and independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia and Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a "Greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak-Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties initialed a peace agreement that ended three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995).

The Dayton Peace Accords retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's international boundaries and created a multiethnic and democratic government charged with conducting foreign, diplomatic, and fiscal policy. Also recognized was a second tier of government composed of two entities roughly equal in size: the Bosniak-Bosnian Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS governments are responsible for overseeing most government functions. Additionally, the Dayton Accords established the Office of the High Representative to oversee the implementation of the civilian aspects of the agreement. The Peace Implementation Council at its conference in Bonn in 1997 also gave the High Representative the authority to impose legislation and remove officials, the so-called "Bonn Powers." An original NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops assembled in 1995 was succeeded over time by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR). In 2004, European Union peacekeeping troops (EUFOR) replaced SFOR. Currently EUFOR deploys around 600 troops in theater in a security assistance and training capacity.

Geography

Location

Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia

Geographic coordinates

44.00° N, 18.00° E

Area 129/257

total: 51,197 sq km

land: 51,187 sq km

water: 10 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries

total: 1,543 km

border countries (3): Croatia 956 km, Montenegro 242 km, Serbia 345 km

Coastline

20 km

Maritime claims

NA

Climate

hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast

Terrain

mountains and valleys

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m

highest point: Maglic 2,386 m

Natural resources

coal, iron ore, bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, cobalt, manganese, nickel, clay, gypsum, salt, sand, timber, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 42.2%

arable land 19.7%; permanent crops 2%; permanent pasture 20.5%

forest: 42.8%

other: 15% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

30 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

37.5 cu km (2011)

Natural hazards

destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues

air pollution from metallurgical plants; sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; water shortages and destruction of infrastructure because of the 1992-95 civil strife; deforestation

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders, the country is divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska or RS (about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous to Croatia and Montenegro, and traditionally has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority in the west and an ethnic Serb majority in the east

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)

adjective: Bosnian, Herzegovinian

Ethnic groups

Bosniak 48.4%, Serb 32.7%, Croat 14.6%, other 4.3%

note: final 2013 census results are pending; Bosniak has replaced Muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam (2013 est.)

Languages

Bosnian (official), Croatian (official), Serbian (official)

Religions

Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, other 14%

Population 129/238

3,867,055 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 13.48% (male 269,086/female 252,189)

15-24 years: 12.36% (male 246,849/female 231,007)

25-54 years: 46.48% (male 902,704/female 894,787)

55-64 years: 14.01% (male 259,579/female 282,371)

65 years and over: 13.67% (male 206,288/female 322,195) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 40.7%

youth dependency ratio: 19%

elderly dependency ratio: 21.7%

potential support ratio: 4.6% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 41.2 years

male: 39.8 years

female: 42.6 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 207/233

-0.13% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 212/224

8.87 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 48/225

9.75 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 131/222

-0.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 39.8% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 0.14% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

SARAJEVO (capital) 318,000 (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

26.3 (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 157/184

11 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 169/224

total: 5.72 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 5.79 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 5.64 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 85/224

total population: 76.55 years

male: 73.54 years

female: 79.77 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 218/224

1.27 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

45.8% (2011/12)

Health expenditures 24/191

9.6% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

1.93 physicians/1,000 population (2013)

Hospital bed density

3.5 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 99.7% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 99.9% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0.3% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0.1% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 98.9% of population

rural: 92% of population

total: 94.8% of population

unimproved:

urban: 1.1% of population

rural: 8% of population

total: 5.2% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths

NA

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 47/191

19.2% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight 127/138

1.5% (2012)

Education expenditures

NA

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 1/134

total: 62.8%

male: 62.8%

female: 62.8% (2012 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina

local long form: none

local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina

former: People's Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina

abbreviation: BiH

etymology: the larger northern territory is named after the Bosna River; the smaller southern section takes its name from the German word "herzog," meaning "duke," and the ending "-ovina," meaning "land," creating the combination denoting "dukedom"

Government type

federal democratic republic

Capital

name: Sarajevo

geographic coordinates: 43.52° N, 18.25° E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

2 first-order administrative divisions and 1 internationally supervised district* - the Bosniak-Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federacija Bosne i Hercegovine), the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska, Brcko District (Brcko Distrikt)*; note - Brcko District is in northeastern Bosnia and is a self-governing administrative unit under the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina and formally held in condominium between the two entities

Independence

1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia); note - referendum for independence completed on 1 March 1992; independence declared on 3 March 1992

National holiday

National Day (Statehood Day), 25 November (1943); note - observed only in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina entity

Constitution

14 December 1995 (constitution included as part of the Dayton Peace Accords); amended several times, last in 2009; note - each of the entities has its own constitution (2015)

Legal system

civil law system; Constitutional Court review of legislative acts

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Bosnia and Herzegovina

dual citizenship recognized: yes, provided there is a bilateral agreement with the other state

residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years

Suffrage

18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Dragan COVIC (chairman since 17 July 2015; presidency member since 17 November 2014 - Croat) ; other members of the three-member presidency rotate every eight months

head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Denis ZVIZDIC (since 11 February 2015)

cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairman, approved by the state-level House of Representatives

elections/appointments: 3-member presidency (one Bosniak, one Croat, one Serb) directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term, but then ineligible for 4 years) by constituencies of the 3 ethnic groups; the chairmanship rotates every 8 months and resumes where it left off following each general election; election last held on 12 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2018); the chairman of the Council of Ministers appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the state-level House of Representatives

election results: percent of vote - Mladen IVANIC 48.7% - Serb seat; Dragan COVIC 52.2% - Croat seat; Bakir IZETBEGOVIC 32.9% - Bosniak seat

note: President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Marinko CAVARA (since 11 February 2015); Vice Presidents Melika MAHMUTBEGOVIC (since 11 February 2015), Milan DUNOVIC (since 11 February 2015); President of the Republika Srpska Milorad DODIK (since 15 November 2010); Vice Presidents Ramiz SALKIC (since 24 November 2014), Josip JERKOVIC (since 24 November 2014)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina consists of the House of Peoples or Dom Naroda (15 seats - 5 Bosniak, 5 Croat, 5 Serb; members designated by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Peoples and the Republika Srpska's National Assembly to serve 4-year terms) and the state-level House of Representatives or Predstavnicki Dom (42 seats to include 28 seats allocated to the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and 14 to the Republika Srpska; members directly elected by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms); note - the Bosniak/Croat Federation has a bicameral legislature that consists of the House of Peoples (58 seats - 17 Bosniak, 17 Croat, 17 Serb, 7 other) and the House of Representatives (98 seats; members directly elected by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms); Republika Srpska's unicameral legislature is the National Assembly (83 directly elected delegates serve four-year terms)

elections: House of Peoples - last constituted in 11 February 2015 (next likely to be constituted in 2018); state-level House of Representatives - election last held on 12 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2018)

election results: House of Peoples - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - NA; state-level House of Representatives - percent of vote by party/coalition - Federation votes: SDA 27.9%, DF 15.3%, SBB BiH 14.4%, Croat People's Assembly coalition or HNS (HDZ BiH-HSS-NHI-HKDU-HSP-dr. Ante Starcevic-HSP Herceg-Bosne) 12.2%, SDP 9.5%, HDZ-1990 4.1%, BPS-Sefer Halilovic 3.7%, A-SDA 2.3%, other 10.6%; Republika Srpska votes: SNSD 38.5%, SDS 32.6%, PDP-NDP 7.8%, DNS 5.7%, SDA 4.9%, other 10.5%; seats by party/coalition - SDA 10, SNSD 6, SDS 5, DF 5, SBB BiH 4, Croat People's Assembly coalition or HNS (HDZ BiH-HSS-NHI-HKDU-HSP-Dr. Ante Starcevic-HSP Herceg-Bosne) 4, SDP 3, PDP-NDP 1, HDZ-1990 1, BPS-Sefer Halilovic 1, DNS 1, A-SDA 1

Judicial branch

highest court(s): BiH Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members); Court of BiH (consists of 44 national judges and 7 international judges organized into 3 divisions - Administrative, Appellate, and Criminal, which includes a War Crimes Chamber)

judge selection and term of office: BiH Constitutional Court judges - 4 selected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Representatives, 2 selected by the Republika Srpska's National Assembly, and 3 non-Bosnian judges selected by the president of the European Court of Human Rights; Court of BiH president and national judges appointed by the High Judicial and Prosecutorial Council; Court of BiH president appointed for renewable 6-year term; other national judges appointed to serve until age 70; international judges recommended by the president of the Court of BiH and appointed by the High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina; international judges appointed to serve until age 70

subordinate courts: the Federation has 10 cantonal courts plus a number of municipal courts; the Republika Srpska has a supreme court, 5 district courts, and a number of municipal courts

Political parties and leaders

Alliance for a Better Future of BiH or SBB BiH [Fahrudin RADONCIC]

Alliance of Independent Social Democrats or SNSD [Milorad DODIK]

Alternative Party for Democratic Activity or A-SDA [Nermin OGRESEVIC]

Bosnian-Herzegovinian Patriotic Party-Sefer Halilovic or BPS-Sefer Halilovic [Sefer HALILOVIC]

Croat Peasants' Party-New Croat Initiative or HSS-NHI [Ante COLAK]

Croatian Christian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HKDU [Ivan MUSA]

Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HDZ-BiH [Dragan COVIC]

Croatian Democratic Union 1990 or HDZ-1990 [Martin RAGUZ]

Croatian Party of Rights dr. Ante Starcevic or HSP dr. Ante Starcevic [Zvonko JURISIC]

Croatian Party of Rights of Herceg-Bosne or HSP Herceg-Bosne [Vesna PINJUH]

Democratic Front of DF [Zeljko KOMSIC]

Democratic Peoples' Alliance or DNS [Marko PAVIC]

Party for Democratic Action or SDA [Bakir IZETBEGOVIC]

Party of Democratic Progress or PDP [Branislav BORENOVIC]

People's Democratic Movement or NDP [Dragan CAVIC]

Serb Democratic Party or SDS [Mladen BOSIC]

Social Democratic Party or SDP [Nermin NIKSIC]

Political pressure groups and leaders

other: war veterans; displaced persons associations; family associations of missing persons; private media

International organization participation

BIS, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

Flag description

a wide medium blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag; the remainder of the flag is medium blue with seven full five-pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse of the triangle; the triangle approximates the shape of the country and its three points stand for the constituent peoples - Bosniaks, Croats, and Serbs; the stars represent Europe and are meant to be continuous (thus the half stars at top and bottom); the colors (white, blue, and yellow) are often associated with neutrality and peace, and traditionally are linked with Bosnia

note: one of several flags where a prominent component of the design reflects the shape of the country; other such flags are those of Brazil, Eritrea, and Vanuatu

National symbol(s)

golden lily; national colors: blue, yellow, white

National anthem

name: "Drzavna himna Bosne i Hercegovine" (The National Anthem of Bosnia and Herzegovina)

lyrics/music: none officially; Dusan SESTIC and Benjamin ISOVIC/Dusan SESTIC

note: music adopted 1999; lyrics accepted 2009 but not yet approved

Economy

Economy - overview

Bosnia has a transitional economy with limited market reforms. The economy relies heavily on the export of metals, energy, textiles and furniture as well as on remittances and foreign aid. A highly decentralized government hampers economic policy coordination and reform, while excessive bureaucracy and a segmented market discourage foreign investment. Interethnic warfare in Bosnia and Herzegovina caused production to plummet by 80% from 1992 to 1995 and unemployment to soar, but the economy made progress until 2009, when the global economic crisis caused a downturn. Foreign banks, primarily from Austria and Italy, now control most of the banking sector. The konvertibilna marka (convertible mark or BAM) - the national currency introduced in 1998 - is pegged to the euro, and confidence in the currency and the banking sector has remained stable. Bosnia's private sector is growing slowly, but foreign investment has dropped sharply since 2007. Government spending - including transfer payments - remains high, at roughly 40% of GDP, because of redundant government offices at the national, sub-national, and municipal level. High unemployment remains the most serious macroeconomic problem. Successful implementation of a value-added tax in 2006 provided a steady source of revenue for the government and helped rein in gray-market activity. National-level statistics have also improved over time but a large share of economic activity remains unofficial and unrecorded. Bosnia and Herzegovina became a full member of the Central European Free Trade Agreement in September 2007. Bosnia and Herzegovina's top economic priorities are: acceleration of integration into the EU; strengthening the fiscal system; public administration reform; World Trade Organization (WTO) membership; and securing economic growth by fostering a dynamic, competitive private sector. Flooding caused significant damage in the spring of 2014, and Bosnia will struggle to recover from it in 2015.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 114/230

$39.46 billion (2015 est.)

$38.67 billion (2014 est.)

$38.27 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$15.57 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 142/225

2.1% (2015 est.)

1.1% (2014 est.)

2.5% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 136/230

$10,200 (2015 est.)

$10,000 (2014 est.)

$9,900 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 149/179

9.9% of GDP (2015 est.)

10.1% of GDP (2014 est.)

11.2% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 81.2%

government consumption: 21.6%

investment in fixed capital: 18.3%

investment in inventories: 1.3%

exports of goods and services: 32.8%

imports of goods and services: -55.1%

(2014 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 7.9%

industry: 26.5%

services: 65.6% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock

Industries

steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, aluminum, motor vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, ammunition, domestic appliances, oil refining

Industrial production growth rate 99/202

2.6% (2015 est.)

Labor force 133/233

1.47 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 19%

industry: 30%

services: 51% (2013)

Unemployment rate 198/207

43.9% (2014 est.)

43.9% (2014 est.)

note: official rate; actual rate is lower as many technically unemployed persons work in the gray economy

Population below poverty line

17.2% (2011 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.7%

highest 10%: 27.3% (2007)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 84/144

36.2 (2007)

Budget

revenues: $7.204 billion

expenditures: $7.565 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 22/219

46.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 80/220

-2.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 92/176

46.1% of GDP (2015 est.)

44.8% of GDP (2014 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions.

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 14/226

-0.6% (2015 est.)

-0.9% (2014 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 132/184

5.9% (31 December 2015 est.)

6.64% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 109/192

$3.948 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$4.538 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 109/193

$9.223 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$10.72 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 107/191

$8.717 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$10.48 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares

$NA

Current account balance 125/197

-$1.205 billion (2015 est.)

-$1.404 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 118/224

$3.942 billion (2015 est.)

$4.49 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

metals, clothing, wood products

Exports - partners

Slovenia 16.4%, Italy 16.1%, Germany 12.8%, Austria 12.3%, Croatia 12% (2014)

Imports 104/223

$8.784 billion (2015 est.)

$9.982 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs

Imports - partners

Croatia 20.2%, Germany 12.6%, Slovenia 12.2%, Italy 9.8%, Russia 6.8%, Austria 5.7%, Hungary 5% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 96/170

$4.625 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$4.744 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 103/206

$11.2 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$11.08 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 94/120

$7.92 billion (2014 est.)

$7.721 billion (2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 105/105

$0 (2014)

Exchange rates

konvertibilna markas (BAM) per US dollar -

1.82 (2015 est.)

1.47 (2014 est.)

1.47 (2013 est.)

1.52 (2012 est.)

1.41 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 80/220

16.3 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - consumption 83/219

12.56 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - exports 30/218

5.097 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 57/219

1.353 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 78/214

4.3 million kW (2013 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 144/214

54.8% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 53/214

0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 55/214

43.6% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 86/212

1.5% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Crude oil - production 111/214

0 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 101/214

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports 69/214

20,040 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 110/215

0 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 92/214

22,690 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 111/212

34,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 97/214

4,255 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 124/213

15,250 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Natural gas - production 161/216

0 cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 103/215

275 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - exports 66/215

0 cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - imports 69/214

275 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 116/212

0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 78/212

26 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 84/219

total subscriptions: 850,000

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 22 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 129/217

total: 3.5 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 90 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: post-war reconstruction of the telecommunications network, aided by an internationally sponsored program, resulting in sharp increases in fixed-line telephone availability

domestic: fixed-line teledensity roughly 25 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has been increasing rapidly and stands at roughly 80 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 387; no satellite earth stations (2011)

Broadcast media

3 public TV broadcasters: Radio and TV of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Federation TV (operating 2 networks), and Republika Srpska Radio-TV; a local commercial network of 5 TV stations; 3 private, near-national TV stations and dozens of small independent TV stations broadcasting; 3 large public radio broadcasters and many private radio stations (2010)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 8, FM 16, shortwave 1 (1998)

Television broadcast stations

33 (1995)

Internet country code

.ba

Internet hosts 77/232

155,252 (2012)

Internet users 89/217

total: 2.6 million

percent of population: 67.5% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 130/236

24 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 7

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

under 914 m: 2 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 17

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 11 (2013)

Heliports

6 (2013)

Pipelines

gas 147 km; oil 9 km (2013)

Railways 108/136

total: 965 km

standard gauge: 965 km 1.435-m gauge (565 km electrified) (2014)

Roadways 102/223

total: 22,926 km

paved: 19,426 km (4,652 km of interurban roads)

unpaved: 3,500 km (2010)

Waterways

(Sava River on northern border; open to shipping but use limited) (2011)

Ports and terminals

river port(s): Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Samac, Brcko, Orasje (Sava River)

Military and Security

Military branches

Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Oruzanih Snaga Bosne i Hercegovine, OSBiH): Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Air Force and Air Defense (Brigada Zracnih Snaga i Protuzracne Odbrane, br ZSiPZO), Tactical Support Brigade (Brigada Takticke Podrske, br TP) (2015)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for voluntary military service; mandatory retirement at age 35 or after 15 years of service for E-1 through E-4, mandatory retirement at age 50 and 30 years of service for E-5 through E-9, mandatory retirement at age 55 and 30 years of service for all officers (2014)

Military expenditures 75/132

0.98% of GDP (2014)

1.04% of GDP (2013)

1.35% of GDP (2012)

1.15% of GDP (2011)

1.35% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Serbia delimited about half of the boundary with Bosnia and Herzegovina, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 6,703 (Croatia) (2014)

IDPs: 84,500 (Bosnian Croats, Serbs, and Bosniaks displaced by inter-ethnic violence, human rights violations, and armed conflict during the 1992-1995 war) (2015)

stateless persons: 101 (2014)

Illicit drugs

increasingly a transit point for heroin being trafficked to Western Europe; minor transit point for marijuana; remains highly vulnerable to money-laundering activity given a primarily cash-based and unregulated economy, weak law enforcement, and instances of corruption