Brazil

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Following more than three centuries under Portuguese rule, Brazil gained its independence in 1822, maintaining a monarchical system of government until the abolition of slavery in 1888 and the subsequent proclamation of a republic by the military in 1889. Brazilian coffee exporters politically dominated the country until populist leader Getulio VARGAS rose to power in 1930. By far the largest and most populous country in South America, Brazil underwent more than a half century of populist and military government until 1985, when the military regime peacefully ceded power to civilian rulers. Brazil continues to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development of its interior. Exploiting vast natural resources and a large labor pool, it is today South America's largest economy and a regional leader. Pressing problems include high income inequality, crime, inflation, rising unemployment, and corruption.

Geography

Location

Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean

Geographic coordinates

10.00° S, 55.00° W

Area 5/257

total: 8,515,770 sq km

land: 8,358,140 sq km

water: 157,630 sq km

note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries

total: 16,145 km

border countries (10): Argentina 1,263 km, Bolivia 3,403 km, Colombia 1,790 km, French Guiana 649 km, Guyana 1,308 km, Paraguay 1,371 km, Peru 2,659 km, Suriname 515 km, Uruguay 1,050 km, Venezuela 2,137 km

Coastline

7,491 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin

Climate

mostly tropical, but temperate in south

Terrain

mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Pico da Neblina 2,994 m

Natural resources

bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum, tin, rare earth elements, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber

Land use

agricultural land: 32.9%

arable land 8.6%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 23.5%

forest: 61.9%

other: 5.2% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

54,000 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

8,233 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 58.07 cu km/yr (28%/17%/55%)

per capita: 306 cu m/yr (2006)

Natural hazards

recurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in south

Environment - current issues

deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; there is a lucrative illegal wildlife trade; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities; wetland degradation; severe oil spills

Environment - international agreements

party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

largest country in South America and in the Southern Hemisphere; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Brazilian(s)

adjective: Brazilian

Ethnic groups

white 47.7%, mulatto (mixed white and black) 43.1%, black 7.6%, Asian 1.1%, indigenous 0.4% (2010 est.)

Languages

Portuguese (official and most widely spoken language)

note: less common languages include Spanish (border areas and schools), German, Italian, Japanese, English, and a large number of minor Amerindian languages

Religions

Roman Catholic 64.6%, other Catholic 0.4%, Protestant 22.2% (includes Adventist 6.5%, Assembly of God 2.0%, Christian Congregation of Brazil 1.2%, Universal Kingdom of God 1.0%, other Protestant 11.5%), other Christian 0.7%, Spiritist 2.2%, other 1.4%, none 8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)

Population 6/238

204,259,812 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 23.27% (male 24,223,817/female 23,304,372)

15-24 years: 16.47% (male 17,058,031/female 16,579,678)

25-54 years: 43.8% (male 44,358,524/female 45,111,178)

55-64 years: 8.66% (male 8,348,783/female 9,343,347)

65 years and over: 7.8% (male 6,776,742/female 9,155,340) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 44.7%

youth dependency ratio: 33.3%

elderly dependency ratio: 11.3%

potential support ratio: 8.8% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 31.1 years

male: 30.3 years

female: 31.9 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 142/233

0.77% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 136/224

14.46 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 144/225

6.58 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 116/222

-0.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 85.7% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 1.17% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

Sao Paulo 21.066 million; Rio de Janeiro 12.902 million; Belo Horizonte 5.716 million; BRASILIA (capital) 4.155 million; Fortaleza 3.88 million; Recife 3.739 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 103/184

44 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 95/224

total: 18.6 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 21.8 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 15.23 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 129/224

total population: 73.53 years

male: 69.99 years

female: 77.25 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 158/224

1.77 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

80.3% (2006)

Health expenditures 31/191

9.7% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

1.89 physicians/1,000 population (2013)

Hospital bed density

2.3 beds/1,000 population (2012)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 100% of population

rural: 87% of population

total: 98.1% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0% of population

rural: 13% of population

total: 1.9% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 88% of population

rural: 51.5% of population

total: 82.8% of population

unimproved:

urban: 12% of population

rural: 48.5% of population

total: 17.2% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.55% (2013 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

NA 726,000 (2013 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

15,800 (2013 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 102/191

20.1% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight 121/138

2.2% (2007)

Education expenditures 49/173

5.8% of GDP (2010)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 14 years

male: 14 years

female: 15 years (2005)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 76/134

total: 15%

male: 12.3%

female: 18.7% (2013 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil

conventional short form: Brazil

local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil

local short form: Brasil

etymology: the country name derives from the brazilwood tree that used to grow plentifully along the coast of Brazil and that was used to produce a deep red dye

Government type

federal republic

Capital

name: Brasilia

geographic coordinates: 15.47° S, 47.55° W

time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins third Sunday in October; ends third Sunday in February

note: Brazil has three time zones, including one for the Fernando de Noronha Islands

Administrative divisions

26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins

Independence

7 September 1822 (from Portugal)

National holiday

Independence Day, 7 September (1822)

Constitution

several previous; latest ratified 5 October 1988; amended many times, last in 2015 (2015)

Legal system

civil law; note - a new civil law code was enacted in 2002 replacing the 1916 code

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent: yes

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years

Suffrage

voluntary between 16 to 18 years of age and over 70; compulsory between 18 to 70 years of age; note - military conscripts by law cannot vote

Executive branch

chief of state: President Dilma ROUSSEFF (since 1 January 2011); Vice President Michel Miguel Elias TEMER Lulia (since 1 January 2011); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Dilma ROUSSEFF (since 1 January 2011); Vice President Michel Miguel Elias TEMER Lulia (since 1 January 2011)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 5 October 2014 with runoff on 26 October 2014 (next to be held October 2018)

election results: Dilma ROUSSEFF reelected president in a runoff election; percent of vote - Dilma ROUSSEFF (PT) 51.6%, Aecio NEVES (PSDB) 48.4%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional consists of the Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; 3 members each from 26 states and 3 from the federal district directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 8-year terms, with one-third and two-thirds of the membership elected alternately every 4 years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)

elections: Federal Senate - last held on 5 October 2014 for one-third of the Senate (next to be held in October 2018 for two-thirds of the Senate); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 5 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2018)

election results: Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PMDB 5, PSDB 4, PDT 4, PSB 3, DEM (formerly PFL) 3, PT 2, PSD 2, PTB 2, PP 1, PR 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PT 70, PMDB 66, PSDB 54, PSD 37, PP 36, PR 34, PSB 34, PTB 25, DEM (formerly PFL) 22, PRB 21, PDT 19, SD 15, PSC 12, PROS 11, PCdoB 10, PPS 10, PV 8, PHS 5, PSOL 5, PTN 4, PMN 3, PRP 3, PEN 2, PTC 2, PSDC 2, PTdoB 1, PSL 1, PRTB 1

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Federal Court or Supremo Tribunal Federal (consists of 11 justices)

judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president and approved by the Federal Senate; justices appointed to serve until mandatory retirement at age 75

subordinate courts: Tribunal of the Union, Federal Appeals Court, Superior Court of Justice, Superior Electoral Court, regional federal courts; state court system

Political parties and leaders

Brazilian Communist Party or PCB [Ivan Martins PINHEIRO]

Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Michel TEMER]

Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Cristiane BRASIL]

Brazilian Renewal Labor Party or PRTB [Jose Levy FIDELIX da Cruz]

Brazilian Republican Party or PRB [Marcos Antonio PEREIRA]

Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Aecio NEVES]

Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB [Carlos Roberto SIQUEIRA de Barros]

Christian Labor Party or PTC [Daniel TOURINHO]

Christian Social Democratic Party or PSDC [Jose Maria EYMAEL]

Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Jose Renato RABELO]

Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Carlos Roberto LUPI]

The Democrats or DEM [Jose AGRIPINO] (formerly Liberal Front Party or PFL)

Free Homeland Party or PPL [Sergio RUBENS]

Green Party or PV [Jose Luiz PENNA]

Humanist Party of Solidarity or PHS [Eduardo MACHADO]

Labor Party of Brazil or PTdoB [Luis Henrique de Oliveira RESENDE]

National Ecologic Party or PEN [Adilson Barroso OLIVEIRA]

National Labor Party or PTN [Jose Masci de ABREU]

National Mobilization Party or PMN [Telma RIBEIRO dos Santos]

Party of the Republic or PR [Alfredo NASCIMENTO]

Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Roberto Joao Pereira FREIRE]

Progressive Party or PP [Ciro NOGUEIRA]

Progressive Republican Party or PRP [Ovasco Roma Altimari RESENDE]

Republican Social Order Party or PROS [Euripedes JUNIOR]

Social Christian Party or PSC [Vitor Jorge Abdala NOSSEIS]

Social Democratic Party or PSD [Guilherme CAMPOS]

Social Liberal Party or PSL [Luciano Caldas BIVAR]

Socialism and Freedom Party or PSOL [Luiz ARAUJO]

Solidarity or SD [Paulo PEREIRA DA SILVA]

United Socialist Workers' Party or PSTU [Jose Maria DE ALMEIDA]

Workers' Cause Party or PCO [Rui Costa PIMENTA]

Workers' Party or PT [Rui FALCAO]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Landless Workers' Movement or MST

other: industrial federations; labor unions and federations; large farmers' associations; religious groups including evangelical Christian churches and the Catholic Church

International organization participation

AfDB (nonregional member), BIS, BRICS, CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, CPLP, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, LAS (observer), Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OECD (Enhanced Engagement, OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Flag description

green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress); the current flag was inspired by the banner of the former Empire of Brazil (1822-1889); on the imperial flag, the green represented the House of Braganza of Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil, while the yellow stood for the Habsburg Family of his wife; on the modern flag the green represents the forests of the country and the yellow rhombus its mineral wealth (the diamond shape roughly mirrors that of the country); the blue circle and stars, which replaced the coat of arms of the original flag, depict the sky over Rio de Janeiro on the morning of 15 November 1889 - the day the Republic of Brazil was declared; the number of stars has changed with the creation of new states and has risen from an original 21 to the current 27 (one for each state and the Federal District)

note: one of several flags where a prominent component of the design reflects the shape of the country; other such flags are those of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Eritrea, and Vanuatu

National symbol(s)

Southern Cross constellation; national colors: green, yellow, blue

National anthem

name: "Hino Nacional Brasileiro" (Brazilian National Anthem)

lyrics/music: Joaquim Osorio Duque ESTRADA/Francisco Manoel DA SILVA

note: music adopted 1890, lyrics adopted 1922; the anthem's music, composed in 1822, was used unofficially for many years before it was adopted

Economy

Economy - overview

Characterized by large and well-developed agricultural, mining, manufacturing, and service sectors, and a rapidly expanding middle class, Brazil's economy outweighs that of all other South American countries, and Brazil is expanding its presence in world markets. Since 2003, Brazil has steadily improved its macroeconomic stability, building up foreign reserves, and reducing its debt profile by shifting its debt burden toward real denominated and domestically held instruments. Since 2008, Brazil became a net external creditor and all three of the major ratings agencies awarded investment grade status to its debt.

After strong growth in 2007 and 2008, the onset of the global financial crisis hit Brazil in 2008. Brazil experienced two quarters of recession, as global demand for Brazil's commodity-based exports dwindled and external credit dried up. However, Brazil was one of the first emerging markets to begin a recovery. In 2010, consumer and investor confidence revived and GDP growth reached 7.5%, the highest growth rate in the past 25 years. GDP growth has slowed since 2011, due to several factors, including: overdependence on exports of raw commodities, low productivity, high operational costs, persistently high inflation, and low levels of investment. After reaching historic lows of 4.8% in 2014, the unemployment rate remains low, but is rising. Brazil's traditionally high level of income inequality has declined for each of the last 15 years.

Brazil’s fiscal and current account balances have eroded during the past four years as the government attempted to boost economic growth through targeted tax cuts for industry and incentives to spur household consumption. After winning reelection in October 2014 by a historically narrow margin, President Dilma ROUSSEFF appointed a new economic team led by Finance Minister Joaquim LEVY, who introduced a fiscal austerity package intended to restore the primary account surplus (before interest expenditures are included) to 1.2% of GDP and preserve the country's investment-grade sovereign credit rating. LEVY encountered political headwinds and an economy facing more challenges than he anticipated. The target for the primary account surplus fell to a deficit of 2%, and two of the three main credit rating agencies downgraded Brazil to “junk” status.

Brazil seeks to strengthen its workforce and its economy over the long run by imposing local content and technology transfer requirements on foreign businesses, by investing in education through social programs such as Bolsa Familia and the Brazil Science Mobility Program, and by investing in research in the areas of space, nanotechnology, healthcare, and energy.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 8/230

$3.166 trillion (2015 est.)

$3.265 trillion (2014 est.)

$3.26 trillion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$1.8 trillion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 211/225

-3% (2015 est.)

0.1% (2014 est.)

2.7% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 101/230

$15,800 (2015 est.)

$15,800 (2014 est.)

$15,700 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 125/179

14% of GDP (2015 est.)

15.6% of GDP (2014 est.)

17.2% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 63.2%

government consumption: 20.7%

investment in fixed capital: 17.6%

investment in inventories: 0%

exports of goods and services: 13.9%

imports of goods and services: -15.4%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 5.9%

industry: 22.2%

services: 71.9%

(2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef

Industries

textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment

Industrial production growth rate 190/202

-5% (2015 est.)

Labor force 6/233

109.2 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 15.7%

industry: 13.3%

services: 71%

(2011 est.)

Unemployment rate 73/207

6.4% (2015 est.)

4.8% (2014 est.)

Population below poverty line

21.4%

note: approximately 4% of the population are below the "extreme" poverty line (2009 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 0.8%

highest 10%: 42.9% (2009 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 17/144

51.9 (2012)

55.3 (2001)

Budget

revenues: $631 billion

expenditures: $641.2 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 60/219

35.1% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 45/220

-0.6% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 49/176

67.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

58.9% of GDP (2014 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 211/226

10.6% (2015 est.)

6.3% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 21/156

10% (31 December 2013)

11% (31 December 2011)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 2/184

42.7% (31 December 2015 est.)

32.01% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 37/192

$90.94 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$132.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 18/193

$928.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$835.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 14/191

$1.699 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)

$2.251 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 13/121

$1.23 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)

$1.229 trillion (31 December 2011)

$1.546 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance 195/197

-$72.8 billion (2015 est.)

-$103.6 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 26/224

$189.1 billion (2015 est.)

$225.1 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

transport equipment, iron ore, soybeans, footwear, coffee, automobiles

Exports - partners

China 19.1%, US 12.6%, Argentina 6.8%, Netherlands 5.3% (2014)

Imports 27/223

$174.2 billion (2015 est.)

$229.2 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery, electrical and transport equipment, chemical products, oil, automotive parts, electronics

Imports - partners

China 18.1%, US 15.3%, Germany 6%, Argentina 6%, Nigeria 4.2% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 10/170

$359.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$363.6 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 21/206

$712.5 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$482.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 13/120

$820.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$755.5 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 21/105

$333.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$313.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

reals (BRL) per US dollar -

3.42 (2015 est.)

2.35 (2014 est.)

2.35 (2013 est.)

1.95 (2012 est.)

1.68 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 10/220

537.6 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 9/219

483.5 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 68/218

467 million kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 4/219

40.33 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 11/214

121.7 million kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 196/214

18.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 32/214

1.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 24/214

69.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 34/212

10.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 13/214

2.255 million bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 22/214

533,300 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - imports 27/214

344,900 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 15/215

15.31 billion bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 8/214

2.554 million bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 6/212

3.003 million bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 36/214

174,700 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 15/213

537,300 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Natural gas - production 31/216

21.08 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 26/215

38.4 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports 45/215

100 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - imports 19/214

19 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 34/212

388.7 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 13/212

500.2 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 6/219

total subscriptions: 44.1 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 22 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 6/217

total: 280.7 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 139 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: good working system including an extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 64 earth stations

domestic: fixed-line connections have remained relatively stable in recent years and stand at about 20 per 100 persons; less-expensive mobile-cellular technology has been a major driver in expanding telephone service to the lower-income segments of the population with mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 120 per 100 persons

international: country code - 55; landing point for a number of submarine cables, including Americas-1, Americas-2, Atlantis-2, GlobeNet, South America-1, South American Crossing/Latin American Nautilus, and UNISUR that provide direct connectivity to South and Central America, the Caribbean, the US, Africa, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region east), connected by microwave relay system to Mercosur Brazilsat B3 satellite earth station (2011)

Broadcast media

state-run Radiobras operates a radio and a TV network; more than 1,000 radio stations and more than 100 TV channels operating - mostly privately owned; private media ownership highly concentrated (2007)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 1,365, FM 296, shortwave 161 (of which 91 are collocated with AM stations) (1999)

Television broadcast stations

138 (1997)

Internet country code

.br

Internet hosts 3/232

26.577 million (2012)

Internet users 6/217

total: 108.2 million

percent of population: 53.4% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 2/236

4,093 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 698

over 3,047 m: 7

2,438 to 3,047 m: 27

1,524 to 2,437 m: 179

914 to 1,523 m: 436

under 914 m: 49 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 3,395

1,524 to 2,437 m: 92

914 to 1,523 m: 1,619

under 914 m: 1,684 (2013)

Heliports

13 (2013)

Pipelines

condensate/gas 251 km; gas 17,312 km; liquid petroleum gas 352 km; oil 4,831 km; refined products 4,722 km (2013)

Railways 10/136

total: 28,538 km

broad gauge: 5,822.3 km 1.600-m gauge (498.3 km electrified)

dual gauge: 492 km 1.600-1.000-m gauge

standard gauge: 194 km 1.435-m gauge

narrow gauge: 23,341.6 km 1.000-m gauge (24 km electrified) (2014)

Roadways 4/223

total: 1,580,964 km

paved: 212,798 km

unpaved: 1,368,166 km

note: does not include urban roads (2010)

Waterways 3/107

50,000 km (most in areas remote from industry and population) (2012)

Merchant marine 50/156

total: 109

by type: bulk carrier 18, cargo 16, chemical tanker 7, container 13, liquefied gas 11, petroleum tanker 39, roll on/roll off 5

foreign-owned: 27 (Chile 1, Denmark 3, Germany 6, Greece 1, Norway 3, Spain 12, Turkey 1)

registered in other countries: 36 (Argentina 1, Bahamas 1, Ghana 1, Liberia 20, Marshall Islands 1, Panama 3, Singapore 9) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Belem, Paranagua, Rio Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Sao Sebastiao, Tubarao

river port(s): Manaus (Amazon)

dry bulk cargo port(s): Sepetiba ore terminal, Tubarao

container ports (TEUs): Santos (2,985,922), Itajai (983,985)(2011)

oil terminal(s): DTSE/Gegua oil terminal, Ilha Grande (Gebig), Guaiba Island terminal, Guamare oil terminal

LNG terminal(s) (import): Pecem, Rio de Janiero

Military and Security

Military branches

Brazilian Army (Exercito Brasileiro, EB), Brazilian Navy (Marinha do Brasil (MB), includes Naval Air and Marine Corps (Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais)), Brazilian Air Force (Forca Aerea Brasileira, FAB) (2011)

Military service age and obligation

18-45 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation is 10-12 months; 17-45 years of age for voluntary service; an increasing percentage of the ranks are "long-service" volunteer professionals; women were allowed to serve in the armed forces beginning in early 1980s when the Brazilian Army became the first army in South America to accept women into career ranks; women serve in Navy and Air Force only in Women's Reserve Corps (2012)

Military expenditures 65/132

1.47% of GDP (2012)

1.49% of GDP (2011)

1.47% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

uncontested boundary dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; smuggling of firearms and narcotics continues to be an issue along the Uruguay-Brazil border; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics and paramilitary activities penetrate Brazil's border region with Venezuela

Illicit drugs

second-largest consumer of cocaine in the world; illicit producer of cannabis; trace amounts of coca cultivation in the Amazon region, used for domestic consumption; government has a large-scale eradication program to control cannabis; important transshipment country for Bolivian, Colombian, and Peruvian cocaine headed for Europe; also used by traffickers as a way station for narcotics air transshipments between Peru and Colombia; upsurge in drug-related violence and weapons smuggling; important market for Colombian, Bolivian, and Peruvian cocaine; illicit narcotics proceeds are often laundered through the financial system; significant illicit financial activity in the Tri-Border Area (2008)