Bulgaria

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The Bulgars, a Central Asian Turkic tribe, merged with the local Slavic inhabitants in the late 7th century to form the first Bulgarian state. In succeeding centuries, Bulgaria struggled with the Byzantine Empire to assert its place in the Balkans, but by the end of the 14th century the country was overrun by the Ottoman Turks. Northern Bulgaria attained autonomy in 1878 and all of Bulgaria became independent from the Ottoman Empire in 1908. Having fought on the losing side in both World Wars, Bulgaria fell within the Soviet sphere of influence and became a People's Republic in 1946. Communist domination ended in 1990, when Bulgaria held its first multiparty election since World War II and began the contentious process of moving toward political democracy and a market economy while combating inflation, unemployment, corruption, and crime. The country joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.

Geography

Location

Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Romania and Turkey

Geographic coordinates

43.00° N, 25.00° E

Area 105/257

total: 110,879 sq km

land: 108,489 sq km

water: 2,390 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries

total: 1,806 km

border countries (5): Greece 472 km, Macedonia 162 km, Romania 605 km, Serbia 344 km, Turkey 223 km

Coastline

354 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate

temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers

Terrain

mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Black Sea 0 m

highest point: Musala 2,925 m

Natural resources

bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 46.9%

arable land 29.9%; permanent crops 1.5%; permanent pasture 15.5%

forest: 36.7%

other: 16.4% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

1,020 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

21.3 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 6.12 cu km/yr (16%/68%/16%)

per capita: 821.8 cu m/yr (2009)

Natural hazards

earthquakes; landslides

Environment - current issues

air pollution from industrial emissions; rivers polluted from raw sewage, heavy metals, detergents; deforestation; forest damage from air pollution and resulting acid rain; soil contamination from heavy metals from metallurgical plants and industrial wastes

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Bulgarian(s)

adjective: Bulgarian

Ethnic groups

Bulgarian 76.9%, Turkish 8%, Roma 4.4%, other 0.7% (including Russian, Armenian, and Vlach), other (unknown) 10% (2011 est.)

Languages

Bulgarian (official) 76.8%, Turkish 8.2%, Roma 3.8%, other 0.7%, unspecified 10.5% (2011 est.)

Religions

Eastern Orthodox 59.4%, Muslim 7.8%, other (including Catholic, Protestant, Armenian Apostolic Orthodox, and Jewish) 1.7%, none 3.7%, unspecified 27.4% (2011 est.)

Population 101/238

7,186,893 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 14.53% (male 538,266/female 505,927)

15-24 years: 9.95% (male 373,340/female 341,507)

25-54 years: 43.35% (male 1,598,130/female 1,517,744)

55-64 years: 13.45% (male 451,841/female 514,696)

65 years and over: 18.72% (male 547,887/female 797,555) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 51.9%

youth dependency ratio: 21.5%

elderly dependency ratio: 30.4%

potential support ratio: 3.3% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 42.1 years

male: 40.2 years

female: 44.2 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 225/233

-0.58% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 210/224

8.92 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 3/225

14.44 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 126/222

-0.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 73.9% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: -0.31% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

SOFIA (capital) 1.226 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.09 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

26.3 (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 152/184

11 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 150/224

total: 8.66 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 9.73 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 7.52 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 120/224

total population: 74.39 years

male: 71.05 years

female: 77.93 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 204/224

1.45 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

69.2%

note: percent of women age 20-49 (2007)

Health expenditures 71/191

7.6% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

3.87 physicians/1,000 population (2012)

Hospital bed density

6.4 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 99.6% of population

rural: 99% of population

total: 99.4% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0.4% of population

rural: 1% of population

total: 0.6% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 86.8% of population

rural: 83.7% of population

total: 86% of population

unimproved:

urban: 13.2% of population

rural: 16.3% of population

total: 14% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths

NA

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 72/191

25.6% (2014)

Education expenditures 108/173

3.8% of GDP (2011)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 14 years

male: 14 years

female: 15 years (2012)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 30/134

total: 28.4%

male: 30.2%

female: 25.7% (2013 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Bulgaria

conventional short form: Bulgaria

local long form: Republika Bulgaria

local short form: Bulgaria

etymology: named after the Bulgar tribes who settled the lower Balkan region in the 7th century A.D.

Government type

parliamentary democracy

Capital

name: Sofia

geographic coordinates: 42.41° N, 23.19° E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

28 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast); Blagoevgrad, Burgas, Dobrich, Gabrovo, Haskovo, Kardzhali, Kyustendil, Lovech, Montana, Pazardzhik, Pernik, Pleven, Plovdiv, Razgrad, Ruse, Shumen, Silistra, Sliven, Smolyan, Sofia, Sofia-Grad (Sofia City), Stara Zagora, Targovishte, Varna, Veliko Tarnovo, Vidin, Vratsa, Yambol

Independence

3 March 1878 (as an autonomous principality within the Ottoman Empire); 22 September 1908 (complete independence from the Ottoman Empire)

National holiday

Liberation Day, 3 March (1878)

Constitution

several previous; latest drafted between late 1990 and early 1991, adopted 12 July 1991; amended several times, last in 2007 (2015)

Legal system

civil law

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Bulgaria

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Rosen PLEVNELIEV (since 22 January 2012); Vice President Margarita POPOVA (since 22 January 2012)

head of government: Prime Minister Boyko BORISOV (since 7 November 2014); Deputy Prime Ministers Tomislav DONCHEV (since 7 November 2014), Rumyana BACHVAROVA (since 7 November 2014), Meglena KUNEVA (since 7 November 2014), Ivaylo KALFIN (since 7 November 2014); note - this is BORISOV's second term as prime minister, he first served between 27 July 2009 and 13 March 2013

cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, elected by the National Assembly

elections/appointments: president and vice president elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 and 30 October 2011 (next to be held in 2016); chairman of the Council of Ministers (prime minister) elected by the National Assembly; deputy prime ministers nominated by the prime minister, elected by the National Assembly

election results: Rosen PLEVNELIEV elected president in runoff election; percent of vote - Rosen PLEVNELIEV (independent) 52.6%, Ivailo KALFIN (BSP) 47.4%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Narodno Sabranie (240 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 5 October 2014 (next to be held in 2018)

election results: percent of vote by party - GERB 32.7%, CfB 15.4%, DPS 14.8%, RB 8.9%, PF 7.3%, BBTs 5.7%, Ataka 4.5%, ABV 4.2%, other 6.5%; seats by party - GERB 84, CfB 39, DPS 38, RB 23, PF 19, BBTs 15, Ataka 11, ABV 11

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Cassation (consists of a chairman and approximately 72 judges organized into penal, civil, and commercial colleges); Supreme Administrative Court (organized in 2 colleges with various panels of 5 judges each); Constitutional Court (consists of 12 justices); note - Constitutional Court resides outside the Judiciary

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court of Cassation and Supreme Administrative judges elected by the Supreme Judicial Council or SJC (consists of 25 members with extensive legal experience) and appointed by the president; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court justices elected by the National Assembly and appointed by the president and the SJC; justices appointed for 9-year terms with renewal of 4 justices every 3 years

subordinate courts: appeals courts; regional and district courts; administrative courts; courts martial

Political parties and leaders

Alternative for Bulgarian Revival or ABV [Georgi PARVANOV]

Attack (Ataka) [Volen Nikolov SIDEROV]

Bulgarian Socialist Party or BSP [Mihail MIKOV]

Bulgaria of the Citizens or DBG [Meglena KUNEVA]

Bulgaria Without Censorship or BBTs [Nikolay BAREKOV]

Citizens for the European Development of Bulgaria or GERB [Boyko BORISOV]

Coalition for Bulgaria or CfB [Mikhail MIKOV] (coalition dominated by BSP)

Democrats for a Strong Bulgaria or DSB [Radan KANEV]

IMRO - Bulgarian National Movement or IMRO-BNM [Krasimir KARAKACHANOV]

Movement for Rights and Freedoms or DPS [Lyutvi MESTAN]

National Front for the Salvation of Bulgaria or NFSB [Valeri SIMEONOV]

National Movement for Stability and Progress or NDSV [Hristina HRISTOVA] (formerly National Movement Simeon II or NMS2)

Patriotic Front or PF (alliance of IMRO-BNM and NFSB)

Union of Democratic Forces or SDS [Bozhidar LUKARSKI]

Reformist Bloc or RB (a five-party alliance including the DSB, DBG, and SDS)

Political pressure groups and leaders

Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria or CITUB

Podkrepa Labor Confederation

other: numerous regional, ethnic, and national interest groups with various agendas

International organization participation

Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EU, FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red; the pan-Slavic white-blue-red colors were modified by substituting a green band (representing freedom) for the blue

note: the national emblem, formerly on the hoist side of the white stripe, has been removed

National symbol(s)

lion; national colors: white, green, red

National anthem

name: "Mila Rodino" (Dear Homeland)

lyrics/music: Tsvetan Tsvetkov RADOSLAVOV

note: adopted 1964; composed in 1885 by a student en route to fight in the Serbo-Bulgarian War

Economy

Economy - overview

Bulgaria, a former Communist country that entered the EU on 1 January 2007, averaged more than 6% annual growth from 2004 to 2008, driven by significant amounts of bank lending, consumption, and foreign direct investment. Successive governments have demonstrated a commitment to economic reforms and responsible fiscal planning, but the global downturn sharply reduced domestic demand, exports, capital inflows, and industrial production. GDP contracted by 5.5% in 2009, and has been slow to recover in the years since. Despite having a favorable investment regime, including low, flat corporate income taxes, significant challenges remain. Corruption in public administration, a weak judiciary, and the presence of organized crime continue to hamper the country's investment climate and economic prospects.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 77/230

$132.6 billion (2015 est.)

$130.4 billion (2014 est.)

$128.2 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$47.17 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 155/225

1.7% (2015 est.)

1.7% (2014 est.)

1.1% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 93/230

$18,400 (2015 est.)

$18,100 (2014 est.)

$17,800 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 64/179

22.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

21.6% of GDP (2014 est.)

23.8% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 63%

government consumption: 16.2%

investment in fixed capital: 21.1%

investment in inventories: 0.1%

exports of goods and services: 66.7%

imports of goods and services: -67.1%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 5.2%

industry: 27.4%

services: 67.4% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

vegetables, fruits, tobacco, wine, wheat, barley, sunflowers, sugar beets; livestock

Industries

electricity, gas, water; food, beverages, tobacco; machinery and equipment, base metals, chemical products, coke, refined petroleum, nuclear fuel

Industrial production growth rate 68/202

3.5% (2015 est.)

Labor force 113/233

2.535 million

note: number of employed persons (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 6.7%

industry: 30.2%

services: 63.1% (2013)

Unemployment rate 115/207

10.2% (2015 est.)

11.2% (2014 est.)

Population below poverty line

21% (2012 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2%

highest 10%: 35.2% (2007)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 89/144

35.4 (2012)

26 (2001)

Budget

revenues: $17.81 billion

expenditures: $19.14 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 50/219

37.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 103/220

-2.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 143/176

29.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

27.1% of GDP (2014 est.)

note:: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the subsectors: central government, state government, local government, and social security funds

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 38/226

0.1% (2015 est.)

-1.4% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 155/156

0.03% (31 December 2014)

0.02% (31 December 2013)

note: Bulgarian National Bank (BNB) has had no independent monetary policy since the introduction of the Currency Board regime in 1997; this is BNB's base interest rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate 114/184

7.5% (31 December 2015 est.)

8.28% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 66/192

$19.39 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$19.34 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 71/193

$46.42 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$47.33 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 73/191

$30.09 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$32.47 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 81/121

$7.232 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$7.014 billion (31 December 2013)

$6.666 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Current account balance 43/197

$459 million (2015 est.)

$25 million (2014 est.)

Exports 67/224

$24.33 billion (2015 est.)

$27.91 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

clothing, footwear, iron and steel, machinery and equipment, fuels

Exports - partners

Germany 12.3%, Italy 9.1%, Turkey 8.9%, Romania 8.1%, Greece 6.8%, France 4.4%, Belgium 4.2% (2014)

Imports 65/223

$27.66 billion (2015 est.)

$31.6 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery and equipment; metals and ores; chemicals and plastics; fuels, minerals, and raw materials

Imports - partners

Russia 14.5%, Germany 12.4%, Italy 7.2%, Romania 6.9%, Turkey 5.6%, Greece 5.2%, Spain 5% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 56/170

$22.75 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$20.11 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 64/206

$49.16 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$51.86 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 59/120

$54.98 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$52.78 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 73/105

$3.26 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$3.01 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

leva (BGN) per US dollar -

1.73 (2015 est.)

1.47 (2014 est.)

1.47 (2013 est.)

1.52 (2012 est.)

1.41 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 56/220

47.21 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - consumption 63/219

28.5 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - exports 22/218

9.532 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 49/219

3.351 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 51/214

12.9 million kW (2013 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 157/214

46% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 13/214

15.5% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 89/214

21% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 16/212

17.5% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Crude oil - production 93/214

1,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 105/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - imports 40/214

128,100 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 86/215

15 million bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 65/214

138,500 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 80/212

89,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 47/214

85,890 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 88/213

37,280 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Natural gas - production 75/216

278 million cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 73/215

2.975 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports 71/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports 45/214

2.697 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 91/212

5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 65/212

44.51 million Mt (2013 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 64/219

total subscriptions: 1.8 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 25 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 87/217

total: 9.9 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 137 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: inherited an extensive but antiquated telecommunications network from the Soviet era; quality has improved with a modern digital trunk line now connecting switching centers in most of the regions; remaining areas are connected by digital microwave radio relay

domestic: the Bulgaria Telecommunications Company's fixed-line monopoly terminated in 2005 in an effort to upgrade fixed-line services; mobile-cellular teledensity, fostered by multiple service providers, has reached 150 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 359; submarine cable provides connectivity to Ukraine and Russia; a combination submarine cable and land fiber-optic system provides connectivity to Italy, Albania, and Macedonia; satellite earth stations - 3 (1 Intersputnik in the Atlantic Ocean region, 2 Intelsat in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions) (2011)

Broadcast media

4 national terrestrial TV stations with 1 state-owned and 3 privately owned; a vast array of TV stations are available from cable and satellite TV providers; state-owned national radio broadcasts over 3 networks; large number of private radio stations broadcasting, especially in urban areas (2010)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 31, FM 63, shortwave 2 (2001)

Television broadcast stations

39 (plus 1,242 repeaters) (2001)

Internet country code

.bg

Internet hosts 47/232

976,277 (2012)

Internet users 75/217

total: 4.1 million

percent of population: 57.0% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 73/236

68 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 57

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 17

1,524 to 2,437 m: 12

under 914 m: 26 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 11

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 9 (2013)

Heliports

1 (2013)

Pipelines

gas 2,887 km; oil 346 km; refined products 378 km (2013)

Railways 41/136

total: 5,114 km

standard gauge: 4,989 km 1.435-m gauge (2,880 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 125 km 0.760-m gauge (2014)

Roadways 111/223

total: 19,512 km

paved: 19,235 km (includes 458 km of expressways)

unpaved: 277 km

note: does not include Category IV local roads (2011)

Waterways 83/107

470 km (2009)

Merchant marine 93/156

total: 22

by type: bulk carrier 9, cargo 8, liquefied gas 2, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 2

foreign-owned: 14 (Germany 12, Russia 2)

registered in other countries: 30 (Belize 1, Comoros 4, Georgia 1, Malta 8, Moldova 1, Panama 6, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 9) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Burgas, Varna (Black Sea)

Military and Security

Military branches

Bulgarian Armed Forces: Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Bulgarian Air Forces (Bulgarski Voennovazdyshni Sily, BVVS) (2011)

Military service age and obligation

18-27 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription ended in January 2008; service obligation 6-9 months (2012)

Military expenditures 66/132

1.2% of GDP (2015)

1.6% of GDP (2013)

1.46% of GDP (2012)

1.55% of GDP (2011)

1.46% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 8,501 (Syria) (2014)

stateless persons: 67 (2014)

note: 31,834 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2016)

Illicit drugs

major European transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and, to a lesser degree, South American cocaine for the European market; limited producer of precursor chemicals; vulnerable to money laundering because of corruption, organized crime; some money laundering of drug-related proceeds through financial institutions (2008)