Cambodia

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Most Cambodians consider themselves to be Khmers, descendants of the Angkor Empire that extended over much of Southeast Asia and reached its zenith between the 10th and 13th centuries. Attacks by the Thai and Cham (from present-day Vietnam) weakened the empire, ushering in a long period of decline. The king placed the country under French protection in 1863, and it became part of French Indochina in 1887. Following Japanese occupation in World War II, Cambodia gained full independence from France in 1953. In April 1975, after a five-year struggle, communist Khmer Rouge forces captured Phnom Penh and evacuated all cities and towns. At least 1.5 million Cambodians died from execution, forced hardships, or starvation during the Khmer Rouge regime under POL POT. A December 1978 Vietnamese invasion drove the Khmer Rouge into the countryside, began a 10-year Vietnamese occupation, and touched off almost 13 years of civil war.

The 1991 Paris Peace Accords mandated democratic elections and a cease-fire, which was not fully respected by the Khmer Rouge. UN-sponsored elections in 1993 helped restore some semblance of normalcy under a coalition government. Factional fighting in 1997 ended the first coalition government, but a second round of national elections in 1998 led to the formation of another coalition government and renewed political stability. The remaining elements of the Khmer Rouge surrendered in early 1999. Some of the surviving Khmer Rouge leaders have been tried or are awaiting trial for crimes against humanity by a hybrid UN-Cambodian tribunal supported by international assistance. Elections in July 2003 were relatively peaceful, but it took one year of negotiations between contending political parties before a coalition government was formed. In October 2004, King Norodom SIHANOUK abdicated the throne and his son, Prince Norodom SIHAMONI, was selected to succeed him. The most recent local (Commune Council) elections were held in Cambodia in 2012, with little of the preelection violence that preceded prior elections. National elections in July 2013 were disputed, with the opposition - the Cambodian National Rescue Party (CNRP) - boycotting the National Assembly. The political impasse was ended nearly a year later, with the CNRP agreeing to enter parliament in exchange for ruling party commitments to electoral and legislative reforms.

Geography

Location

Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos

Geographic coordinates

13.00° N, 105.00° E

Area 90/257

total: 181,035 sq km

land: 176,515 sq km

water: 4,520 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Oklahoma

Land boundaries

total: 2,530 km

border countries (3): Laos 555 km, Thailand 817 km, Vietnam 1,158 km

Coastline

443 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm

Climate

tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain

mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m

highest point: Phnum Aoral 1,810 m

Natural resources

oil and gas, timber, gemstones, iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower potential, arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 32.1%

arable land 22.7%; permanent crops 0.9%; permanent pasture 8.5%

forest: 56.5%

other: 11.4% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

3,540 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

476.1 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 2.18 cu km/yr (4%/2%/94%)

per capita: 159.8 cu m/yr (2006)

Natural hazards

monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding; occasional droughts

Environment - current issues

illegal logging activities throughout the country and strip mining for gems in the western region along the border with Thailand have resulted in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural fisheries); soil erosion; in rural areas, most of the population does not have access to potable water; declining fish stocks because of illegal fishing and overfishing

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note

a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and Tonle Sap (Southeast Asia's largest freshwater lake)

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Cambodian(s)

adjective: Cambodian

Ethnic groups

Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%

Languages

Khmer (official) 96.3%, other 3.7% (2008 est.)

Religions

Buddhist (official) 96.9%, Muslim 1.9%, Christian 0.4%, other 0.8% (2008 est.)

Population 69/238

15,708,756

note: estimates for this country take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 31.43% (male 2,489,964/female 2,447,645)

15-24 years: 19.71% (male 1,532,016/female 1,564,240)

25-54 years: 39.61% (male 3,043,676/female 3,178,825)

55-64 years: 5.2% (male 315,741/female 501,544)

65 years and over: 4.04% (male 238,840/female 396,265) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 55.6%

youth dependency ratio: 49.2%

elderly dependency ratio: 6.4%

potential support ratio: 15.6% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 24.5 years

male: 23.8 years

female: 25.2 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 76/233

1.58% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 61/224

23.83 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 108/225

7.68 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 129/222

-0.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 20.7% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 2.65% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

PHNOM PENH (capital) 1.731 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.63 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

22.8

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 45/184

161 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 36/224

total: 50.04 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 56.69 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 43.11 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 180/224

total population: 64.14 years

male: 61.69 years

female: 66.7 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 75/224

2.6 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

50.5% (2010/11)

Health expenditures 127/191

7.5% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

0.17 physicians/1,000 population (2012)

Hospital bed density

0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 100% of population

rural: 69.1% of population

total: 75.5% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0% of population

rural: 30.9% of population

total: 24.5% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 88.1% of population

rural: 30.5% of population

total: 42.4% of population

unimproved:

urban: 11.9% of population

rural: 69.5% of population

total: 57.6% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.64% (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

74,600 (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

2,600 (2014 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 183/191

2.9% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight 18/138

29% (2011)

Education expenditures 152/173

2.6% of GDP (2010)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 11 years

male: 12 years

female: 10 years (2008)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 130/134

total: 0.5%

male: 0.7%

female: 0.4% (2010 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Kingdom of Cambodia

conventional short form: Cambodia

local long form: Preahreacheanachakr Kampuchea (phonetic pronunciation)

local short form: Kampuchea

former: Khmer Republic, Democratic Kampuchea, People's Republic of Kampuchea, State of Cambodia

etymology: the English name Cambodia is an anglicization of the French Cambodge, which is the French trasliteration of the native name Kampuchea

Government type

multiparty democracy under a constitutional monarchy

Capital

name: Phnom Penh

geographic coordinates: 11.33° N, 104.55° E

time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

24 provinces (khett, singular and plural) and 1 municipality (krong, singular and plural)

provinces: Banteay Meanchey, Battambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Speu, Kampong Thom, Kampot, Kandal, Kep, Koh Kong, Kratie, Mondolkiri, Oddar Meanchey, Pailin, Preah Vihear, Prey Veng, Pursat, Ratanakiri, Siem Reap, Sihanoukville, Stung Treng, Svay Rieng, Takeo, Tbong Khmum

municipalities: Phnom Penh (Phnum Penh)

Independence

9 November 1953 (from France)

National holiday

Independence Day, 9 November (1953)

Constitution

previous 1947; latest promulgated 21 September 1993; amended 1999, 2008, last in 2014 (2015)

Legal system

civil law system (influenced by the UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia) customary law, Communist legal theory, and common law

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Cambodia

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: King Norodom SIHAMONI (since 29 October 2004)

head of government: Prime Minister HUN SEN (since 14 January 1985); Permanent Deputy Prime Minister MEN SAM AN (since 25 September 2008); Deputy Prime Ministers SAR KHENG (since 3 February 1992), SOK AN, TEA BANH, HOR NAMHONG (all since 16 July 2004), BIN CHHIN (since 5 September 2007), KEAT CHHON, YIM CHHAI LY (since 24 September 2008), KE KIMYAN (since 12 March 2009)

cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch

elections/appointments: monarch chosen by the 9-member, Royal Council of the Throne from among all eligible males of royal descent; following legislative elections, a member of the majority party or majority coalition named prime minister by the Chairman of the National Assembly and appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament of Cambodia consists of the Senate (61 seats; 57 indirectly elected by parliamentarians and commune councils, 2 indirectly elected by the National Assembly, and 2 appointed by the monarch; members serve 6-year terms) and the National Assembly (123 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)

note: two seats will be added to the National Assembly in 2018, for a total of 125

elections: Senate - last held on 4 February 2012 (next to be held in February 2018); National Assembly - last held on 28 July 2013 (next to be held in July 2018)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - CPP 77.8%, SRP 22.2%; seats by party - CPP 46, SRP 11; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - CPP 48.8%, CNRP 44.5%, FUNCINPEC 3.7%, other 3.1%; seats by party - CPP 68, CNRP 55

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (organized into 5- and 9-judge panels and includes a court chief and deputy chief); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members); note - in 1997, the Cambodian Government requested UN assistance in establishing trials to prosecute former Khmer Rouge senior leaders for crimes against humanity committed during the 1975-1979 Khmer Rouge regime; the Extraordinary Chambers of the Courts in Cambodia were established and began hearings for the first case in 2009

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judge candidates recommended by the Supreme Council of Magistracy, a 9-member body chaired by the monarch and includes other high-level judicial officers; judges of both courts appointed by the monarch; Supreme Court judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed for 9-year terms with one-third of the court renewed every 3 years

subordinate courts: municipal and provincial courts; appellate courts; military court

Political parties and leaders

Cambodian National Rescue Party or CNRP [SAM RANGSI, also spelled SAM RAINSY] (a July 2012 merger between the Sam Rangsi Party or SRP and the former Human Rights Party or HRP [KHEM SOKHA, also spelled KEM SOKHA])

Cambodian People's Party or CPP [HUN SEN]

National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia or FUNCINPEC [NORODOM RANARIDDH]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Partnership for Transparency Fund or PTF (anti-corruption organization)

Students Movement for Democracy

The Committee for Free and Fair Elections or Comfrel

other: human rights organizations; vendors

International organization participation

ADB, ARF, ASEAN, CICA, CICA (observer), EAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MINUSMA, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Flag description

three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (double width), and blue with a white three-towered temple representing Angkor Wat outlined in black in the center of the red band; red and blue are traditional Cambodian colors

note: only national flag to incorporate an actual building into its design

National symbol(s)

Angkor Wat temple, kouprey (wild ox); national colors: red, blue

National anthem

name: "Nokoreach" (Royal Kingdom)

lyrics/music: CHUON NAT/F. PERRUCHOT and J. JEKYLL

note: adopted 1941, restored 1993; the anthem, based on a Cambodian folk tune, was restored after the defeat of the Communist regime

Economy

Economy - overview

Cambodia has experienced strong economic growth over the last decade. Cambodian GDP grew at an average annual rate of over 8% between 2000 and 2010 and at least 7% since 2011. The tourism, garment, construction and real estate, and agriculture sectors accounted for the bulk of growth. Around 600,000 people, the majority of whom are women, are employed in the garment and footwear sector. An additional 500,000 Cambodians are employed in the tourism sector, and a further 50,000 people in construction. The tourism industry has continued to grow rapidly with foreign arrivals exceeding 2 million per year since 2007 and reaching around 4.5 million visitors in 2014. Mining also is attracting some investor interest and the government has touted opportunities for mining bauxite, gold, iron and gems.

Cambodia remains one of the poorest countries in Asia and long-term economic development remains a daunting challenge, inhibited by endemic corruption, limited educational opportunities, high income inequality, and poor job prospects. As of 2012, approximately 2.66 million people live on less than $1.20 per day, and 37% of Cambodian children under the age of 5 suffer from chronic malnutrition. More than 50% of the population is less than 25 years old. The population lacks education and productive skills, particularly in the impoverished countryside, which also lacks basic infrastructure.

The Cambodian Government has been working with bilateral and multilateral donors, including the Asian Development Bank, the World Bank and IMF, to address the country's many pressing needs; more than 30% of the government budget comes from donor assistance. A major economic challenge for Cambodia over the next decade will be fashioning an economic environment in which the private sector can create enough jobs to handle Cambodia's demographic imbalance. The government is moving forward with new legislation to meet requirements for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Economic Community.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 107/230

$54.17 billion (2015 est.)

$50.65 billion (2014 est.)

$47.34 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$17.71 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 15/225

7% (2015 est.)

7% (2014 est.)

7.4% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 179/230

$3,500 (2015 est.)

$3,300 (2014 est.)

$3,100 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 141/179

11.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

11% of GDP (2014 est.)

11.3% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 76.6%

government consumption: 5.5%

investment in fixed capital: 21.8%

investment in inventories: 1%

exports of goods and services: 63.2%

imports of goods and services: -68.1%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 28.6%

industry: 27.9%

services: 43.6% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

rice, rubber, corn, vegetables, cashews, cassava (manioc, tapioca), silk

Industries

tourism, garments, construction, rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, gem mining, textiles

Industrial production growth rate 7/202

9.6% (2015 est.)

Labor force 61/233

7.974 million (2013 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 48.7%

industry: 19.9%

services: 31.5% (2013 est.)

Unemployment rate 1/207

0.3% (2013 est.)

0.2% (2012 est.)

Population below poverty line

17.7% (2012 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2%

highest 10%: 28% (2013 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 73/144

37.9 (2008 est.)

41.9 (2004 est.)

Budget

revenues: $3.334 billion

expenditures: $3.734 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 169/219

18.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 79/220

-2.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 129/176

33.9% of GDP (2014 est.)

33.4% of GDP (2013 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 81/226

1.4% (2015 est.)

3.9% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate

NA% (31 December 2012)

5.25% (31 December 2007)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 69/184

11.7% (31 December 2015 est.)

12.31% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 135/192

$1.655 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$1.482 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 105/193

$11.82 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$10.47 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 102/191

$9.903 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$7.842 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares

$NA

Current account balance 145/197

-$1.971 billion (2015 est.)

-$2.027 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 98/224

$7.867 billion (2015 est.)

$7.407 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

clothing, timber, rubber, rice, fish, tobacco, footwear

Exports - partners

US 24.1%, UK 8.7%, Germany 8.1%, Canada 7%, Japan 6.5%, Vietnam 5.3%, Thailand 5%, Netherlands 4.6%, China 4.1% (2014)

Imports 95/223

$10.65 billion (2015 est.)

$10.62 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

petroleum products, cigarettes, gold, construction materials, machinery, motor vehicles, pharmaceutical products

Imports - partners

Thailand 28.1%, China 20.6%, Vietnam 16.8%, Singapore 7%, Hong Kong 5.7%, South Korea 4.1% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 86/170

$7.091 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$6.106 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 116/206

$7.222 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$6.427 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 72/120

$29.17 billion (2014 est.)

Exchange rates

riels (KHR) per US dollar -

4,080.3 (2015 est.)

4,037.5 (2014 est.)

4,037.5 (2013 est.)

4,033 (2012 est.)

4,058.5 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 143/220

1.77 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - consumption 128/219

3.553 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - exports 115/218

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 56/219

2.282 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 124/214

949,000 kW (2013 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 176/214

32.7% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 62/214

0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 38/214

57.4% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 37/212

10% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Crude oil - production 116/214

0 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 107/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - imports 169/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 114/215

0 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 164/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 117/212

28,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 163/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 98/213

28,890 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Natural gas - production 166/216

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 125/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports 73/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports 172/214

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 120/212

0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 117/212

6.5 million Mt (2013 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 99/219

total subscriptions: 440,000

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 48/217

total: 23.9 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 155 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: adequate fixed-line and/or cellular service in Phnom Penh and other provincial cities; mobile-cellular phone systems are widely used in urban areas to bypass deficiencies in the fixed-line network; mobile-phone coverage is rapidly expanding in rural areas

domestic: fixed-line connections stand at about 4 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage, aided by competition among service providers, is increasing rapidly and stands at 92 per 100 persons

international: country code - 855; adequate but expensive landline and cellular service available to all countries from Phnom Penh and major provincial cities; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region) (2011)

Broadcast media

mixture of state-owned, joint public-private, and privately owned broadcast media; 9 TV broadcast stations with most operating on multiple channels, including 1 state-operated station broadcasting from multiple locations, 6 stations either jointly operated or privately owned with some broadcasting from several locations, and 2 TV relay stations - one relaying a French TV station and the other relaying a Vietnamese TV station; multi-channel cable and satellite systems are available; roughly 50 radio broadcast stations - 1 state-owned broadcaster with multiple stations and a large mixture of public and private broadcasters; several international broadcasters are available (2009)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 1, FM 50, shortwave NA (2008)

Television broadcast stations

9 (2009)

Internet country code

.kh

Internet hosts 129/232

13,784 (2012)

Internet users 124/217

total: 831,700

percent of population: 5.4% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 142/236

16 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 6

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 10

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 7

under 914 m: 1 (2013)

Heliports

1 (2013)

Railways 102/136

total: 642 km

narrow gauge: 642 km 1.000-m gauge

note: under restoration (2014)

Roadways 88/223

total: 44,709 km

paved: 3,607 km

unpaved: 41,102 km (2010)

Waterways 28/107

3,700 km (mainly on Mekong River) (2012)

Merchant marine 21/156

total: 544

by type: bulk carrier 38, cargo 459, carrier 7, chemical tanker 4, container 4, liquefied gas 1, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 6, petroleum tanker 8, refrigerated cargo 11, roll on/roll off 4, vehicle carrier 1

foreign-owned: 352 (Belgium 1, Canada 2, China 177, Cyprus 4, Egypt 4, Estonia 1, French Polynesia 1, Gabon 1, Greece 2, Hong Kong 10, Indonesia 2, Ireland 1, Japan 1, Lebanon 5, Russia 50, Singapore 3, South Korea 10, Syria 22, Taiwan 1, Turkey 15, UAE 2, UK 1, Ukraine 35, Vietnam 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Sihanoukville (Kampong Saom)

river port(s): Phnom Penh (Mekong)

Military and Security

Military branches

Royal Cambodian Armed Forces: Royal Cambodian Army, Royal Khmer Navy, Royal Cambodian Air Force (2013)

Military service age and obligation

18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory and voluntary military service (2012)

Military expenditures 60/132

2% of GDP (2015 est.)

1.8% of GDP (2014)

1.58% of GDP (2013)

1.54% of GDP (2012)

1.5% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Cambodia is concerned about Laos' extensive upstream dam construction; Cambodia and Thailand dispute sections of boundary; in 2011 Thailand and Cambodia resorted to arms in the dispute over the location of the boundary on the precipice surmounted by Preah Vihear Temple ruins, awarded to Cambodia by ICJ decision in 1962 and part of a UN World Heritage site; Cambodia accuses Vietnam of a wide variety of illicit cross-border activities; progress on a joint development area with Vietnam is hampered by an unresolved dispute over sovereignty of offshore islands

Illicit drugs

narcotics-related corruption reportedly involving some in the government, military, and police; limited methamphetamine production; vulnerable to money laundering due to its cash-based economy and porous borders