Canada

WorldABC.xyz: facts on every entity in the world

A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867, while retaining ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically, the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across the world's longest unfortified border. Canada faces the political challenges of meeting public demands for quality improvements in health care, education, social services, and economic competitiveness, as well as responding to the particular concerns of predominantly francophone Quebec. Canada also aims to develop its diverse energy resources while maintaining its commitment to the environment.

Geography

Location

Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the east, North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the north, north of the conterminous US

Geographic coordinates

60.00° N, 95.00° W

Area 2/257

total: 9,984,670 sq km

land: 9,093,507 sq km

water: 891,163 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly larger than the US

Land boundaries

total: 8,893 km

border countries (1): US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)

note: Canada is the world's largest country that borders only one country

Coastline

202,080 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate

varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north

Terrain

mostly plains with mountains in west, lowlands in southeast

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m

Natural resources

iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, rare earth elements, molybdenum, potash, diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 6.8%

arable land 4.7%; permanent crops 0.5%; permanent pasture 1.6%

forest: 34.1%

other: 59.1% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

8,700 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

2,902 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 42.2 cu km/yr (20%/70%/10%)

per capita: 1,589 cu m/yr (2010)

Natural hazards

continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow east of the mountains

volcanism: the vast majority of volcanoes in Western Canada's Coast Mountains remain dormant

Environment - current issues

metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity; air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note

second-largest country in world (after Russia) and largest in the Americas; strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; approximately 90% of the population is concentrated within 160 km (100 mi) of the US border; Canada has more fresh water than any other country and almost 9% of Canadian territory is water; Canada has at least 2 million and possibly over 3 million lakes - that is more than all other countries combined

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Canadian(s)

adjective: Canadian

Ethnic groups

Canadian 32.2%, English 19.8%, French 15.5%, Scottish 14.4%, Irish 13.8%, German 9.8%, Italian 4.5%, Chinese 4.5%, North American Indian 4.2%, other 50.9%

note: percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify more than one ethnic origin (2011 est.)

Languages

English (official) 58.7%, French (official) 22%, Punjabi 1.4%, Italian 1.3%, Spanish 1.3%, German 1.3%, Cantonese 1.2%, Tagalog 1.2%, Arabic 1.1%, other 10.5% (2011 est.)

Religions

Catholic 40.6% (includes Roman Catholic 38.8%, Orthodox 1.6%, other Catholic .2%), Protestant 20.3% (includes United Church 6.1%, Anglican 5%, Baptist 1.9%, Lutheran 1.5%, Pentecostal 1.5%, Presbyterian 1.4%, other Protestant 2.9%), other Christian 6.3%, Muslim 3.2%, Hindu 1.5%, Sikh 1.4%, Buddhist 1.1%, Jewish 1%, other 0.6%, none 23.9% (2011 est.)

Population 39/238

35,099,836 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 15.46% (male 2,781,043/female 2,644,008)

15-24 years: 12.39% (male 2,236,425/female 2,111,681)

25-54 years: 40.69% (male 7,239,027/female 7,041,886)

55-64 years: 13.74% (male 2,389,423/female 2,433,621)

65 years and over: 17.73% (male 2,766,909/female 3,455,813) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 47.3%

youth dependency ratio: 23.5%

elderly dependency ratio: 23.8%

potential support ratio: 4.2% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 41.8 years

male: 40.6 years

female: 43.1 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 146/233

0.75% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 190/224

10.28 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 81/225

8.42 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 22/222

5.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 81.8% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 1.22% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

Toronto 5.993 million; Montreal 3.981 million; Vancouver 2.485 million; Calgary 1.337 million; OTTAWA (capital) 1.326 million; Edmonton 1.272 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

28.1 (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 147/184

7 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 179/224

total: 4.65 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 4.97 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 4.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 18/224

total population: 81.76 years

male: 79.15 years

female: 84.52 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 184/224

1.59 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Health expenditures 15/191

10.9% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

2.07 physicians/1,000 population (2010)

Hospital bed density

2.7 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 100% of population

rural: 99% of population

total: 99.8% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0% of population

rural: 1% of population

total: 0.2% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 100% of population

rural: 99% of population

total: 99.8% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0% of population

rural: 1% of population

total: 0.2% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths

fewer than 400 (2013 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 48/191

30.1% (2014)

Education expenditures 62/173

5.3% of GDP (2011)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 81/134

total: 13.5%

male: 15%

female: 11.9% (2014 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Canada

etymology: the country name is derived from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word "kanata" meaning village or settlement

Government type

a parliamentary democracy, a federation, and a constitutional monarchy

Capital

name: Ottawa

geographic coordinates: 45.25° N, 75.42° W

time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November

note: Canada has six time zones

Administrative divisions

10 provinces and 3 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Nunavut*, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon*

Independence

1 July 1867 (union of British North American colonies); 11 December 1931 (recognized by UK per Statute of Westminster)

National holiday

Canada Day, 1 July (1867)

Constitution

made up of unwritten and written acts, customs, judicial decisions, and traditions dating from 1763; the written part of the constitution consists of the Constitution Act of 29 March 1867, which created a federation of four provinces, and the Constitution Act of 17 April 1982; several amendments to the 1982 Constitution Act, last in 2011 (2015)

Legal system

common law system except in Quebec, where civil law based on the French civil code prevails

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent: yes

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

head of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General David JOHNSTON (since 1 October 2010)

head of government: Prime Minister Justin Pierre James TRUDEAU (Liberal Party) (since 4 November 2015)

cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister usually from among members of his own party sitting in Parliament

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a 5-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition in the House of Commons generally designated prime minister by the governor general

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (105 seats; members appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister and can serve until age 75) and the House of Commons or Chambre des Communes (338 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve a maximum of 4-year terms)

elections: House of Commons - last held on 19 October 2015 (next to be held in 2019)

election results: House of Commons - percent of vote by party - Liberal Party 39.5%, Conservative Party 31.9%, NDP 19.7%, Bloc Quebecois 4.7%, Greens 3.4%, other .8%; seats by party - Liberal Party 184, Conservative Party 99, NDP 44, Bloc Quebecois 10, Greens 1

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Canada (consists of the chief justice and 8 judges); note - in 1949, Canada abolished all appeals beyond its Supreme Court to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London)

judge selection and term of office: chief justice and judges appointed by the prime minister in council; all judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 75

subordinate courts: federal level: Federal Court of Appeal; Federal Court; Tax Court; federal administrative tribunals; courts martial; provincial/territorial: provincial superior, appeals, first instance, and specialized courts; in 1999, the Nunavut Court - a circuit court with the power of a superior court and the territorial courts - was established to serve isolated settlements

Political parties and leaders

Bloc Quebecois [Rheal FORTIN (interim leader)]

Conservative Party of Canada or CPC [Rona AMBROSE (interim leader)]

Green Party [Elizabeth MAY]

Liberal Party [Justin TRUDEAU]

New Democratic Party or NDP [Thomas MULCAIR]

Political pressure groups and leaders

other: agricultural sector; automobile industry; business groups; chemical industry; commercial banks; communications sector; energy industry; environmentalists; public administration groups; steel industry; trade unions

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CD, CDB, CE (observer), EAPC, EBRD, EITI (implementing country), FAO, FATF, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAFTA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Flag description

two vertical bands of red (hoist and fly side, half width) with white square between them; an 11-pointed red maple leaf is centered in the white square; the maple leaf has long been a Canadian symbol

National symbol(s)

maple leaf, beaver; national colors: red, white

National anthem

name: "O Canada"

lyrics/music: Adolphe-Basile ROUTHIER [French], Robert Stanley WEIR [English]/Calixa LAVALLEE

note: adopted 1980; originally written in 1880, "O Canada" served as an unofficial anthem many years before its official adoption; the anthem has French and English versions whose lyrics differ; as a Commonwealth realm, in addition to the national anthem, "God Save the Queen" serves as the royal anthem (see United Kingdom)

Economy

Economy - overview

As a high-tech industrial society in the trillion-dollar class, Canada resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and high living standards. Since World War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. The 1989 US-Canada Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (which includes Mexico) touched off a dramatic increase in trade and economic integration with the US, its principal trading partner. Canada enjoys a substantial trade surplus with the US, which absorbs about three-fourths of Canadian merchandise exports each year. Canada is the US's largest foreign supplier of energy, including oil, gas, and electric power, and a top source of US uranium imports. Given its abundant natural resources, highly skilled labor force, and modern capital plant, Canada enjoyed solid economic growth from 1993 through 2007. Buffeted by the global economic crisis, the economy dropped into a sharp recession in the final months of 2008, and Ottawa posted its first fiscal deficit in 2009 after 12 years of surplus. Canada's major banks, however, emerged from the financial crisis of 2008-09 among the strongest in the world, owing to the early intervention by the Bank of Canada and the financial sector's tradition of conservative lending practices and strong capitalization. Canada achieved marginal growth in 2010-14 and plans to balance the budget by 2015 despite the recent drop in oil prices. In addition, the country's petroleum sector is rapidly expanding, because Alberta's oil sands significantly boosted Canada's proven oil reserves. Canada now ranks third in the world in proved oil reserves behind Saudi Arabia and Venezuela and is the world’s fifth-largest oil producer.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 17/230

$1.628 trillion (2015 est.)

$1.612 trillion (2014 est.)

$1.573 trillion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$1.573 trillion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 178/225

1% (2015 est.)

2.4% (2014 est.)

2% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 32/230

$45,900 (2015 est.)

$45,400 (2014 est.)

$44,300 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 79/179

21% of GDP (2015 est.)

21.9% of GDP (2014 est.)

21.5% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 56.7%

government consumption: 21%

investment in fixed capital: 23.3%

investment in inventories: 0.3%

exports of goods and services: 32.2%

imports of goods and services: -33.5%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 1.6%

industry: 28.9%

services: 70.5% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; fish; forest products

Industries

transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, fish products, petroleum, natural gas

Industrial production growth rate 106/202

2.3% (2015 est.)

Labor force 32/233

19.3 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 2%

manufacturing: 13%

construction: 6%

services: 76%

other: 3% (2006 est.)

Unemployment rate 78/207

6.9% (2015 est.)

6.9% (2014 est.)

Population below poverty line

9.4%

note: this figure is the Low Income Cut-Off (LICO), a calculation that results in higher figures than found in many comparable economies; Canada does not have an official poverty line (2008 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.6%

highest 10%: 24.8% (2000)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 110/144

32.1 (2005)

31.5 (1994)

Budget

revenues: $585 billion

expenditures: $614.1 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 51/219

37.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 67/220

-1.9% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 20/176

95.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

94.8% of GDP (2014 est.)

note: figures are for gross general government debt, as opposed to net federal debt; gross general government debt includes both intragovernmental debt and the debt of public entities at the sub-national level

Fiscal year

1 April - 31 March

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 74/226

1.2% (2015 est.)

1.9% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 124/156

1% (31 December 2010)

0.25% (31 December 2009)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 172/184

2.7% (31 December 2015 est.)

3% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 9/192

$579.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$629.6 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 13/193

$1.486 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)

$1.47 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 9/191

$2.714 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)

$2.97 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 7/121

$2.016 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)

$1.907 trillion (31 December 2011)

$2.16 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance 193/197

-$45.82 billion (2015 est.)

-$37.5 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 13/224

$428.3 billion (2015 est.)

$478.4 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft, telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers; wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum

Exports - partners

US 76.8% (2014)

Imports 9/223

$440.9 billion (2015 est.)

$473.8 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, crude oil, chemicals, electricity, durable consumer goods

Imports - partners

US 54.5%, China 11.5%, Mexico 5.6% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 30/170

$74.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$71.94 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Debt - external 13/206

$1.491 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)

$1.395 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 10/120

$1.012 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)

$940.3 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 9/105

$1.18 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)

$1.137 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

Canadian dollars (CAD) per US dollar -

1.28 (2015 est.)

1.1 (2014 est.)

1.03 (2013 est.)

1 (2012 est.)

0.99 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 7/220

616.2 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 8/219

524.8 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 3/218

62.33 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 20/219

10.68 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 8/214

135 million kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 187/214

25.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 19/214

10% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 41/214

55.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 45/212

8.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 6/214

3.603 million bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 3/214

2.733 million bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports 16/214

668,900 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 3/215

172.5 billion bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 11/214

1.894 million bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 9/212

2.413 million bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 13/214

515,600 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 29/213

230,100 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production 5/216

151.2 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 7/215

104.4 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - exports 5/215

77.96 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - imports 16/214

21.89 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 18/212

1.889 trillion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 12/212

550.8 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 17/219

total subscriptions: 16.6 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 48 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 44/217

total: 29.5 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 85 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: excellent service provided by modern technology

domestic: domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations

international: country code - 1; submarine cables provide links to the US and Europe; satellite earth stations - 7 (5 Intelsat - 4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean, and 2 Intersputnik - Atlantic Ocean region) (2011)

Broadcast media

2 public TV broadcasting networks each with a large number of network affiliates; several private-commercial networks also with multiple network affiliates; overall, about 150 TV stations; multi-channel satellite and cable systems provide access to a wide range of stations including US stations; mix of public and commercial radio broadcasters with the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), the public radio broadcaster, operating 4 radio networks, Radio Canada International, and radio services to indigenous populations in the north; roughly 2,000 licensed radio stations (2008)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 245, FM 582, shortwave 6 (2004)

Television broadcast stations

148 (2007)

Internet country code

.ca

Internet hosts 14/232

8.743 million (2012)

Internet users 21/217

total: 32.4 million

percent of population: 92.9% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 4/236

1,467 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 523

over 3,047 m: 21

2,438 to 3,047 m: 19

1,524 to 2,437 m: 147

914 to 1,523 m: 257

under 914 m: 79 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 944

1,524 to 2,437 m: 75

914 to 1,523 m: 385

under 914 m: 484 (2013)

Heliports

26 (2013)

Pipelines

gas and liguid petroleum 100,000 km (2013)

Railways 5/136

total: 77,932 km

standard gauge: 77,932 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)

Roadways 7/223

total: 1,042,300 km

paved: 415,600 km (includes 17,000 km of expressways)

unpaved: 626,700 km (2011)

Waterways 77/107

636 km (Saint Lawrence Seaway of 3,769 km, including the Saint Lawrence River of 3,058 km, shared with United States) (2011)

Merchant marine 35/156

total: 181

by type: bulk carrier 62, cargo 15, carrier 1, chemical tanker 15, combination ore/oil 1, container 2, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 63, petroleum tanker 11, roll on/roll off 6

foreign-owned: 19 (Estonia 1, France 1, Netherlands 1, Norway 4, Sweden 2, US 10)

registered in other countries: 225 (Australia 5, Bahamas 96, Barbados 11, Cambodia 2, Cyprus 2, Honduras 1, Hong Kong 77, Liberia 2, Malta 5, Marshall Islands 8, Norway 1, Panama 6, Spain 4, Vanuatu 5) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Halifax, Saint John (New Brunswick), Vancouver

river and lake port(s): Montreal, Quebec City, Sept-Isles (St. Lawrence); Fraser River Port (Fraser); Hamilton (Lake Ontario)

oil terminal(s): Lower Lakes terminal

dry bulk cargo port(s): Port-Cartier (iron ore and grain),

container port(s): Montreal (1,362,975), Vancouver (2,507,032)(2011)

LNG terminal(s) (import): Saint John

Military and Security

Military branches

Canadian Forces: Canadian Army, Royal Canadian Navy, Royal Canadian Air Force, Canadian Joint Operations Command (2015)

Military service age and obligation

17 years of age for voluntary male and female military service (with parental consent); 16 years of age for Reserve and Military College applicants; Canadian citizenship or permanent residence status required; maximum 34 years of age; service obligation 3-9 years (2012)

Military expenditures 80/132

1% of GDP (2014)

1% of GDP (2013)

1.24% of GDP (2012)

1.31% of GDP (2011)

1.24% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

managed maritime boundary disputes with the US at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and the Gulf of Maine, including the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; Canada and the United States dispute how to divide the Beaufort Sea and the status of the Northwest Passage but continue to work cooperatively to survey the Arctic continental shelf; US works closely with Canada to intensify security measures for monitoring and controlling legal and illegal movement of people, transport, and commodities across the international border; sovereignty dispute with Denmark over Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland; commencing the collection of technical evidence for submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf in support of claims for continental shelf beyond 200 nm from its declared baselines in the Arctic, as stipulated in Article 76, paragraph 8, of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 16,428 (Colombia); 13,231 (China); 10,745 (Sri Lanka); 8,613 (Pakistan); 8,422 (Haiti); 6,762 (Mexico) (2014)

Illicit drugs

illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market and export to US; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; increasing ecstasy production, some of which is destined for the US; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering because of its mature financial services sector