Chad

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Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured three decades of civil warfare, as well as invasions by Libya, before peace was restored in 1990. The government eventually drafted a democratic constitution and held flawed presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. In 1998, a rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which has sporadically flared up despite several peace agreements between the government and insurgents. In June 2005, President Idriss DEBY held a referendum successfully removing constitutional term limits and won another controversial election in 2006. Sporadic rebel campaigns continued throughout 2006 and 2007. The capital experienced a significant insurrection in early 2008, but has had no significant rebel threats since then, in part due to Chad's 2010 rapprochement with Sudan, which previously used Chadian rebels as proxies. In late 2015, the government imposed a state of emergency in the Lake Chad region following multiple attacks by Boko Haram throughout the year; Boko Haram also launched several bombings in N'Djamena in mid-2015. DEBY in 2011 was reelected to his fourth term in an election that international observers described as proceeding without incident. In January 2014, Chad began a two-year rotation on the UN Security Council.

Geography

Location

Central Africa, south of Libya

Geographic coordinates

15.00° N, 19.00° E

Area 21/257

total: 1.284 million sq km

land: 1,259,200 sq km

water: 24,800 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly more than three times the size of California

Land boundaries

total: 6,406 km

border countries (6): Cameroon 1,116 km, Central African Republic 1,556 km, Libya 1,050 km, Niger 1,196 km, Nigeria 85 km, Sudan 1,403 km

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

tropical in south, desert in north

Terrain

broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Djourab 160 m

highest point: Emi Koussi 3,415 m

Natural resources

petroleum, uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad), gold, limestone, sand and gravel, salt

Land use

agricultural land: 39.6%

arable land 3.9%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 35.7%

forest: 9.1%

other: 51.3% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

300 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

43 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 0.88 cu km/yr (12%/12%/76%)

per capita: 84.81 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards

hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts; locust plagues

Environment - current issues

inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution; desertification

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography - note

note 1: Chad is the largest of Africa's 16 landlocked countries

note 2: not long ago - geologically speaking - what is today the Sahara was green savannah teeming with wildlife; during the African Humid Period, roughly 11,000 to 5,000 years ago, a vibrant animal community, including elephants, giraffes, hippos, and antelope lived there; the last remnant of the "Green Sahara" exists in the Lakes of Ounianga (oo-nee-ahn-ga) in northern Chad, a series of 18 interconnected freshwater, saline, and hypersaline lakes now protected as a World Heritage site

note 3: Lake Chad, the most significant water body in the Sahel, is a remnant of a former inland sea, paleolake Mega-Chad; at its greatest extent, sometime before 5000 B.C., Lake Mega-Chad was the largest of four Saharan paleolakes that existed during the African Humid Period; it covered an area of about 400,000 sq km (150,000 sq mi), roughly the size of today's Caspian Sea

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Chadian(s)

adjective: Chadian

Ethnic groups

Sara 27.7%, Arab 12.3%, Mayo-Kebbi 11.5%, Kanem-Bornou 9%, Ouaddai 8.7%, Hadjarai 6.7%, Tandjile 6.5%, Gorane 6.3%, Fitri-Batha 4.7%, other 6.4%, unknown 0.3% (1993 census)

Languages

French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects

Religions

Muslim 53.1%, Catholic 20.1%, Protestant 14.2%, animist 7.3%, other 0.5%, unknown 1.7%, atheist 3.1% (1993 census)

Population 77/238

11,631,456 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 44.2% (male 2,607,314/female 2,534,163)

15-24 years: 20.9% (male 1,183,962/female 1,247,130)

25-54 years: 28.05% (male 1,479,285/female 1,783,014)

55-64 years: 3.87% (male 197,673/female 252,379)

65 years and over: 2.98% (male 143,712/female 202,824) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 100.7%

youth dependency ratio: 95.8%

elderly dependency ratio: 4.9%

potential support ratio: 20.3% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 17.4 years

male: 16.4 years

female: 18.4 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 58/233

1.89% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 16/224

36.6 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 6/225

14.28 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 186/222

-3.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 22.5% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 3.42% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

N'DJAMENA (capital) 1.26 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.83 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.78 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female

total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 2/184

856 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 6/224

total: 88.69 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 94.23 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 82.93 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 224/224

total population: 49.81 years

male: 48.64 years

female: 51.03 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 25/224

4.55 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

4.8% (2010)

Health expenditures 174/191

3.6% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

0.04 physicians/1,000 population (2006)

Hospital bed density

0.4 beds/1,000 population (2005)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 71.8% of population

rural: 44.8% of population

total: 50.8% of population

unimproved:

urban: 28.2% of population

rural: 55.2% of population

total: 49.2% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 31.4% of population

rural: 6.5% of population

total: 12.1% of population

unimproved:

urban: 68.6% of population

rural: 93.5% of population

total: 87.9% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

2.53% (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

215,000 (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

11,700 (2014 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 177/191

6.6% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight 13/138

30.3% (2010)

Education expenditures 160/173

2.3% of GDP (2011)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 7 years

male: 9 years

female: 6 years (2011)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Chad

conventional short form: Chad

local long form: Republique du Tchad/Jumhuriyat Tshad

local short form: Tchad/Tshad

Government type

republic

Capital

name: N'Djamena

geographic coordinates: 12.06° N, 15.02° E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

23 regions (regions, singular - region); Barh el Gazel, Batha, Borkou, Chari-Baguirmi, Ennedi-Est, Ennedi-Ouest, Guera, Hadjer-Lamis, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mandoul, Mayo-Kebbi Est, Mayo-Kebbi Ouest, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Sila, Tandjile, Tibesti, Ville de N'Djamena, Wadi Fira

Independence

11 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday

Independence Day, 11 August (1960)

Constitution

several previous; latest passed by referendum 31 March 1996, entered into force 8 April 1996; amended 2005 (2015)

Legal system

mixed legal system of civil and customary law

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: both parents must be citizens of Chad

dual citizenship recognized: Chadian law does not address dual citizenship

residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Idriss DEBY Itno, Lt. Gen. (since 4 December 1990)

head of government: Prime Minister Kalzeube Pahimi DEUBET (since 21 November 2013)

cabinet: Council of Ministers; members appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 25 April 2011 (next to be held in 2016); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno reelected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY (MPS) 83.6%, Albert Pahimi PADACKE (Viva-RNDP) 8.6%, Nadji MADOU 7.8%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly (188 seats; 118 directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 70 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote with a second round if needed; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: National Assembly - last held on 13 February and 6 May 2011 (next to be held on 30 September 2015)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MPS 117, UNDR 10, RDP 9, URD 8, RNDT/Le Reveil 8, Viva-RNDP 5, FAR 4, PUR 2, UDR 2, PDSA 2, CTPD 2, other minor parties 19

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 15 judges or councilors and divided into 3 chambers); Constitutional Council (consists of 3 judges and 6 jurists)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice selected by the president; councilors - 8 designated by the president and 7 by the speaker of the National Assembly; chief justice and councilors appointed for life; Constitutional Council judges - 2 appointed by the president and 1 by the speaker of the National Assembly; jurists - 3 each by the president and by the speaker of the National Assembly; judge term NA

subordinate courts: High Court of Justice; Courts of Appeal; tribunals; justices of the peace

Political parties and leaders

Alliance for the Renaissance of Chad or ART (includes MPS, RDP, and Viva-RNDP)

Federation Action for the Republic or FAR [Ngarledjy YORONGAR]

National Rally for Development and Progress or Viva-RNDP [Dr. Nouradine Delwa Kassire COUMAKOYE]

National Union for Democracy and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO]

Party for Liberty and Development or PLD [Jean-Baptiste LAOKOLE]

Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Idriss DEBY]

Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Lol Mahamat CHOUA]

Union for Renewal and Democracy or URD [Sande NGARYIMBE]

Political pressure groups and leaders

NA

International organization participation

ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Flag description

three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; the flag combines the blue and red French (former colonial) colors with the red and yellow of the Pan-African colors; blue symbolizes the sky, hope, and the south of the country, which is relatively well-watered; yellow represents the sun, as well as the desert in the north of the country; red stands for progress, unity, and sacrifice

note: similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flags of Andorra and Moldova, both of which have a national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France

National symbol(s)

goat (north), lion (south); national colors: blue, yellow, red

National anthem

name: "La Tchadienne" (The Chadian)

lyrics/music: Louis GIDROL and his students/Paul VILLARD

note: adopted 1960

Economy

Economy - overview

Chad’s landlocked location results in high transportation costs for imported goods and dependence on neighboring countries. Oil and agriculture are mainstays of Chad’s economy. Oil provides about 60% of export revenues, while cotton, cattle, livestock, and gum arabic provide the bulk of Chad's non-oil export earnings. Chad relies on foreign assistance and foreign capital for much public and private sector investment. The services sector contributes about one-third of GDP and has attracted foreign investment mostly through telecommunications and banking. Chad’s fiscal position is encumbered by declining oil prices, though high oil prices and strong local harvests supported the economy in recent years. Nearly all of Chad’s fuel is provided by one domestic refinery, and unanticipated shut-downs occasionally result in shortages. The country regulates the price of domestic fuel, providing an incentive for black market sales. Chad's investment climate remains challenging due to limited infrastructure, a lack of trained workers, extensive government bureaucracy, and corruption. Chad obtained a three-year extended credit facility from the IMF in 2014 and was granted debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative in April 2015.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 126/230

$32 billion (2015 est.)

$29.93 billion (2014 est.)

$28 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$11.69 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 18/225

6.9% (2015 est.)

6.9% (2014 est.)

5.7% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 193/230

$2,800 (2015 est.)

$2,700 (2014 est.)

$2,500 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 92/179

18.6% of GDP (2015 est.)

21.6% of GDP (2014 est.)

18.3% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 70.8%

government consumption: 5.6%

investment in fixed capital: 32.6%

investment in inventories: 0.2%

exports of goods and services: 26.5%

imports of goods and services: -35.7%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 54.9%

industry: 14.2%

services: 30.9% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, sesame, corn, rice, potatoes, onions, cassava (manioc, tapioca), cattle, sheep, goats, camels

Industries

oil, cotton textiles, brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials

Industrial production growth rate 174/202

-1.3% (2015 est.)

Labor force 75/233

5.268 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 80%

industry and services: 20% (2006 est.)

Unemployment rate

NA%

Population below poverty line

46.7% (2011 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.6%

highest 10%: 30.8% (2003)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 49/144

43.3 (2011 est.)

Budget

revenues: $2.31 billion

expenditures: $2.739 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 163/219

19.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 140/220

-3.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 138/176

31.9% of GDP (2015 est.)

30.8% of GDP (2014 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 162/226

4.2% (2015 est.)

1.7% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 91/156

4.25% (31 December 2009)

4.75% (31 December 2008)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 34/184

15.5% (31 December 2015 est.)

15.5% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 136/192

$1.633 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$1.751 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 157/193

$1.976 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$1.751 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 154/191

$1.266 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$1.195 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares

$NA

Current account balance 126/197

-$1.217 billion (2015 est.)

-$1.242 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 116/224

$4.139 billion (2015 est.)

$5.008 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

oil, livestock, cotton, sesame, gum arabic, shea butter

Exports - partners

US 77.6%, Japan 10.2% (2014)

Imports 138/223

$3.331 billion (2015 est.)

$4.416 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery and transportation equipment, industrial goods, foodstuffs, textiles

Imports - partners

Algeria 54.6%, China 11.2%, Italy 6.2%, France 5.4% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 128/170

$1.111 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$1.089 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 140/206

$3.525 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$2.216 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

$NA (31 December 2010)

$4.5 billion (2006 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad

$NA

Exchange rates

Cooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs (XAF) per US dollar -

580.5 (2015 est.)

494.42 (2014 est.)

494.42 (2013 est.)

510.53 (2012 est.)

471.87 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 184/220

205 million kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 188/219

190.7 million kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 117/218

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 128/219

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 197/214

31,000 kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 8/214

100% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 63/214

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 165/214

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 165/212

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 45/214

103,400 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 36/214

104,500 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - imports 170/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 38/215

1.5 billion bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 165/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 191/212

1,700 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 164/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 184/213

1,754 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Natural gas - production 168/216

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 127/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports 75/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports 174/214

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 122/212

0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 194/212

264,300 Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 177/219

total subscriptions: 23,600

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 115/217

total: 5.3 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 46 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: inadequate system of radiotelephone communication stations with high maintenance costs and low telephone density

domestic: fixed-line connections for less than 1 per 100 persons coupled with mobile-cellular subscribership base of only about 35 per 100 persons

international: country code - 235; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)

Broadcast media

1 state-owned TV station; state-owned radio network, Radiodiffusion Nationale Tchadienne (RNT), operates national and regional stations; about 10 private radio stations; some stations rebroadcast programs from international broadcasters (2007)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 2, FM 4, shortwave 5 (2001)

Television broadcast stations

1 (2001)

Internet country code

.td

Internet hosts 229/232

6 (2012)

Internet users 148/217

total: 273,900

percent of population: 2.4% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 82/236

59 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 9

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

under 914 m: 1 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 50

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 14

914 to 1,523 m: 22

under 914 m: 11 (2013)

Pipelines

oil 582 km (2013)

Roadways 87/223

total: 40,000 km

note: consists of 25,000 km of national and regional roads and 15,000 km of local roads; 206 km of urban roads are paved (2011)

Waterways

(Chari and Legone Rivers are navigable only in wet season) (2012)

Military and Security

Military branches

Chadian National Army (Armee Nationale du Tchad, ANT): Ground Forces (l'Armee de Terre, AdT), Chadian Air Force (l'Armee de l'Air Tchadienne, AAT), National Gendarmerie, National and Nomadic Guard of Chad (GNNT) (2013)

Military service age and obligation

20 is the legal minimum age for compulsory military service, with a 3-year service obligation; 18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary service; no minimum age restriction for volunteers with consent from a parent or guardian; women are subject to 1 year of compulsory military or civic service at age 21; while provisions for military service have not been repealed, they have never been fully implemented (2015)

Military expenditures

NA% (2012)

2.28% of GDP (2011)

NA% (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

since 2003, ad hoc armed militia groups and the Sudanese military have driven hundreds of thousands of Darfur residents into Chad; Chad wishes to be a helpful mediator in resolving the Darfur conflict, and in 2010 established a joint border monitoring force with Sudan, which has helped to reduce cross-border banditry and violence; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty, which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 297,296 (Sudan); 64,673 (Central African Republic); 14,162 (Nigeria) (2015)

IDPs: 92,000 (majority are in the east) (2015)