Chile

WorldABC.xyz: facts on every entity in the world

Prior to the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, the Inca ruled northern Chile while the Mapuche inhabited central and southern Chile. Although Chile declared its independence in 1810, decisive victory over the Spanish was not achieved until 1818. In the War of the Pacific (1879-83), Chile defeated Peru and Bolivia and won its present northern regions. It was not until the 1880s that the Mapuche were brought under central government control. After a series of elected governments, the three-year-old Marxist government of Salvador ALLENDE was overthrown in 1973 by a military coup led by General Augusto PINOCHET, who ruled until a freely elected president was inaugurated in 1990. Sound economic policies, maintained consistently since the 1980s, contributed to steady growth, reduced poverty rates by over half, and helped secure the country's commitment to democratic and representative government. Chile has increasingly assumed regional and international leadership roles befitting its status as a stable, democratic nation.

Geography

Location

Southern South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Argentina and Peru

Geographic coordinates

30.00° S, 71.00° W

Area 38/257

total: 756,102 sq km

land: 743,812 sq km

water: 12,290 sq km

note: includes Easter Island (Isla de Pascua) and Isla Sala y Gomez

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana

Land boundaries

total: 7,801 km

border countries (3): Argentina 6,691 km, Bolivia 942 km, Peru 168 km

Coastline

6,435 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200/350 nm

Climate

temperate; desert in north; Mediterranean in central region; cool and damp in south

Terrain

low coastal mountains, fertile central valley, rugged Andes in east

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Nevado Ojos del Salado 6,880 m

Natural resources

copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, molybdenum, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 21.1%

arable land 1.7%; permanent crops 0.6%; permanent pasture 18.8%

forest: 21.9%

other: 57% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

11,100 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

922 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 26.67 cu km/yr (4%/10%/86%)

per capita: 1,603 cu m/yr (2007)

Natural hazards

severe earthquakes; active volcanism; tsunamis

volcanism: significant volcanic activity due to more than three-dozen active volcanoes along the Andes Mountains; Lascar (elev. 5,592 m), which last erupted in 2007, is the most active volcano in the northern Chilean Andes; Llaima (elev. 3,125 m) in central Chile, which last erupted in 2009, is another of the country's most active; Chaiten's 2008 eruption forced major evacuations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Cerro Hudson, Calbuco, Copahue, Guallatiri, Llullaillaco, Nevados de Chillan, Puyehue, San Pedro, and Villarrica

Environment - current issues

widespread deforestation and mining threaten natural resources; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage

Environment - international agreements

party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

the longest north-south trending country in the world, extending across 38 degrees of latitude; strategic location relative to sea lanes between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); Atacama Desert - the driest desert in the world - spreads across the northern part of the country; the crater lake of Ojos del Salado is the world's highest lake (at 6,390 m)

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Chilean(s)

adjective: Chilean

Ethnic groups

white and non-indigenous 88.9%, Mapuche 9.1%, Aymara 0.7%, other indigenous groups 1% (includes Rapa Nui, Likan Antai, Quechua, Colla, Diaguita, Kawesqar, Yagan or Yamana), unspecified 0.3% (2012 est.)

Languages

Spanish 99.5% (official), English 10.2%, indigenous 1% (includes Mapudungun, Aymara, Quechua, Rapa Nui), other 2.3%, unspecified 0.2%

note: shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census (2012 est.)

Religions

Roman Catholic 66.7%, Evangelical or Protestant 16.4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1%, other 3.4%, none 11.5%, unspecified 1.1% (2012 est.)

Population 64/238

17,508,260 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 20.46% (male 1,827,374/female 1,754,283)

15-24 years: 15.88% (male 1,418,938/female 1,361,307)

25-54 years: 43.21% (male 3,771,003/female 3,793,655)

55-64 years: 10.24% (male 842,346/female 950,574)

65 years and over: 10.22% (male 747,930/female 1,040,850) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 45.2%

youth dependency ratio: 29.3%

elderly dependency ratio: 16%

potential support ratio: 6.3% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 33.7 years

male: 32.5 years

female: 34.9 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 137/233

0.82% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 141/224

13.83 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 165/225

6 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 75/222

0.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 89.5% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 1.09% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

SANTIAGO (capital) 6.507 million; Valparaiso 907,000; Concepcion 816,000 (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 131/184

22 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 160/224

total: 6.86 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 7.34 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 6.36 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 52/224

total population: 78.61 years

male: 75.58 years

female: 81.76 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 149/224

1.82 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

64.2%

note: percent of women aged 15-44 (2006)

Health expenditures 76/191

7.7% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

1.02 physicians/1,000 population (2009)

Hospital bed density

2.1 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 99.7% of population

rural: 93.3% of population

total: 99% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0.3% of population

rural: 6.7% of population

total: 1% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 100% of population

rural: 90.9% of population

total: 99.1% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0% of population

rural: 9.1% of population

total: 0.9% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.29% (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

39,300 (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

700 (2014 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 30/191

28.5% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight 137/138

0.5% (2013)

Education expenditures 90/173

4.6% of GDP (2012)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 15 years

male: 15 years

female: 15 years (2012)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 73/134

total: 16.1%

male: 13.9%

female: 19.2% (2013 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Chile

conventional short form: Chile

local long form: Republica de Chile

local short form: Chile

etymology: derivation of the name is unclear, but it may come from the Mapuche word "chilli" meaning "limit of the earth" or from the Quechua "chiri" meaning "cold"

Government type

republic

Capital

name: Santiago; note - Valparaiso is the seat of the national legislature

geographic coordinates: 33.27° S, 70.40° W

time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

15 regions (regiones, singular - region); Aysen, Antofagasta, Araucania, Arica y Parinacota, Atacama, Biobio, Coquimbo, Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, Los Lagos, Los Rios, Magallanes y de la Antartica Chilena, Maule, Region Metropolitana (Santiago), Tarapaca, Valparaiso

note: the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica

Independence

18 September 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday

Independence Day, 18 September (1810)

Constitution

many previous; latest adopted 11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981; amended many times, last in 2011 (2015)

Legal system

civil law system influenced by several West European civil legal systems; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Tribunal

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent: yes

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Michelle BACHELET Jeria (since 11 March 2014); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Michelle BACHELET Jeria (since 11 March 2014)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in two rounds if needed for a single 4-year term; election last held on 17 November 2013 with a runoff held on 15 December 2013 (next to be held on 19 November 2017)

election results: Michelle BACHELET Jeria elected president; percent of vote - Michelle BACHELET Jeria (PS) 62.2%; Evelyn Rose MATTHEI Fornet (UDI) 37.8%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the Senate or Senado (38 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by majority vote to serve 8-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 4 years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (120 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by majority vote to serve 4-year terms); note - in both the Senate and Chamber of Deputies, the party winning at least two-thirds of the votes is entitled to 2 seats in the constituency; if it obtains less than two-thirds of the votes, it is entitled to one seat with the remaining seat awarded to the next highest winning party

elections: Senate - last held on 17 November 2013 (next to be held on 15 November 2017); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 17 November 2013 (next to be held on 15 November 2017)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - New Majority Coalition (formerly known as Concertacion) 19 (PDC 6, PS 6, PPD 6, MAS 1), Coalition for Change (formerly known as the Alianza coalition) 15 (RN 6, UDI 8, Amplitude Party 1), independents 4; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - New Majority 67 (PDC 21, PS 16, PPD 15, PC 6, PRSD 6, Citizen Left 1, independents 2), Coalition for Change 49 (UDI 29, RN 15, independents 4), Liberal Party 1, independents 4

note: In January 2015, the Chilean Congress voted to end the binomial system that was put in place under Gen. Augusto PINOCHET; the Congress also voted to expand its size and establish rules to ensure that there is equitable gender representation; the new electoral system will be put in place in 2017

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (consists of a court president and 20 members or ministros); Constitutional Court (consists of 7 members); Electoral Court (consists of 5 members)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president and ratified by the Senate from lists of candidates provided by the court itself; judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 70; Constitutional Court members appointed - 3 by the Supreme Court, 1 by the president of the republic, 2 by the National Security Council, and 1 by the Senate; members serve 8-year terms with partial membership replacement every 4 years (the court reviews constitutionality of legislation); Electoral Court member appointments - 4 by the Supreme Court and 1 a former president or vice-president of the Senate or Chamber of Deputies selected by the Supreme Court; member term NA

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; oral criminal tribunals; military tribunals; local police courts; specialized tribunals and courts in matters such as family, labor, customs, taxes, and electoral affairs

Political parties and leaders

Broad Social Movement or MAS [Alejandro NAVARRO Brain]

Citizen Left or IC [Sergio AGUILO]

Coalition for Change or CC (also known as the Alliance for Chile (Alianza) or APC) (including National Renewal or RN [Cristian MONCKEBERG Bruner], and Independent Democratic Union or UDI [Hernan LARRAIN Fernandez]

Coalition of Parties for Democracy (Concertacion) or CPD (including Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Jorge PIZARRO Soto], Party for Democracy or PPD [Jaime Daniel QUINTANA Leal], Radical Social Democratic Party or PRSD [Ernesto VELASCO Rodriguez], and Socialist Party or PS [Isabel ALLENDE Bussi])

Communist Party of Chile (Partido Comunista de Chile) or PC [Guillermo TEILLIER del Valle]

Ecological Green Party [Felix GONZALEZ Gatica]

Equality Party [Guillermo GONZALEZ Castro]

Humanist Party or PH [Octavio GONZALEZ]

Independent Regionalist Party or PRI [Alejandra BRAVO Hidalgo]

Liberal Party (Partido Liberal de Chile) [Vlado MIROSEVIC]

Progressive Party or PRO [Patricia MORALES]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Roman Catholic Church, particularly conservative groups such as Opus Dei

United Labor Central or CUT (includes trade unionists from the country's five largest labor confederations)

other: university student federations at all major universities

International organization participation

APEC, BIS, CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, FAO, G-15, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS, OECD (Enhanced Engagement, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Flag description

two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; a blue square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of the white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in the center representing a guide to progress and honor; blue symbolizes the sky, white is for the snow-covered Andes, and red represents the blood spilled to achieve independence

note: design was influenced by the US flag

National symbol(s)

huemul (mountain deer), Andean condor; national colors: red, white, blue

National anthem

name: "Himno Nacional de Chile" (National Anthem of Chile)

lyrics/music: Eusebio LILLO Robles and Bernardo DE VERA y Pintado/Ramon CARNICER y Battle

note: music adopted 1828, original lyrics adopted 1818, adapted lyrics adopted 1847; under Augusto PINOCHET"s military rule, a verse glorifying the army was added; however, as a protest, some citizens refused to sing this verse; it was removed when democracy was restored in 1990

Economy

Economy - overview

Chile has a market-oriented economy characterized by a high level of foreign trade and a reputation for strong financial institutions and sound policy that have given it the strongest sovereign bond rating in South America. Exports of goods and services account for approximately one-third of GDP, with commodities making up some 60% of total exports. Copper alone provides 20% of government revenue.

From 2003 through 2013, real growth averaged almost 5% per year, despite the slight contraction in 2009 that resulted from the global financial crisis. Growth slowed to an estimated 2.3% in 2015. A continued drop in copper prices prompted Chile to experience its second consecutive year of slow growth, elevated inflation and a depreciating currency.

Chile deepened its longstanding commitment to trade liberalization with the signing of a free trade agreement with the US, which took effect on 1 January 2004. Chile has 22 trade agreements covering 60 countries including agreements with the European Union, Mercosur, China, India, South Korea, and Mexico. In May 2010 Chile signed the OECD Convention, becoming the first South American country to join the OECD. In October 2015, Chile joined the United States and 10 other countries and concluded negotiations on the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade agreement. The agreement will need to be ratified by the Chilean legislature.

The Chilean Government has generally followed a countercyclical fiscal policy, accumulating surpluses in sovereign wealth funds during periods of high copper prices and economic growth, and generally allowing deficit spending only during periods of low copper prices and growth. As of 31 October 2015, those sovereign wealth funds - kept mostly outside the country and separate from Central Bank reserves - amounted to more than $22.4 billion. Chile used these funds to finance fiscal stimulus packages during the 2009 economic downturn.

In 2014, President Michelle BACHELET introduced tax reforms aimed at delivering her campaign promise to fight inequality and to provide access to education and health care. The reforms are expected to generate additional tax revenues equal to 3% of Chile’s GDP, mostly by increasing corporate tax rates to OECD averages.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 44/230

$424.3 billion (2015 est.)

$414.9 billion (2014 est.)

$407.3 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$240 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 133/225

2.3% (2015 est.)

1.9% (2014 est.)

4.3% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 77/230

$23,800 (2015 est.)

$23,300 (2014 est.)

$22,900 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 74/179

21.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

20.3% of GDP (2014 est.)

20.7% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 63.7%

government consumption: 13.2%

investment in fixed capital: 20.6%

investment in inventories: 0.4%

exports of goods and services: 30.5%

imports of goods and services: -28.4%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 3.4%

industry: 35%

services: 61.6% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

grapes, apples, pears, onions, wheat, corn, oats, peaches, garlic, asparagus, beans; beef, poultry, wool; fish; timber

Industries

copper, lithium, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron and steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement, textiles

Industrial production growth rate 126/202

1.7% (2015 est.)

Labor force 58/233

8.68 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 13.2%

industry: 23%

services: 63.9% (2005)

Unemployment rate 74/207

6.4% (2015 est.)

6.3% (2014 est.)

Population below poverty line

14.4% (2009 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 1.5%

highest 10%: 42.8% (2009 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 15/144

52.1 (2009)

57.1 (2000)

Budget

revenues: $48.4 billion

expenditures: $56.31 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 155/219

20.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 126/220

-3.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 155/176

17.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

15.1% of GDP (2014 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 166/226

4.4% (2015 est.)

4.4% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 103/156

3.12% (31 December 2010)

0.5% (31 December 2009)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 139/184

5.5% (31 December 2015 est.)

8.1% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 55/192

$40.65 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$41.97 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 49/193

$154.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$158 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 44/191

$196.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$197.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 29/121

$313.3 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$270.3 billion (31 December 2011)

$341.6 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance 141/197

-$1.793 billion (2015 est.)

-$2.993 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 45/224

$61.82 billion (2015 est.)

$75.68 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

copper, fruit, fish products, paper and pulp, chemicals, wine

Exports - partners

China 24.4%, US 12.3%, Japan 10%, South Korea 6.2%, Brazil 5.4% (2014)

Imports 49/223

$56 billion (2015 est.)

$67.91 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, electrical and telecommunications equipment, industrial machinery, vehicles, natural gas

Imports - partners

China 20.9%, US 19.8%, Brazil 7.9%, Argentina 4% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 47/170

$38.91 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$40.45 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 43/206

$145.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$132.6 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 29/120

$201.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$182.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 33/105

$92.84 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$80.54 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

Chilean pesos (CLP) per US dollar -

653.6 (2015 est.)

570.37 (2014 est.)

570.37 (2013 est.)

486.49 (2012 est.)

483.67 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 42/220

66.89 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 40/219

63.39 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 121/218

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 131/219

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 42/214

18.16 million kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 127/214

62.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 67/214

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 69/214

33% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 57/212

4.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 81/214

6,666 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 109/214

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports 34/214

186,900 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 66/215

150 million bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 53/214

205,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 40/212

323,300 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 75/214

16,810 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 39/213

139,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production 67/216

908 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 60/215

4.646 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - exports 78/215

0 cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - imports 37/214

3.715 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 53/212

97.97 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 47/212

81.51 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 44/219

total subscriptions: 3.4 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 20 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 49/217

total: 23.7 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 136 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: privatization began in 1988; most advanced telecommunications infrastructure in South America; modern system based on extensive microwave radio relay facilities; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations

domestic: number of fixed-line connections have stagnated in recent years as mobile-cellular usage continues to increase, reaching 130 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 56; landing points for the Pan American, South America-1, and South American Crossing/Latin America Nautilus submarine cables providing links to the US and to Central and South America; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)

Broadcast media

national and local terrestrial TV channels, coupled with extensive cable TV networks; the state-owned Television Nacional de Chile (TVN) network is self-financed through commercial advertising revenues and is not under direct government control; large number of privately owned TV stations; about 250 radio stations (2007)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 180, FM 64, shortwave 17 (1998)

Television broadcast stations

63 (plus 121 repeaters) (1997)

Internet country code

.cl

Internet hosts 38/232

2.152 million (2012)

Internet users 43/217

total: 11.4 million

percent of population: 65.8% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 15/236

481 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 90

over 3,047 m: 5

2,438 to 3,047 m: 7

1,524 to 2,437 m: 23

914 to 1,523 m: 31

under 914 m: 24 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 391

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 11

914 to 1,523 m: 56

under 914 m: 319 (2013)

Heliports

1 (2013)

Pipelines

gas 3,160 km; liquid petroleum gas 781 km; oil 985 km; refined products 722 km (2013)

Railways 28/136

total: 7,281.5 km

broad gauge: 3,428 km 1.676-m gauge (1,691 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 3,853.5 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)

Roadways 61/223

total: 77,764 km

paved: 18,119 km (includes 2,387 km of expressways)

unpaved: 59,645 km (2010)

Merchant marine 74/156

total: 42

by type: bulk carrier 13, cargo 5, chemical tanker 7, container 2, liquefied gas 1, passenger 3, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 8, roll on/roll off 1

foreign-owned: 1 (Norway 1)

registered in other countries: 52 (Argentina 6, Brazil 1, Honduras 1, Isle of Man 9, Liberia 9, Panama 14, Peru 6, Singapore 6) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Coronel, Huasco, Lirquen, Puerto Ventanas, San Antonio, San Vicente, Valparaiso

LNG terminal(s) (import): Mejillones, Quintero

Military and Security

Military branches

Chilean Army, Chilean Navy (Armada de Chile, includes Naval Aviation, Marine Corps, and Maritime Territory and Merchant Marine Directorate (Directemar)), Chilean Air Force (Fuerza Aerea de Chile, FACh) (2015)

Military service age and obligation

18-45 years of age for voluntary male and female military service, although the right to compulsory recruitment of males 18-45 is retained; service obligation is 12 months for Army and 22 months for Navy and Air Force (2015)

Military expenditures 38/132

2.04% of GDP (2012)

2.17% of GDP (2011)

2.04% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Chile and Peru rebuff Bolivia's reactivated claim to restore the Atacama corridor, ceded to Chile in 1884, but Chile has offered instead unrestricted but not sovereign maritime access through Chile to Bolivian natural gas; Chile rejects Peru's unilateral legislation to change its latitudinal maritime boundary with Chile to an equidistance line with a southwestern axis favoring Peru; in October 2007, Peru took its maritime complaint with Chile to the ICJ; territorial claim in Antarctica (Chilean Antarctic Territory) partially overlaps Argentine and British claims; the joint boundary commission, established by Chile and Argentina in 2001, has yet to map and demarcate the delimited boundary in the inhospitable Andean Southern Ice Field (Campo de Hielo Sur)

Illicit drugs

transshipment country for cocaine destined for Europe and the region; some money laundering activity, especially through the Iquique Free Trade Zone; imported precursors passed on to Bolivia; domestic cocaine consumption is rising, making Chile a significant consumer of cocaine (2008)