Cote d'Ivoire

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Close ties to France following independence in 1960, the development of cocoa production for export, and foreign investment all made Cote d'Ivoire one of the most prosperous of the West African states but did not protect it from political turmoil. In December 1999, a military coup - the first ever in Cote d'Ivoire's history - overthrew the government. Junta leader Robert GUEI blatantly rigged elections held in late 2000 and declared himself the winner. Popular protest forced him to step aside and brought Laurent GBAGBO into power. Ivorian dissidents and disaffected members of the military launched a failed coup attempt in September 2002 that developed into a rebellion and then a civil war. The war ended in 2003 with a cease-fire that left the country divided with the rebels holding the north, the government the south, and peacekeeping forces a buffer zone between the two. In March 2007, President GBAGBO and former New Forces rebel leader Guillaume SORO signed an agreement in which SORO joined GBAGBO's government as prime minister and the two agreed to reunite the country by dismantling the buffer zone, integrating rebel forces into the national armed forces, and holding elections. Difficulties in preparing electoral registers delayed balloting until 2010. In November 2010, Alassane Dramane OUATTARA won the presidential election over GBAGBO, but GBAGBO refused to hand over power, resulting in a five-month stand-off. In April 2011, after widespread fighting, GBAGBO was formally forced from office by armed OUATTARA supporters with the help of UN and French forces. Several thousand UN peacekeepers and several hundred French troops remain in Cote d'Ivoire to support the transition process. OUATTARA is focused on rebuilding the country's economy and infrastructure while rebuilding the security forces. GBAGBO is in The Hague awaiting trial for crimes against humanity.

Geography

Location

Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Ghana and Liberia

Geographic coordinates

8.00° N, 5.00° W

Area 69/257

total: 322,463 sq km

land: 318,003 sq km

water: 4,460 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries

total: 3,458 km

border countries (5): Burkina Faso 545 km, Ghana 720 km, Guinea 816 km, Liberia 778 km, Mali 599 km

Coastline

515 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm

Climate

tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three seasons - warm and dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to May), hot and wet (June to October)

Terrain

mostly flat to undulating plains; mountains in northwest

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Gulf of Guinea 0 m

highest point: Monts Nimba 1,752 m

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, diamonds, manganese, iron ore, cobalt, bauxite, copper, gold, nickel, tantalum, silica sand, clay, cocoa beans, coffee, palm oil, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 64.8%

arable land 9.1%; permanent crops 14.2%; permanent pasture 41.5%

forest: 32.7%

other: 2.5% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

730 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

81.14 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 1.55 cu km/yr (41%/21%/38%)

per capita: 83.07 cu m/yr (2008)

Natural hazards

coast has heavy surf and no natural harbors; during the rainy season torrential flooding is possible

Environment - current issues

deforestation (most of the country's forests - once the largest in West Africa - have been heavily logged); water pollution from sewage and industrial and agricultural effluents

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

most of the inhabitants live along the sandy coastal region; apart from the capital area, the forested interior is sparsely populated

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Ivoirian(s)

adjective: Ivoirian

Ethnic groups

Akan 32.1%, Voltaique or Gur 15%, Northern Mande 12.4%, Krou 9.8%, Southern Mande 9%, other 21.2% (includes European and Lebanese descent), unspecified 0.5% (2011-12 est.)

Languages

French (official), 60 native dialects of which Dioula is the most widely spoken

Religions

Muslim 40.2%, Catholic 19.4%, Evangelical 19.3%, Methodist 2.5%, other Christian 4.5%, animist or no religion 12.8%, other religion/unspecified 1.4% (2011-12 est.)

note: the majority of foreign migrant workers are Muslim (72%) and Christian (18%) (2014 est.)

Population 55/238

23,295,302

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 37.94% (male 4,456,646/female 4,381,907)

15-24 years: 20.95% (male 2,459,156/female 2,420,284)

25-54 years: 33.53% (male 3,997,615/female 3,812,563)

55-64 years: 4.25% (male 495,177/female 493,854)

65 years and over: 3.34% (male 375,276/female 402,824) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 83.5%

youth dependency ratio: 77.9%

elderly dependency ratio: 5.6%

potential support ratio: 18% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 20.5 years

male: 20.6 years

female: 20.4 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 55/233

1.91% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 44/224

28.67 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 53/225

9.55 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 101/222

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 54.2% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 3.69% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

YAMOUSSOUKRO (capital) 259,000 (2014); ABIDJAN (seat of government) 4.86 million; Bouake 762,000 (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.93 male(s)/female

total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

20

note: median age at first birth among women 20-24 (2011/12 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 27/184

645 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 22/224

total: 58.7 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 64.77 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 52.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 202/224

total population: 58.34 years

male: 57.21 years

female: 59.51 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 44/224

3.54 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

18.2% (2011/12)

Health expenditures 78/191

5.7% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

0.14 physicians/1,000 population (2008)

Hospital bed density

0.4 beds/1,000 population (2006)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 93.1% of population

rural: 68.8% of population

total: 81.9% of population

unimproved:

urban: 6.9% of population

rural: 31.2% of population

total: 18.1% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 32.8% of population

rural: 10.3% of population

total: 22.5% of population

unimproved:

urban: 67.2% of population

rural: 89.7% of population

total: 77.5% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

3.46% (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

460,100 (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

21,800 (2014 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 149/191

8% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight 43/138

15.7% (2012)

Education expenditures 89/173

4.6% of GDP (2008)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 9 years

male: 10 years

female: 8 years (2013)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Cote d'Ivoire

conventional short form: Cote d'Ivoire

local long form: Republique de Cote d'Ivoire

local short form: Cote d'Ivoire

note: pronounced coat-div-whar

former: Ivory Coast

etymology: name reflects the intense ivory trade that took place in the region from the 15th to 17th centuries

Government type

republic; multiparty presidential regime established 1960

Capital

name: Yamoussoukro; note - although Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983, Abidjan remains the commercial and administrative center; the US, like other countries, maintains its Embassy in Abidjan

geographic coordinates: 6.49° N, 5.16° W

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

12 districts and 2 autonomous districts*; Abidjan*, Bas-Sassandra, Comoe, Denguele, Goh-Djiboua, Lacs, Lagunes, Montagnes, Sassandra-Marahoue, Savanes, Vallee du Bandama, Woroba, Yamoussoukro*, Zanzan

Independence

7 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday

Independence Day, 7 August (1960)

Constitution

previous 1960; latest approved by referendum 23 July 2000; amended 2004 (2015)

Legal system

civil law system based on the French civil code; judicial review of legislation held in the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Cote d'Ivoire

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Alassane Dramane OUATTARA (since 4 December 2010)

head of government: Prime Minister Daniel Kablan DUNCAN (since 21 November 2012)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 25 October 2015 (next to be held in 2020); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Alassane OUATTARA elected president; percent of vote - Alassane OUATTARA (RDR) 83.7%, Pascal Affi N'GUESSAN (ADF) 9.3%, Konan Bertin KOUADIO (independent) 3.9%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (225 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 11 December 2011 (next to be held in 2016)

election results: percent of vote by party - RDR 42.1%, PDCI 28.6%, UDPCI 3.1%, RDP 1.7%, other 24.5% ; seats by party - RDR 127, PDCI 76, UDPCI 7, RDP 4, other 2, independents 39

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (organized into Judicial, Audit, Constitutional, and Administrative Chambers; consists of the court president, 3 vice-presidents for the Judicial, Audit, and Administrative chambers, and 9 associate justices or magistrates)

judge selection and term office: judges nominated by the Superior Council of the Magistrature, a 7-member body consisting of the national president (chairman), 3 "bench" judges, and 3 public prosecutors; judges appointed for life

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (organized into civil, criminal, and social chambers); first instance courts; peace courts

Political parties and leaders

Democratic Party of Cote d'Ivoire or PDCI [Henri Konan BEDIE]

Movement of the Future Forces or MFA [Innocent Augustin ANAKY KOBENA]

Rally of Houphouetists for Democracy and Peace

Rally of the Republicans or RDR [Alassane OUATTARA]

Union for Cote d'Ivoire or UPCI [Gnamien KONA]

Union for Democracy and Peace in Cote d'Ivoire or UDPCI [Toikeuse MABRI]

more than 144 smaller registered parties

Political pressure groups and leaders

Federation of University and High School Students of Cote d'Ivoire or FESCI [Augustin MIAN]

National Congress for the Resistance and Democracy or CNRD [Bernard DADIE]

Panafrican Congress for Justice and Peoples Equality or COJEP [Roselin BLY]

Rally of Houphouetists for Democracy and Peace or RHDP

International organization participation

ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), Entente, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Flag description

three equal vertical bands of orange (hoist side), white, and green; orange symbolizes the land (savannah) of the north and fertility, white stands for peace and unity, green represents the forests of the south and the hope for a bright future

note: similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and has the colors reversed - green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of Italy, which is green (hoist side), white, and red; design was based on the flag of France

National symbol(s)

elephant; national colors: orange, white, green

National anthem

name: "L'Abidjanaise" (Song of Abidjan)

lyrics/music: Mathieu EKRA, Joachim BONY, and Pierre Marie COTY/Pierre Marie COTY and Pierre Michel PANGO

note: adopted 1960; although the nation's capital city moved from Abidjan to Yamoussoukro in 1983, the anthem still owes its name to the former capital

Economy

Economy - overview

Cote d'Ivoire is heavily dependent on agriculture and related activities, which engage roughly two-thirds of the population. Cote d'Ivoire is the world's largest producer and exporter of cocoa beans and a significant producer and exporter of coffee and palm oil. Consequently, the economy is highly sensitive to fluctuations in international prices for these products and in climatic conditions. Cocoa, oil, and coffee are the country's top export revenue earners, but the country is also mining gold. Following the end of more than a decade of civil conflict in 2011, Cote d’Ivoire has experienced a boom in foreign investment and economic growth. In June 2012, the IMF and the World Bank announced $4.4 billion in debt relief for Cote d'Ivoire under the Highly Indebted Poor Countries Initiative.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 91/230

$78.33 billion (2015 est.)

$72.37 billion (2014 est.)

$67.07 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$31.27 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 9/225

8.2% (2015 est.)

7.9% (2014 est.)

8.7% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 184/230

$3,400 (2015 est.)

$3,100 (2014 est.)

$2,900 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 102/179

17.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

16.1% of GDP (2014 est.)

15.7% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 66.2%

government consumption: 13.7%

investment in fixed capital: 16.2%

investment in inventories: 0.8%

exports of goods and services: 43%

imports of goods and services: -39.9%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 17.4%

industry: 20.3%

services: 62.2% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

coffee, cocoa beans, bananas, palm kernels, corn, rice, cassava (manioc, tapioca), sweet potatoes, sugar, cotton, rubber; timber

Industries

foodstuffs, beverages; wood products, oil refining, gold mining, truck and bus assembly, textiles, fertilizer, building materials, electricity

Industrial production growth rate 19/202

6.5% (2015 est.)

Labor force 59/233

8.31 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 68%

industry and services: NA% (2007 est.)

Unemployment rate

NA%

Population below poverty line

42% (2006 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.2%

highest 10%: 31.8% (2008)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 55/144

41.5 (2008)

36.7 (1995)

Budget

revenues: $5.914 billion

expenditures: $7.067 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 168/219

18.9% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 139/220

-3.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 74/176

52.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

45% of GDP (2014 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 83/226

1.5% (2015 est.)

0.5% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 88/156

4.25% (31 December 2010)

4.25% (31 December 2009)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 174/184

2.5% (31 December 2015 est.)

2.5% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 89/192

$7.302 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$7.785 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 101/193

$12.23 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$11.5 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 109/191

$8.347 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$9.138 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 77/121

$7.829 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$6.288 billion (31 December 2011)

$7.099 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance 85/197

-$313 million (2015 est.)

-$221 million (2014 est.)

Exports 84/224

$11.9 billion (2015 est.)

$12.78 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

cocoa, coffee, timber, petroleum, cotton, bananas, pineapples, palm oil, fish

Exports - partners

Ghana 9.1%, US 8.5%, Nigeria 7.9%, Netherlands 7.4%, Gabon 5.4%, Germany 5%, France 5%, Belgium 4.3% (2014)

Imports 102/223

$9.154 billion (2015 est.)

$9.935 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

fuel, capital equipment, foodstuffs

Imports - partners

Nigeria 21.8%, France 11.7%, China 11%, Bahamas, The 6.2% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 95/170

$4.882 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$4.479 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 101/206

$13.03 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$11.29 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

$NA

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad

$NA

Exchange rates

Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -

610.6 (2015 est.)

494.42 (2014 est.)

494.42 (2013 est.)

510.29 (2012 est.)

471.87 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 110/220

6.688 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 119/219

4.731 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 63/218

645 million kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - imports 103/219

54 million kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 118/214

1.522 million kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 132/214

60.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 114/214

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 61/214

39.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 184/212

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 62/214

36,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 47/214

47,900 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - imports 50/214

72,860 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 72/215

100 million bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 76/214

62,750 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 119/212

26,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 62/214

39,720 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 172/213

3,305 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Natural gas - production 59/216

1.78 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 81/215

1.78 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports 120/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports 212/214

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 69/212

28.32 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 118/212

6.403 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 124/219

total subscriptions: 240,000

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 54/217

total: 22.1 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 97 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: well-developed by African standards; telecommunications sector privatized in late 1990s and operational fixed lines have increased since that time with two fixed-line providers operating over open-wire lines, microwave radio relay, and fiber-optics; 90% digitalized

domestic: with multiple mobile-cellular service providers competing in the market, usage has increased sharply to roughly 80 per 100 persons

international: country code - 225; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2011)

Broadcast media

2 state-owned TV stations; no private terrestrial TV stations, but satellite TV subscription service is available; 2 state-owned radio stations; some private radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available (2007)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 3 (1998)

Television broadcast stations

14 (1998)

Internet country code

.ci

Internet hosts 137/232

9,115 (2012)

Internet users 129/217

total: 621,500

percent of population: 2.7% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 124/236

27 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 7

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 20

1,524 to 2,437 m: 6

914 to 1,523 m: 11

under 914 m: 3 (2013)

Heliports

1 (2013)

Pipelines

condensate 101 km; gas 256 km; oil 118 km; oil/gas/water 5 km; water 7 km (2013)

Railways 105/136

total: 660 km

narrow gauge: 660 km 1.000-m gauge

note: an additional 622 km of this railroad extends into Burkina Faso (2008)

Roadways 58/223

total: 81,996 km

paved: 6,502 km

unpaved: 75,494 km

note: includes intercity and urban roads; another 20,000 km of dirt roads are in poor condition and 150,000 km of dirt roads are impassable (2007)

Waterways 66/107

980 km (navigable rivers, canals, and numerous coastal lagoons) (2011)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Abidjan, San-Pedro

oil terminal(s): Espoir Offshore Terminal

Military and Security

Military branches

Republican Forces of Cote d'Ivoire (Force Republiques de Cote d'Ivoire, FRCI): Army, Navy, Cote d'Ivoire Air Force (Force Aerienne de la Cote d'Ivoire) (2015)

Military service age and obligation

18-25 years of age for compulsory and voluntary male and female military service; conscription is not enforced; voluntary recruitment of former rebels into the new national army is restricted to ages 22-29 (2012)

Military expenditures 55/132

1.65% of GDP (2012)

1.49% of GDP (2011)

1.65% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

disputed maritime border between Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana

Refugees and internally displaced persons

IDPs: 300,900 (post-election conflict in 2010-2011, as well as civil war from 2002-2004; most pronounced in western and southwestern regions) (2015)

stateless persons: 700,000 (2014); note - many Ivoirians lack documentation proving their nationality, which prevent them from accessing education and healthcare; birth on Ivorian soil does not automatically result in citizenship; disputes over citizenship and the associated rights of the large population descended from migrants from neighboring countries is an ongoing source of tension and contributed to the country's 2002 civil war; some observers believe the government's mass naturalizations of thousands of people over the last couple of years is intended to boost its electoral support base; the government in October 2013 acceded to international conventions on statelessness and in August 2013 reformed its nationality law, key steps to clarify the nationality of thousands of residents

Illicit drugs

illicit producer of cannabis, mostly for local consumption; utility as a narcotic transshipment point to Europe reduced by ongoing political instability; while rampant corruption and inadequate supervision leave the banking system vulnerable to money laundering, the lack of a developed financial system limits the country's utility as a major money-laundering center (2008)