Croatia

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The lands that today comprise Croatia were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the close of World War I. In 1918, the Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes formed a kingdom known after 1929 as Yugoslavia. Following World War II, Yugoslavia became a federal independent communist state under the strong hand of Marshal TITO. Although Croatia declared its independence from Yugoslavia in 1991, it took four years of sporadic, but often bitter, fighting before occupying Serb armies were mostly cleared from Croatian lands, along with a majority of Croatia's ethnic Serb population. Under UN supervision, the last Serb-held enclave in eastern Slavonia was returned to Croatia in 1998. The country joined NATO in April 2009 and the EU in July 2013.

Geography

Location

Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates

45.10° N, 15.30° E

Area 127/257

total: 56,594 sq km

land: 55,974 sq km

water: 620 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries

total: 2,237 km

border countries (5): Bosnia and Herzegovina 956 km, Hungary 348 km, Montenegro 19 km, Serbia 314 km, Slovenia 600 km

Coastline

5,835 km (mainland 1,777 km, islands 4,058 km)

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate

Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast

Terrain

geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coastline and islands

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m

highest point: Dinara 1,831 m

Natural resources

oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, gypsum, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 23.7%

arable land 16%; permanent crops 1.5%; permanent pasture 6.2%

forest: 34.4%

other: 41.9% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

240 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

105.5 cu km (2011)

Natural hazards

destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues

air pollution (from metallurgical plants) and resulting acid rain is damaging the forests; coastal pollution from industrial and domestic waste; landmine removal and reconstruction of infrastructure consequent to 1992-95 civil strife

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits; most Adriatic Sea islands lie off the coast of Croatia - some 1,200 islands, islets, ridges, and rocks

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Croat(s), Croatian(s)

adjective: Croatian

Ethnic groups

Croat 90.4%, Serb 4.4%, other 4.4% (including Bosniak, Hungarian, Slovene, Czech, and Roma), unspecified 0.8% (2011 est.)

Languages

Croatian (official) 95.6%, Serbian 1.2%, other 3% (including Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, and Albanian), unspecified 0.2% (2011 est.)

Religions

Roman Catholic 86.3%, Orthodox 4.4%, Muslim 1.5%, other 1.5%, unspecified 2.5%, not religious or atheist 3.8% (2011 est.)

Population 126/238

4,464,844 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 14.42% (male 330,355/female 313,312)

15-24 years: 11.92% (male 272,249/female 259,935)

25-54 years: 40.88% (male 903,896/female 921,337)

55-64 years: 14.55% (male 314,697/female 335,007)

65 years and over: 18.23% (male 331,889/female 482,167) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 51.1%

youth dependency ratio: 22.5%

elderly dependency ratio: 28.6%

potential support ratio: 3.5% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 42.63 years

male: 40.5 years

female: 44.1 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 209/233

-0.13% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 203/224

9.45 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 25/225

12.18 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 57/222

1.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 59% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 0.11% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

ZAGREB (capital) 687,000 (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female

total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

27.9 (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 142/184

8 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 168/224

total: 5.77 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 5.91 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 5.62 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 80/224

total population: 76.61 years

male: 73.02 years

female: 80.4 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 201/224

1.46 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Health expenditures 84/191

7.3% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

2.84 physicians/1,000 population (2011)

Hospital bed density

5.9 beds/1,000 population (2012)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 99.6% of population

rural: 99.7% of population

total: 99.6% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0.4% of population

rural: 0.3% of population

total: 0.4% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 97.8% of population

rural: 95.8% of population

total: 97% of population

unimproved:

urban: 2.2% of population

rural: 4.2% of population

total: 3% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths

NA

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 66/191

25.6% (2014)

Education expenditures 99/173

4.2% of GDP (2011)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 15 years

male: 14 years

female: 15 years (2012)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 9/134

total: 50%

male: 49.9%

female: 50.2% (2013 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Croatia

conventional short form: Croatia

local long form: Republika Hrvatska

local short form: Hrvatska

former: People's Republic of Croatia, Socialist Republic of Croatia

etymology: name derives from the Croats, a Slavic tribe who migrated to the Balkans in the 7th century A.D.

Government type

parliamentary democracy

Capital

name: Zagreb

geographic coordinates: 45.48° N, 16.00° E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

20 counties (zupanije, zupanija - singular) and 1 city* (grad - singular) with special county status; Bjelovarsko-Bilogorska(Bjelovar-Bilogora), Brodsko-Posavska (Brod-Posavina), Dubrovacko-Neretvanska (Dubrovnik-Neretva), Istarska (Istria), Karlovacka (Karlovac), Koprivnicko-Krizevacka (Koprivinica-Krizevci), Krapinsko-Zagorska (Krapina-Zagorje), Licko-Senjska (Lika-Senj), Medimurska (Medimurje), Osjecko-Baranjska (Osijek-Baranja), Pozesko-Slavonska (Pozega-Slavonia), Primorsko-Goranska (Primorje-Gorski Kotar), Sibensko-Kninska (Sibenik-Knin), Sisacko-Moslavacka (Sislak-Moslavina), Splitsko-Dalmatinska (Split-Dalmatia), Varazdinska (Varazdin), Viroviticko-Podravska (Virovitica-Podravina), Vukovarsko-Srijemska (Vukovar-Syrmia), Zadarska (Zadar), Zagreb*, Zagrebacka (Zagreb county)

Independence

25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday

Independence Day, 8 October (1991) and Statehood Day, 25 June (1991); note - 25 June 1991 was the day the Croatian parliament voted for independence; following a three-month moratorium to allow the European Community to solve the Yugoslav crisis peacefully, parliament adopted a decision on 8 October 1991 to sever constitutional relations with Yugoslavia

Constitution

several previous; latest adopted 22 December 1990; amended several times, last in 2014 (2015)

Legal system

civil law system influenced by legal heritage of Austria-Hungary; note - Croatian law was fully harmonized with the European Community acquis as of the June 2010 completion of EU accession negotiations

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Croatia

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage

18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC (since 19 February 2015)

head of government: Prime Minister Tihomir ORESKOVIC (since 22 January 2016); First Deputy Prime Minister Vesna PUSIC (since 16 November 2012)

cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and approved by the Assembly

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 10 January 2010 (next to be held in December 2014); the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president and approved by the Assembly

election results: Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC elected president; percent of vote in the second round - Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC (HDZ) 50.7%, Ivo JOSIPOVIC 49.3%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Assembly or Hrvatski Sabor (151 seats; members directly elected by party-list proportional representation vote using the D'Hondt method with a 5% threshold: 14 seats in each of 10 districts; 8 seats in a single nationwide district for minorities; 3 seats in a single special district for the Croatian diaspora, members elected for 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 8 November 2015 (next to be held in 2019)

election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; number of seats by party/coalition - Patriotic Coalition 59, Croatia is Growing 56, Most-NL 19, Our Own Right 3, Labor and Solidarity Coalition 2, HDSSB 2, Human Blockade 1, Successful Croatia 1, minorities 8 (includes SDSS 3)

note: seats by party as of 25 September 2015 - SDP 56, HDZ 42, HNS 11, HDSSB 7, HSU 4, ORaH 3, Reformists 3, SDSS 3, Croatian Laborists - Labor Party 2,HGS 2, IDS 2, Forward Croatia! - Progressive Alliance 1, ID 1, BDSH 1, DC 1, HSS 1, HSP AS 1, New Wave 1, independent 9

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president and vice president, 25 civil department justices, and 16 criminal department justices)

judge selection and term of office: president of Supreme Court nominated by president of Croatia and elected by Croatian Sabor for a 4-year term; other Supreme Court justices appointed by National Judicial Council; all judges serve until age 70

subordinate courts: Administrative Court; county, municipal, and specialized courts; note - there is an 11-member Constitutional Court with jurisdiction limited to constitutional issues but is outside Croatia's judicial system

Political parties and leaders

Bosniak Democratic Party of Croatia or BDSH [Medzad HODZIC]

Bridge of Independent Lists or Most-NL [Bozo PETROV]

Croatian Civic Party or HGS [Zeljko KERUM]

Croatian Democratic Congress of Slavonia and Baranja or HDSSB [Dragan VULIN]

Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ [Tomislav KARAMARKO]

Croatia is Growing [Zoran MILANOVIC] (coalition including SDP, HNS, Croatian Laborists - Labor Party, HSU)

Croatian Laborists - Labor Party [Nansi TIRELI]

Croatian Party of Rights - dr. Ante Starcevic or HSP AS [Ivan TEPES]

Croatian Peasant Party or HSS [Branko HRG]

Croatian Pensioner Party or HSU [Silvano HRELJA]

Croatian People's Party - Liberal Democrats or HNS [Vesna PUSIC]

Democratic Centre or DC [Vesna SKARE-OZBOLT]

Forward Croatia! - Progressive Alliance [Ivo JOSIPOVIC]

Human Blockade [Ivan SINCIC]

Independent Democratic Serb Party or SDSS [Vojislav STANIMIROVIC]

Istrian Democratic Assembly or IDS [Boris MILETIC]

Istrian Democrats [Damir KAJIN]

Labor and Solidarity Coalition (includes New Wave)

New Wave [Liubo JURCIC]

Our Own Right (coalition includes IDS)

Patriotic Coalition [Tomislav KARAMARKO] (including HDZ, HSP AS, HSS)

People's Party - Reformists Party [Radimir CACIC]

Social Democratic Party of Croatia or SDP [Zoran MILANOVIC]

Successful Croatia [Radimir CACIC and Ivo JOSIPOVIC] (coalition including People's Party - Reformists, Forward Croatia! - Progressive Alliance)

Sustainable Development for Croatia or ORaH [Mirela HOLY]

Political pressure groups and leaders

other: human rights groups

International organization participation

Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EMU, EU, FAO, G-11, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (observer), NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMOGIP, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue - the Pan-Slav colors - superimposed by the Croatian coat of arms; the coat of arms consists of one main shield (a checkerboard of 13 red and 12 silver (white) fields) surmounted by five smaller shields that form a crown over the main shield; the five small shields represent five historic regions, they are (from left to right): Croatia, Dubrovnik, Dalmatia, Istria, and Slavonia

note: the Pan-Slav colors were inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia

National symbol(s)

red-white checkerboard; national colors: red, white, blue

National anthem

name: "Lijepa nasa domovino" (Our Beautiful Homeland)

lyrics/music: Antun MIHANOVIC/Josip RUNJANIN

note: adopted 1972; "Lijepa nasa domovino," whose lyrics were written in 1835, served as an unofficial anthem beginning in 1891

Economy

Economy - overview

Though still one of the wealthiest of the former Yugoslav republics, Croatia's economy suffered badly during the 1991-95 war. The country's output during that time collapsed, and Croatia missed the early waves of investment in Central and Eastern Europe that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall. Between 2000 and 2007, however, Croatia's economic fortunes began to improve with moderate but steady GDP growth between 4% and 6% led by a rebound in tourism and credit-driven consumer spending. Inflation over the same period remained tame and the currency, the kuna, stable. Croatia experienced an abrupt slowdown in the economy in 2008 and has yet to recover; economic growth was stagnant or negative in each year since 2009. Difficult problems still remain, including a stubbornly high unemployment rate, uneven regional development, and a challenging investment climate. Croatia continues to face reduced foreign investment. On 1 July 2013 Croatia joined the EU, following a decade-long application process. Croatia will be a member of the European Exchange Rate Mechanism until it meets the criteria for joining the Economic and Monetary Union and adopts the euro as its currency. EU accession has increased pressure on the government to reduce Croatia’s relatively high public debt, which triggered the EU’s excessive deficit procedure for fiscal consolidation. Zagreb has cut spending since 2012, and the government also raised additional revenues through more stringent tax collection and by raising the Value Added Tax. The government has also sought to accelerate privatization of non-strategic assets, with mixed success.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 84/230

$90.33 billion (2015 est.)

$89.6 billion (2014 est.)

$89.93 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$48.93 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 186/225

0.8% (2015 est.)

-0.4% (2014 est.)

-1.1% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 84/230

$21,300 (2015 est.)

$21,200 (2014 est.)

$21,200 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 88/179

19.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

18.9% of GDP (2014 est.)

19.9% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 59.6%

government consumption: 19.8%

investment in fixed capital: 18.7%

investment in inventories: -0.3%

exports of goods and services: 49%

imports of goods and services: -46.8%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 4.3%

industry: 26.7%

services: 69.1% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

arable crops (wheat, corn, barley, sugar beet, sunflower, rapeseed, alfalfa, clover); vegetables (potatoes, cabbage, onion, tomato, pepper); fruits (apples, plum, mandarins, olives), grapes for wine; livestock (cattle, cows, pigs); dairy products

Industries

chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper, wood products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food and beverages, tourism

Industrial production growth rate 97/202

2.6% (2015 est.)

Labor force 127/233

1.708 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 1.9%

industry: 27.6%

services: 70.4% (2014)

Unemployment rate 167/207

19.3% (2015 est.)

20.3% (2014 est.)

Population below poverty line

19.5% (2014 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.3%

highest 10%: 27.5% (2008 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 112/144

32 (2010)

29 (1998)

Budget

revenues: $20.49 billion

expenditures: $22.91 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 33/219

41.9% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 170/220

-5% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 26/176

89.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

85.1% of GDP (2014 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 26/226

-0.3% (2015 est.)

-0.2% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 44/156

7% (31 December 2013)

7% (31 December 2012)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 111/184

7.8% (31 December 2015 est.)

7.8% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 82/192

$8.822 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$10.07 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 69/193

$49.38 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$49.24 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 67/191

$38.42 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$47.3 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 58/121

$36.29 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$33.75 billion (31 December 2013)

$33.44 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Current account balance 40/197

$833 million (2015 est.)

$380 million (2014 est.)

Exports 83/224

$12.23 billion (2015 est.)

$12.95 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

transport equipment, machinery, textiles, chemicals, foodstuffs, fuels

Exports - partners

Italy 13.7%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 12%, Slovenia 11.2%, Germany 11.1%, Austria 6%, Serbia 5% (2014)

Imports 75/223

$19.28 billion (2015 est.)

$21.39 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery, transport and electrical equipment; chemicals, fuels and lubricants; foodstuffs

Imports - partners

Germany 15.1%, Italy 14.1%, Slovenia 10.7%, Austria 8.6%, Hungary 6.5%, Russia 5% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 71/170

$13.94 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$15.42 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 59/206

$62.09 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$61.04 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 63/120

$42 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$40.19 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 64/105

$7.712 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$7.792 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

kuna (HRK) per US dollar -

6.93 (2015 est.)

5.75 (2014 est.)

5.75 (2013 est.)

5.85 (2012 est.)

5.34 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 88/220

13.38 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - consumption 74/219

16.97 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - exports 37/218

2.866 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - imports 38/219

6.592 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 80/214

4.22 million kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 170/214

37.1% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 21/214

7.7% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 50/214

48.5% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 53/212

6.6% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Crude oil - production 79/214

10,070 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 138/214

0 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - imports 56/214

37,300 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 77/215

71 million bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 80/214

56,650 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 85/212

75,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 69/214

29,060 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 94/213

32,890 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Natural gas - production 58/216

1.805 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 76/215

2.81 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - exports 41/215

422 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - imports 57/214

1.079 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 73/212

24.92 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 124/212

5.598 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 66/219

total subscriptions: 1.57 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 35 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 123/217

total: 4.5 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 100 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: the telecommunications network has improved steadily since the mid-1990s, covering much of what were once inaccessible areas; local lines are digital

domestic: fixed-line teledensity holding steady at about 40 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions exceed the population

international: country code - 385; digital international service is provided through the main switch in Zagreb; Croatia participates in the Trans-Asia-Europe (TEL) fiber-optic project, which consists of 2 fiber-optic trunk connections with Slovenia and a fiber-optic trunk line from Rijeka to Split and Dubrovnik; the ADRIA-1 submarine cable provides connectivity to Albania and Greece (2011)

Broadcast media

the national state-owned public broadcaster, Croatian Radiotelevision, operates 4 terrestrial TV networks, a satellite channel that rebroadcasts programs for Croatians living abroad, and 6 regional TV centers; 2 private broadcasters operate national terrestrial networks; roughly 25 privately owned regional TV stations; multi-channel cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; state-owned public broadcaster operates 3 national radio networks and 9 regional radio stations; 2 privately owned national radio networks and more than 170 regional, county, city, and community radio stations (2012)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 16, FM 98, shortwave 5 (1999)

Television broadcast stations

36 (plus 321 repeaters) (1995)

Internet country code

.hr

Internet hosts 50/232

729,420 (2012)

Internet users 86/217

total: 2.9 million

percent of population: 65.1% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 72/236

69 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 24

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 6

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 10 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 45

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 6

under 914 m: 38 (2013)

Heliports

1 (2013)

Pipelines

gas 2,410 km; oil 610 km (2011)

Railways 62/136

total: 2,722 km

standard gauge: 2,722 km 1.435-m gauge (985 km electrified) (2014)

Roadways 97/223

total: 26,958 km (includes 1,416 km of expressways) (2015)

Waterways 73/107

785 km (2009)

Merchant marine 57/156

total: 77

by type: bulk carrier 24, cargo 7, chemical tanker 8, passenger/cargo 27, petroleum tanker 10, refrigerated cargo 1

foreign-owned: 2 (Norway 2)

registered in other countries: 31 (Bahamas 1, Belize 1, Liberia 1, Malta 6, Marshall Islands 12, Panama 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 8) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Ploce, Rijeka, Sibernik, Split

river port(s): Vukovar (Danube)

oil terminal(s): Omisalj

Military and Security

Military branches

Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia (Oruzane Snage Republike Hrvatske, OSRH) consists of five major commands directly subordinate to a General Staff: Ground Forces (Hrvatska Kopnena Vojska, HKoV), Naval Forces (Hrvatska Ratna Mornarica, HRM; includes coast guard), Air Force and Air Defense Command (Hrvatsko Ratno Zrakoplovstvo I Protuzracna Obrana), Joint Education and Training Command, Logistics Command; Military Police Force supports each of the three Croatian military forces (2012)

Military service age and obligation

18-27 years of age for voluntary military service; 6-month service obligation (2012)

Military expenditures 51/132

1.7% of GDP (2012)

1.77% of GDP (2011)

1.7% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

dispute remains with Bosnia and Herzegovina over several small sections of the boundary related to maritime access that hinders ratification of the 1999 border agreement; since the breakup of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s, Croatia and Slovenia have each claimed sovereignty over Pirin Bay and four villages, and Slovenia has objected to Croatia's claim of an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic Sea; in 2009, however Croatia and Slovenia signed a binding international arbitration agreement to define their disputed land and maritime borders, which led to Slovenia lifting its objections to Croatia joining the EU; Slovenia continues to impose a hard border Schengen regime with Croatia, which joined the EU in 2013 but has not yet fulfilled Schengen requirements

Refugees and internally displaced persons

stateless persons: 2,886 (2014)

note: 624,079 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2016)

Illicit drugs

transit point along the Balkan route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe; has been used as a transit point for maritime shipments of South American cocaine bound for Western Europe (2008)