Cyprus

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A former British colony, Cyprus became independent in 1960 following years of resistance to British rule. Tensions between the Greek Cypriot majority and Turkish Cypriot minority came to a head in December 1963, when violence broke out in the capital of Nicosia. Despite the deployment of UN peacekeepers in 1964, sporadic intercommunal violence continued forcing most Turkish Cypriots into enclaves throughout the island. In 1974, a Greek Government-sponsored attempt to overthrow the elected president of Cyprus was met by military intervention from Turkey, which soon controlled more than a third of the island. In 1983, the Turkish Cypriot administered area declared itself the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" ("TRNC"), but it is recognized only by Turkey. In February 2014, after a hiatus of nearly two years, the leaders of the two communities resumed formal discussions under UN auspices aimed at reuniting the divided island. Talks were suspended in October 2014, but resumed in earnest in May 2015 following the election of a new Turkish Cpriot "president." The entire island entered the EU on 1 May 2004, although the EU acquis - the body of common rights and obligations - applies only to the areas under the internationally recognized government, and is suspended in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots. However, individual Turkish Cypriots able to document their eligibility for Republic of Cyprus citizenship legally enjoy the same rights accorded to other citizens of European Union states.

Geography

Location

Middle East, island in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Turkey

Geographic coordinates

35.00° N, 33.00° E

Area 171/257

total: 9,251 sq km (of which 3,355 sq km are in north Cyprus)

land: 9,241 sq km

water: 10 sq km

Area - comparative

about 0.6 times the size of Connecticut

Land boundaries

total: 156 km

border sovereign base areas: Akrotiri 48 km, Dhekelia 108 km

Coastline

648 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate

temperate; Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool winters

Terrain

central plain with mountains to north and south; scattered but significant plains along southern coast

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

highest point: Mount Olympus 1,951 m

Natural resources

copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt, marble, clay earth pigment

Land use

agricultural land: 13.4%

arable land 9.8%; permanent crops 3.2%; permanent pasture 0.4%

forest: 18.8%

other: 67.8% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

460 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

0.78 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 0.18 cu km/yr (10%/3%/86%)

per capita: 164.7 cu m/yr (2009)

Natural hazards

moderate earthquake activity; droughts

Environment - current issues

water resource problems (no natural reservoir catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall, sea water intrusion to island's largest aquifer, increased salination in the north); water pollution from sewage and industrial wastes; coastal degradation; loss of wildlife habitats from urbanization

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily and Sardinia)

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Cypriot(s)

adjective: Cypriot

Ethnic groups

Greek 98.8%, other 1% (includes Maronite, Armenian, Turkish-Cypriot), unspecified 0.2%

note: data represents only the government-controlled area of Cyprus (2011 est.)

Languages

Greek (official) 80.9%, Turkish (official) 0.2%, English 4.1%, Romanian 2.9%, Russian 2.5%, Bulgarian 2.2%, Arabic 1.2%, Filipino 1.1%, other 4.3%, unspecified 0.6%

note: data represents only the government-controlled area of Cyprus (2011 est.)

Religions

Orthodox Christian 89.1%, Roman Catholic 2.9%, Protestant/Anglican 2%, Muslim 1.8%, Buddhist 1%, other (includes Maronite, Armenian Church, Hindu) 1.4%, unknown 1.1%, none/atheist 0.6%

note: data represents only the government-controlled area of Cyprus (2011 est.)

Population 161/238

1,189,197 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 15.61% (male 95,431/female 90,159)

15-24 years: 14.87% (male 96,152/female 80,633)

25-54 years: 46.97% (male 293,582/female 264,935)

55-64 years: 11.05% (male 62,826/female 68,551)

65 years and over: 11.51% (male 59,363/female 77,565) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 41.6%

youth dependency ratio: 23.4%

elderly dependency ratio: 18.2%

potential support ratio: 5.5% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 36.1 years

male: 34.7 years

female: 37.7 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 84/233

1.43% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 172/224

11.41 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 143/225

6.62 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 11/222

9.48 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 66.9% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 0.89% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

NICOSIA (capital) 251,000 (2014)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.19 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.11 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female

total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

28.5

note: data represents only government-controlled areas (2010 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 154/184

7 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 152/224

total: 8.36 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 9.97 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 6.68 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 54/224

total population: 78.51 years

male: 75.7 years

female: 81.46 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 202/224

1.46 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Health expenditures 72/191

7.4% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

2.33 physicians/1,000 population (2012)

Hospital bed density

3.5 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.06% (2013 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

400 (2013 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

fewer than 100 (2013 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 53/191

24.5% (2014)

Education expenditures 19/173

7.2% of GDP (2011)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 14 years

male: 14 years

female: 14 years (2012)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 32/134

total: 38.9%

male: 41.1%

female: 36.8% (2013 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Cyprus

conventional short form: Cyprus

local long form: Kypriaki Dimokratia/Kibris Cumhuriyeti

local short form: Kypros/Kibris

note: the Turkish Cypriot community, which administers the northern part of the island, refers to itself as the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" or "TRNC" ("Kuzey Kibris Turk Cumhuriyeti" or "KKTC")

etymology: the etymology of the name "Cyprus" is unknown, but the extensive mining of copper metal on the island in antiquity gave rise to the Latin word for copper "cuprum"

Government type

republic

note: a separation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting the island began following the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this separation was further solidified after the Turkish intervention in July 1974, following a Greek military-junta-supported coup attempt that gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the north; Greek Cypriots control the only internationally recognized government; on 15 November 1983 then Turkish Cypriot "President" Rauf DENKTAS declared independence and the formation of a "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" ("TRNC"), which is recognized only by Turkey

Capital

name: Nicosia (Lefkosia/Lefkosa)

geographic coordinates: 35.10° N, 33.22° E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

6 districts; Ammochostos (Famagusta; all but a small part administered by Turkish Cypriots), Keryneia (Kyrenia; the only district completely administered by Turkish Cypriots), Larnaka (Larnaca; a small part administered by Turkish Cypriots), Lefkosia (Nicosia; a small part administered by Turkish Cypriots), Lemesos (Limassol), Pafos (Paphos); note - the 5 districts of Turkish Cypriot-administered part of Cyprus are Gazimagusa (Famagusta), Girne (Kyrenia), Guzelyurt (Morphou), Iskele (Trikomo), Lefkosia (Nicosia)

Independence

16 August 1960 (from the UK); note - Turkish Cypriots proclaimed self-rule on 13 February 1975 and independence in 1983, but these proclamations are recognized only by Turkey

National holiday

Independence Day, 1 October (1960); note - Turkish Cypriots celebrate 15 November (1983) as "Republic Day"

Constitution

ratified 16 August 1960; amended 1996, 2013; note - in 1963, the constitution was partly suspended as Turkish Cypriots withdrew from the government; Turkish-held territory in 1983 was declared the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" ("TRNC"); in 1985, the "TRNC" approved its own constitution (2015)

Legal system

mixed legal system of English common law and civil law with European law supremacy

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Cyprus

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Nicos ANASTASIADIES (since 28 February 2013); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; vice president (vacant); note - vice presidency reserved for Turkish Cypriot

head of government: President Nicos ANASTASIADIES (since 28 February 2013)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - under the 1960 constitution, 3 of the ministerial posts reserved for Turkish Cypriots, appointed by the vice president; positions currently filled by Greek Cypriots

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term; election last held on 17 and 24 February 2013 (next to be held in February 2018)

election results: Nicos ANASTASIADIES elected president; percent of vote in first round - Nicos ANASTASIADES (DISY) 45.5%, Stavros MALAS(AKEL) 26.9%, Giorgos LILLIKAS (SP) 24.9%, other 2.7%; percent of vote in second round - Nicos ANASTASIADIES 57.5%, Savros MALAS 42.5%

note: Mustafa AKINCI elected "president" of the "TRNC" on 30 April 2015; percent of vote in first round (19 April 2015) - Dervis EROGLU (UBP) 28.2%, Mustafa AKINCI (TDP) 26.9%, other 44.9%; percent of vote in runoff (26 April 2015) - AKINCI 60.5%, EROGLU 39.5%; Omer KALYONCU is "TRNC prime minister" since 4 July 2015

Legislative branch

description: area under government control: unicameral House of Representatives or Vouli Antiprosopon (80 seats; 56 assigned to Greek Cypriots, 24 to Turkish Cypriots, but only those assigned to Greek Cypriots are filled; members directly elected by both proportional representation and preferential vote; members serve 5-year terms); area administered by Turkish Cypriots: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Cumhuriyet Meclisi (50 seats; members directly elected by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)

elections: area under government control: last held on 22 May 2011 (next to be held in May 2016); area administered by Turkish Cypriots: last held on 28 July 2013 (next to be held on July 2018)

election results: area under government control: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - DISY 34.3%, AKEL 32.7%, DIKO 15.8%, KS-EDEK 8.9%, EVROKO 3.9%, other 4.4%; seats by party - DISY 20, AKEL 19, DIKO 9, KS-EDEK 5, EVROKO 2, KOP 1; note - according to the website of the Cypriot House of Representatives there were 59 members on 4 November 2015 including KS EDEK 5, AKEL 19, DIKO 8, DISY 20, Maronite 1, Member of Famagusta constituency, European Party 1, Armenian 1, Latin 1, Cyprus Green Party 1; area administered by Turkish Cypriots: "Assembly of the Republic" - percent of vote by party - CTP-BG 38.4%, UBP 27.3%, DP-UG 23.2%, TDP 7.4%, other 3.7%; seats by party - CTP-BG 21, UBP 14, DP-UG 12, TDP 3

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Cyprus (consists of 13 judges including the court president); note - the highest court in the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC)" is the "Supreme Court" (consists of 8 "judges" including the "court president")

judge selection and term of office: Republic of Cyprus Supreme Court judges appointed by the president of the republic upon the recommendation of the Supreme Court judges; judges tenure is until the age of 68; "TRNC Supreme Court" judges appointed by the "Supreme Council of Judicature", a 12-member body of "judges", the "attorney general", "appointees" - 1 each by the "president" of the "TRNC" and by the "Legislative Assembly" and 1 member elected by the Bar Association; "judge" tenure NA

subordinate courts: Republic of Cyprus district courts; Assize Courts; specialized courts for issues relating to family, industrial disputes, military, and rent control; "TRNC Assize Courts"; "district and family courts"

Political parties and leaders

area under government control:

Citizens' Alliance or SP [Giorgos LILLIKAS]

Democratic Party or DIKO [Nikolas PAPADOPOULOS]

Democratic Rally or DISY [Averof NEOPHYTOU (of Neofytou)]

Ecological and Environmental Movement or KOP (Green Party) [Giorgos PERDIKIS]

European Party or EVROKO [Dimitris SYLLOURIS]

Movement of Social Democrats or KS-EDEK [Marinos SIZOPOULOS]

National Popular Front or ELAM [Christos CHRISTOU]

Progressive Party of the Working People or AKEL (Communist Party) [Andros KYPRIANOU]

United Democrats or EDI [Praxoula ANTONIADOU]

area administered by Turkish Cypriots:

Communal Democracy Party or TDP [Cemal OZYIGIT]

Cyprus Socialist Party or KSP [Mehmet BIRINCI]

Democrat Party- National Forces or DP-UG [Serdar DENKTAS]

National Justice Party or UAP [Fatma SOLMAZ]

National Unity Party or UBP [Huseyin OZGURGUN]

New Cyprus Party or YKP [Murat KANATLI]

Republican Turkish Party-United Forces or CTP-BG [Mehmet Ali TALAT]

Social Democratic Party or SDP [Tozun TUNALI]

United Cyprus Party or BKP [Izzet IZCAN]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Confederation of Cypriot Workers or SEK [Nikos MOYSEOS] (pro-West)

Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation or PEO (Communist controlled) [Pambis KYRITSIS]

area administered by Turkish Cypriots: Confederation of Revolutionary Labor Unions or Dev-Is

Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions or Turk-Sen [Asian BICAKLI]

International organization participation

Australia Group, C, CD, CE, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Flag description

white with a copper-colored silhouette of the island (the island has long been famous for its copper deposits) above two green crossed olive branches in the center of the flag; the branches symbolize the hope for peace and reconciliation between the Greek and Turkish communities

note: the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" flag retains the white field of the Cyprus national flag but displays narrow horizontal red stripes positioned a small distance from the top and bottom edges between which are centered a red crescent and a red five-pointed star; the banner is modeled after the Turkish national flag but with the colors reversed

National symbol(s)

Cypriot mouflon (wild sheep), white dove; national colors: blue, white

National anthem

name: "Ymnos eis tin Eleftherian" (Hymn to Liberty)

lyrics/music: Dionysios SOLOMOS/Nikolaos MANTZAROS

note: adopted 1960; Cyprus adopted the Greek national anthem as its own; the Turkish community in Cyprus uses the anthem of Turkey

Economy

Economy - overview

The area of the Republic of Cyprus under government control has a market economy dominated by the service sector, which accounts for four-fifths of GDP. Tourism, financial services, and real estate have traditionally been the most important sectors. Cyprus has been a member of the European Union (EU) since May 2004 and adopted the euro as its national currency in January 2008.

During the first five years of EU membership, the Cyprus economy grew at an average rate of about 4%, with unemployment between 2004 and 2008 averaging about 4%. However, the economy tipped into recession in 2009 as the ongoing global financial crisis and resulting low demand hit the tourism and construction sectors. An overextended banking sector with excessive exposure to Greek debt added to the contraction. Cyprus’s biggest two banks were among the largest holders of Greek bonds in Europe and had a substantial presence in Greece through bank branches and subsidiaries. Following numerous downgrades of its credit rating, Cyprus lost access to international capital markets in May 2011. In July 2012, Cyprus became the fifth eurozone government to request an economic bailout program from the European Commission, European Central Bank and the International Monetary Fund - known collectively as the "Troika."

Shortly after the election of President Nikos ANASTASIADES in February 2013, Cyprus reached an agreement with the Troika on a $13 billion bailout that resulted in losses on uninsured bank deposits. The bailout triggered a two-week bank closure and the imposition of capital controls that remained in part in place until April 2015. Cyprus' two largest banks merged and the combined entity was recapitalized through conversion of some large bank deposits to shares and imposition of losses on bank bondholders. As with other EU countries, the Troika conditioned the bailout on passing financial and structural reforms and privatizing state-owned enterprises. Despite downsizing and restructuring, the Cypriot financial sector throughout 2015 remained burdened by the largest stock of non-performing loans (NPLs) in the euro-zone, equal to nearly half of all loans. Since the bailout, Cyprus has received positive appraisals by the Troika and outperformed fiscal targets but has struggled to overcome political opposition to bailout-mandated legislation, particularly regarding contentious bankruptcy and property foreclosures rules. Cyprus emerged from recession in the first quarter of 2015 and its economy grew an estimated 0.5% for the year, setting a positive tone for the scheduled end of the bailout program in March 2016.

In October 2013, a US-Israeli consortium completed preliminary appraisals of hydrocarbon deposits in Cyprus’ exclusive economic zone (EEZ), which revealed an estimated gross mean reserve of about 130 billion cubic meters. Though exploration continues in Cyprus’ EEZ, no additional commercially exploitable reserves were identified during the exploratory drilling in 2014/2015. Developing offshore hydrocarbon resources remains a critical component of the government’s economic recovery efforts, but development has been delayed as a result of regional developments and disagreements about exploitation methods.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 133/230

$27.91 billion (2015 est.)

$27.52 billion (2014 est.)

$27.7 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$19.38 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 192/225

0.5% (2015 est.)

-2.3% (2014 est.)

-5.4% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 57/230

$31,000 (2015 est.)

$30,900 (2014 est.)

$31,400 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 160/179

7.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

10.4% of GDP (2014 est.)

10.1% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 69.4%

government consumption: 14.7%

investment in fixed capital: 10.7%

investment in inventories: 1%

exports of goods and services: 55.9%

imports of goods and services: -51.7% (2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 2.1%

industry: 10.3%

services: 87.4% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

citrus, vegetables, barley, grapes, olives, vegetables; poultry, pork, lamb; dairy, cheese

Industries

tourism, food and beverage processing, cement and gypsum, ship repair and refurbishment, textiles, light chemicals, metal products, wood, paper, stone and clay products

Industrial production growth rate 179/202

-2.3% (2015 est.)

Labor force 160/233

349,700 (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 3.8%

industry: 15.2%

services: 81% (2013 est.)

Unemployment rate 154/207

16.1% (2015 est.)

15.9% (2014 est.)

Population below poverty line

NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.3%

highest 10%: 28.8% (2013)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 93/144

34.8 (2013 est.)

32.4 (2012 est.)

Budget

revenues:: $7.743 billion

expenditures:: $7.857 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 42/219

39.9% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 47/220

-0.6% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 11/176

107% of GDP (2015 est.)

102% of GDP (2014 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 24/226

-0.3% (2015 est.)

0.4% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 154/156

0.05% (31 December 2013)

0.3% (31 December 2010)

note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

Commercial bank prime lending rate 151/184

4.7% (31 December 2015 est.)

5.88% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 110/192

$3.44 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$4.382 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

Stock of broad money 73/193

$43.41 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$47.99 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 62/191

$50.49 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$65.42 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 101/121

$1.996 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$2.853 billion (31 December 2011)

$6.834 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance 111/197

-$806 million (2015 est.)

-$1.041 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 143/224

$1.818 billion (2015 est.)

$2.018 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

citrus, potatoes, pharmaceuticals, cement, clothing

Exports - partners

Greece 16.4%, UK 10.2%, Israel 5.4%, US 4.2% (2014)

Imports 114/223

$6.755 billion (2015 est.)

$6.32 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

consumer goods, petroleum and lubricants, machinery, transport equipment

Imports - partners

Greece 23.9%, Israel 9.5%, UK 7.4%, Italy 7.1%, Germany 7%, Netherlands 5.7%, France 5.5%, Spain 4.8%, China 4.4% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 138/170

$864 million (31 December 2015 est.)

$890.9 million (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 54/206

$95.28 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

$103.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 56/120

$60.35 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$59.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 43/105

$43.82 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$42.87 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

0.89 (2015 est.)

0.75 (2014 est.)

0.76 (2013 est.)

0.78 (2012 est.)

0.72 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 125/220

3.942 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - consumption 121/219

4.296 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 130/218

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 140/219

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 113/214

1.658 million kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 77/214

90% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 77/214

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 169/214

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 38/212

10% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 124/214

0 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 115/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - imports 180/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 123/215

0 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 173/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 97/212

53,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 173/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 78/213

52,480 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Natural gas - production 177/216

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 136/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports 87/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports 187/214

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 48/212

141.6 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 106/212

8.801 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 112/219

total subscriptions: 330,000

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 28 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 157/217

total: 1.1 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 95 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: excellent in both area under government control and area administered by Turkish Cypriots

domestic: open-wire, fiber-optic cable, and microwave radio relay

international: country code - 357 (area administered by Turkish Cypriots uses the country code of Turkey - 90); a number of submarine cables, including the SEA-ME-WE-3, combine to provide connectivity to Western Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; tropospheric scatter; satellite earth stations - 8 (3 Intelsat - 1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean, 2 Eutelsat, 2 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat)

Broadcast media

mixture of state and privately run TV and radio services; the public broadcaster operates 2 TV channels and 4 radio stations; 6 private TV broadcasters, satellite and cable TV services including telecasts from Greece and Turkey, and a number of private radio stations are available; in areas administered by Turkish Cypriots, there are 2 public TV stations, 4 public radio stations, and privately owned TV and radio broadcast stations (2007)

Radio broadcast stations

area under government control: AM 5, FM 76, shortwave 0

area administered by Turkish Cypriots: AM 1, FM 20, shortwave 1 (2004)

Television broadcast stations

area under government control: 8

area administered by Turkish Cypriots: 2 (plus 4 relay) (2004)

Internet country code

.cy

Internet hosts 67/232

252,013 (2012)

Internet users 127/217

total: 738,900

percent of population: 63.0% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 145/236

15 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 13

2,438 to 3,047 m: 7

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 1 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 2

under 914 m: 2 (2013)

Heliports

9 (2013)

Roadways 108/223

total: 20,006 km

government control: 13,006 km (includes 2,277 km of expressways)

paved: 8,564 km

unpaved: 4,442 km

Turkish Cypriot control: 7,000 km (2011)

Merchant marine 13/156

total: 838

by type: bulk carrier 278, cargo 163, chemical tanker 77, container 201, liquefied gas 11, passenger 3, passenger/cargo 25, petroleum tanker 62, refrigerated cargo 5, roll on/roll off 9, vehicle carrier 4

foreign-owned: 622 (Angola 1, Austria 1, Belgium 3, Bermuda 1, Canada 2, China 6, Denmark 6, Estonia 6, France 16, Germany 192, Greece 201, Hong Kong 2, India 4, Iran 10, Ireland 3, Italy 6, Japan 16, Netherlands 23, Norway 14, Philippines 1, Poland 24, Portugal 2, Russia 46, Singapore 1, Slovenia 5, Spain 6, Sweden 5, Turkey 1, UAE 3, UK 7, Ukraine 3, US 5)

registered in other countries: 152 (Bahamas 23, Cambodia 4, Comoros 2, Finland 1, Gibraltar 1, Greece 3, Hong Kong 3, Liberia 9, Malta 32, Marshall Islands 40, Norway 1, Panama 5, Russia 13, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3, Sierra Leone 2, Singapore 6, unknown 4) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): area under government control: Larnaca, Limassol, Vasilikos; area administered by Turkish Cypriots: Famagusta, Kyrenia

Military and Security

Military branches

Republic of Cyprus: Cypriot National Guard (Ethniki Froura, EF; includes naval and air elements); Northern Cyprus: Turkish Cypriot Security Force (GKK) (2014)

Military service age and obligation

Cypriot National Guard (CNG): 18-50 years of age for compulsory military service for all Greek Cypriot males; 17 years of age for voluntary service; 2-year service obligation (2014)

Military expenditures 37/132

2.1% of GDP (2013)

2.05% of GDP (2012)

2.14% of GDP (2011)

2.05% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

hostilities in 1974 divided the island into two de facto autonomous entities, the internationally recognized Cypriot Government and a Turkish-Cypriot community (north Cyprus); the 1,000-strong UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) has served in Cyprus since 1964 and maintains the buffer zone between north and south; on 1 May 2004, Cyprus entered the European Union still divided, with the EU's body of legislation and standards (acquis communitaire) suspended in the north; Turkey protests Cypriot Government creating hydrocarbon blocks and maritime boundary with Lebanon in March 2007

Refugees and internally displaced persons

IDPs: 212,400 (both Turkish and Greek Cypriots; many displaced since 1974) (2015)

Illicit drugs

minor transit point for heroin and hashish via air routes and container traffic to Europe, especially from Lebanon and Turkey; some cocaine transits as well; despite a strengthening of anti-money-laundering legislation, remains vulnerable to money laundering; reporting of suspicious transactions in offshore sector remains weak (2008)