Czech Republic

WorldABC.xyz: facts on every entity in the world

At the close of World War I, the Czechs and Slovaks of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire merged to form Czechoslovakia. During the interwar years, having rejected a federal system, the new country's predominantly Czech leaders were frequently preoccupied with meeting the increasingly strident demands of other ethnic minorities within the republic, most notably the Slovaks, the Sudeten Germans, and the Ruthenians (Ukrainians). On the eve of World War II, Nazi Germany occupied the territory that today comprises the Czech Republic, and Slovakia became an independent state allied with Germany. After the war, a reunited but truncated Czechoslovakia (less Ruthenia) fell within the Soviet sphere of influence. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the country's leaders to liberalize communist rule and create "socialism with a human face," ushering in a period of repression known as "normalization." The peaceful "Velvet Revolution" swept the Communist Party from power at the end of 1989 and inaugurated a return to democratic rule and a market economy. On 1 January 1993, the country underwent a nonviolent "velvet divorce" into its two national components, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004.

Geography

Location

Central Europe, between Germany, Poland, Slovakia, and Austria

Geographic coordinates

49.45° N, 15.30° E

Area 116/257

total: 78,867 sq km

land: 77,247 sq km

water: 1,620 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries

total: 2,143 km

border countries (4): Austria 402 km, Germany 704 km, Poland 796 km, Slovakia 241 km

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Terrain

Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills, and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; Moravia in the east consists of very hilly country

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Labe (Elbe) River 115 m

highest point: Snezka 1,602 m

Natural resources

hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite, timber, arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 54.8%

arable land 41%; permanent crops 1%; permanent pasture 12.8%

forest: 34.4%

other: 10.8% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

320 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

13.15 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 1.7 cu km/yr (41%/56%/2%)

per capita: 164.7 cu m/yr (2009)

Natural hazards

flooding

Environment - current issues

air and water pollution in areas of northwest Bohemia and in northern Moravia around Ostrava present health risks; acid rain damaging forests; efforts to bring industry up to EU code should improve domestic pollution

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in central Europe

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Czech(s)

adjective: Czech

Ethnic groups

Czech 64.3%, Moravian 5%, Slovak 1.4%, other 1.8%, unspecified 27.5% (2011 est.)

Languages

Czech (official) 95.4%, Slovak 1.6%, other 3% (2011 census)

Religions

Roman Catholic 10.4%, Protestant (includes Czech Brethren and Hussite) 1.1%, other and unspecified 54%, none 34.5% (2011 est.)

Population 85/238

10,644,842 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 15% (male 819,864/female 776,639)

15-24 years: 10.23% (male 559,108/female 529,598)

25-54 years: 43.7% (male 2,387,303/female 2,264,774)

55-64 years: 13.06% (male 673,060/female 717,296)

65 years and over: 18.01% (male 791,823/female 1,125,377) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 49.5%

youth dependency ratio: 22.5%

elderly dependency ratio: 27%

potential support ratio: 3.7% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 41.3 years

male: 40 years

female: 42.6 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 185/233

0.16% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 202/224

9.63 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 37/225

10.34 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 43/222

2.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 73% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 0.35% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

PRAGUE (capital) 1.314 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

27.8 (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 173/184

4 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 216/224

total: 2.63 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 2.76 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 2.49 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 55/224

total population: 78.48 years

male: 75.5 years

female: 81.62 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 205/224

1.44 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

86.3%

note: percent of women aged 18-49 (2008)

Health expenditures 63/191

7.2% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

3.71 physicians/1,000 population (2010)

Hospital bed density

6.8 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 99.1% of population

rural: 99.2% of population

total: 99.1% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0.9% of population

rural: 0.8% of population

total: 0.9% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.05% (2013 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

3,400 (2013 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

fewer than 100 (2013 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 21/191

29.1% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight 122/138

2% (2007)

Education expenditures 106/173

4.5% of GDP (2011)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 16 years

male: 16 years

female: 17 years (2012)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 57/134

total: 19%

male: 18.6%

female: 19.4% (2013 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Czech Republic

conventional short form: Czech Republic

local long form: Ceska republika

local short form: Cesko

etymology: name derives from the Czechs, a west Slavic tribe who rose to prominence in the late 9th century A.D.

Government type

parliamentary democracy

Capital

name: Prague

geographic coordinates: 50.05° N, 14.28° E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

13 regions (kraje, singular - kraj) and 1 capital city* (hlavni mesto); Jihocesky (South Bohemia), Jihomoravsky (South Moravia), Karlovarsky (Karlovy Vary), Kralovehradecky (Hradec Kralove), Liberecky (Liberec), Moravskoslezsky (Moravia-Silesia), Olomoucky (Olomouc), Pardubicky (Pardubice), Plzensky (Pilsen), Praha (Prague)*, Stredocesky (Central Bohemia), Ustecky (Usti), Vysocina (Highlands), Zlinsky (Zlin)

Independence

1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia); note - although 1 January is the day the Czech Republic came into being, the Czechs commemorate 28 October 1918, the day the former Czechoslovakia declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, as their independence day

National holiday

Czechoslovak Founding Day, 28 October (1918)

Constitution

previous 1960; latest ratified 16 December 1992, effective 1 January 1993; amended several times, last in 2013 (2015)

Legal system

new civil code enacted in 2014, replacing civil code of 1964 - based on former Austro-Hungarian civil codes and socialist theory - and reintroducing former Czech legal terminology

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Czech Republic

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Milos ZEMAN (since 8 March 2013)

head of government: Prime Minister Bohuslav SOBOTKA (since 17 January 2014); First Deputy Prime Minister Andrej BABIS and Deputy Prime Minister Pavel BELOBRADEK (both since 29 January 2014)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (limited to 2 consecutive terms); elections last held on 11-12 January 2013 with a runoff on 25-26 January 2013 (next to be held in January 2018); prime minister appointed by the president for a 5-year term

election results: Milos ZEMAN elected president; percent of popular vote - Milos ZEMAN (SPO) 54.8%, Karel SCHWARZENBERG (TOP 09) 45.2%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (81 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in two rounds if needed; members serve 6-year terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 2 years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Poslanecka Snemovna (200 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held in two rounds on 10-11 and 17-18 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2016); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 25-26 October 2013 (next to be held in 2017)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party/caucus as of 15 December 2015 - CSSD 33, ODS 14, KDU-CSL 11, STAN+TOP 09 6, KSCM+SPO+S.cz 6, ANO+S.cz 5, independent 6; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - CSSD 20.5%, ANO 2011 18.7%, KSCM 14.9%, TOP 09 12%, ODS 7.7%, Usvit 6.9%, KDU-CSL 6.8% other 12.5%; seats by party - CSSD 50, ANO 2011 47, KSCM 33, TOP 09 + STAN 26, ODS 16, KDU-CSL 14, Usvit 8, independent 6

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (organized into Civil Law and Commercial Division, and Criminal Division each with a court chief justice, vice justice, and several judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 15 justices); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 28 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges proposed by the Chamber of Deputies and appointed by the president; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate; judges appointed for 10-year, renewable terms; Supreme Administrative Court judges selected by the president of the Court; judge term NA

subordinate courts: High Court; superior, regional, and district courts

Political parties and leaders

parties in parliament: ANO 2011 or ANO [Andrej BABIS]

Christian Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's Party or KDU-CSL [Pavel BELOBRADEK]

Civic Democratic Party or ODS [Petr FIALA]

Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia or KSCM [Vojtech FILIP]

Czech Social Democratic Party or CSSD [Bohuslav SOBOTKA]

Dawn - National Coalition or Usvit [Miroslav LIDINSKY]

Mayors and Independents or STAN [Martin PUTA]

North Bohemians or S.cz [Bronislav SCHWARZ]

Party of Civic Rights or SPO [Jan VELEBA]

Tradition Responsibility Prosperity 09 or TOP 09 [Karel SCHWARZENBERG]

parties outside parliament: Czech Pirate Party [Lukas CERNOHORSKY]

Free Citizens Party or Svobodni [Petr MACH]

Freedom and Direct Democracy or SPD [Tomio OKAMURA]

Green Party or SZ [Jana DRAPALOVA]

Liberal Reform Party or Ostravak [Eva SCHWARZOVA]

Mayors for Liberec Region or SLK [Marek PIETER]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Czech-Moravian Confederation of Trade Unions or CMKOS [Josef STREDULA]

International organization participation

Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Flag description

two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side

note: is identical to the flag of the former Czechoslovakia

National symbol(s)

double-tailed lion; national colors: white, red, blue

National anthem

name: "Kde domov muj?" (Where is My Home?)

lyrics/music: Josef Kajetan TYL/Frantisek Jan SKROUP

note: adopted 1993; the anthem was originally written as incidental music to the play "Fidlovacka" (1834), it soon became very popular as an unofficial anthem of the Czech nation; its first verse served as the official Czechoslovak anthem beginning in 1918, while the second verse (Slovak) was dropped after the split of Czechoslovakia in 1993

Economy

Economy - overview

The Czech Republic is a stable and prosperous market economy closely integrated with the EU, especially since the country's EU accession in 2004. The auto industry is the largest single industry, and, together with its upstream suppliers, accounts for nearly 24% of Czech manufacturing. The Czech Republic produced more than a million cars for the first time in 2010, over 80% of which were exported. While the conservative, inward-looking Czech financial system has remained relatively healthy, the small, open, export-driven Czech economy remains sensitive to changes in the economic performance of its main export markets, especially Germany. When Western Europe and Germany fell into recession in late 2008, demand for Czech goods plunged, leading to double digit drops in industrial production and exports. As a result, real GDP fell sharply in 2009. The economy slowly recovered in the second half of 2009 and registered weak growth in the next two years. In 2012 and 2013, however, the economy fell into a recession again, due both to a slump in external demand in the EU and to the government’s austerity measures, returning to weak growth in 2014, and stronger growth in 2015. Foreign and domestic businesses alike voice concerns about corruption, especially in public procurement. Other long term challenges include dealing with a rapidly aging population, funding an unsustainable pension and health care system, and diversifying away from manufacturing and toward a more high-tech, services-based, knowledge economy.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 51/230

$331.4 billion (2015 est.)

$319 billion (2014 est.)

$312.8 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$182.5 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 67/225

3.9% (2015 est.)

2% (2014 est.)

-0.5% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 56/230

$31,500 (2015 est.)

$30,300 (2014 est.)

$29,800 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 29/179

28% of GDP (2015 est.)

25.9% of GDP (2014 est.)

24.2% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 47.7%

government consumption: 19%

investment in fixed capital: 25.1%

investment in inventories: -0.1%

exports of goods and services: 85.5%

imports of goods and services: -77.2%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 2.7%

industry: 38.2%

services: 59.2% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

wheat, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, poultry

Industries

motor vehicles, metallurgy, machinery and equipment, glass, armaments

Industrial production growth rate 30/202

5% (2015 est.)

Labor force 73/233

5.479 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 2.6%

industry: 37.4%

services: 60% (2012)

Unemployment rate 75/207

6.5% (2015 est.)

7.7% (2014 est.)

Population below poverty line

8.6% (2012 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 1.5%

highest 10%: 29.1% (2012 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 141/144

24.9 (2012)

25.4 (1996)

Budget

revenues: $72.21 billion

expenditures: $75.56 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 43/219

39.6% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 66/220

-1.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 107/176

41.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

42.1% of GDP (2014 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 49/226

0.4% (2015 est.)

0.4% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 138/156

0.05% (31 December 2013)

0.05% (31 December 2012)

note: this is the two-week repo, the main rate CNB uses

Commercial bank prime lending rate 155/184

4.5% (31 December 2015 est.)

4.64% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 29/192

$126.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$122.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 50/193

$152.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$155.7 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 48/191

$148.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$137.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 51/121

$54.92 billion (30 December 3013 est.)

$59.88 billion (28 December 2012)

$53.2 billion (30 December 2011 est.)

Current account balance 30/197

$3.067 billion (2015 est.)

$1.265 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 34/224

$133.8 billion (2015 est.)

$110.5 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

machinery and transport equipment, raw materials, fuel, chemicals

Exports - partners

Germany 32.4%, Slovakia 8.4%, Poland 6%, UK 5.1%, France 5.1%, Austria 4.4% (2014)

Imports 33/223

$124 billion (2015 est.)

$101.9 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery and transport equipment, raw materials and fuels, chemicals

Imports - partners

Germany 30.2%, Poland 8.5%, Slovakia 6.8%, China 6.2%, Netherlands 5.7%, Austria 4.2% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 31/170

$73.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$54.49 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 47/206

$125.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$137.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 36/120

$147.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$142.6 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 44/105

$41.14 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$40.14 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

koruny (CZK) per US dollar -

24.19 (2015 est.)

20.76 (2014 est.)

20.76 (2013 est.)

19.59 (2012 est.)

17.7 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 37/220

81.86 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 42/219

60.55 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 7/218

27.46 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 21/219

10.57 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 40/214

20.21 million kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 143/214

55.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 10/214

18.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 125/214

5.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 21/212

14.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 86/214

3,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 87/214

464.4 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports 39/214

131,300 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 88/215

15 million bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 63/214

152,600 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 58/212

201,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 63/214

37,680 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 64/213

70,010 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production 76/216

245 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 53/215

7.508 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - exports 50/215

1 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - imports 29/214

7.249 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 95/212

4.276 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 42/212

91.15 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 60/219

total subscriptions: 1.89 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 18 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 70/217

total: 14 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 131 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: privatization and modernization of the Czech telecommunication system got a late start but is advancing steadily; virtually all exchanges now digital; existing copper subscriber systems enhanced with Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) equipment to accommodate Internet and other digital signals; trunk systems include fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay

domestic: access to the fixed-line telephone network expanded throughout the 1990s, but the number of fixed line connections has been dropping since then; mobile telephone usage increased sharply beginning in the mid-1990s, and the number of cellular telephone subscriptions now greatly exceeds the population

international: country code - 420; satellite earth stations - 6 (2 Intersputnik - Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions, 1 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 1 Globalstar) (2011)

Broadcast media

roughly 130 TV broadcasters operating some 350 channels with 4 publicly operated and the remainder in private hands; 16 TV stations have national coverage with 4 being publicly operated; cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; 63 radio broadcasters are registered operating roughly 80 radio stations with 15 stations publicly operated; 10 radio stations provide national coverage with the remainder local or regional (2008)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 31, FM 304, shortwave 17 (2000)

Television broadcast stations

71 (2008)

Internet country code

.cz

Internet hosts 27/232

4.148 million (2012)

Internet users 49/217

total: 8.2 million

percent of population: 77.5% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 46/236

128 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 41

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 9

1,524 to 2,437 m: 12

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 16 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 87

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 25

under 914 m: 61 (2013)

Heliports

1 (2013)

Pipelines

gas 7,160 km; oil 536 km; refined products 94 km (2013)

Railways 23/136

total: 9,621.5 km

standard gauge: 9,519.5 km 1.435-m gauge (3,240.5 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 102 km 0.760-m gauge (2014)

Roadways 38/223

total: 130,661 km (includes urban roads)

paved: 130,661 km (includes 730 km of expressways) (2011)

Waterways 76/107

664 km (principally on Elbe, Vltava, Oder, and other navigable rivers, lakes, and canals) (2010)

Merchant marine 150/156

registered in other countries: 1 (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals

river port(s): Prague (Vltava); Decin, Usti nad Labem (Elbe)

Military and Security

Military branches

Army of the Czech Republic (Armada Ceske Republiky): General Staff (Generalni Stab; includes Land Forces (Pozemni Sily) and Air Forces (Vzdusne Sily)) (2015)

Military service age and obligation

18-28 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)

Military expenditures 94/132

1.04% of GDP (2015)

1.08% of GDP (2014)

1.06% of GDP (2013)

1.13% of GDP (2012)

1.15% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

while threats of international legal action never materialized in 2007, 915,220 Austrians, with the support of the popular Freedom Party, signed a petition in January 2008, demanding that Austria block the Czech Republic's accession to the EU unless Prague closes its controversial Soviet-style nuclear plant in Temelin, bordering Austria

Refugees and internally displaced persons

stateless persons: 1,502 (2014)

Illicit drugs

transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and minor transit point for Latin American cocaine to Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for local and regional markets; susceptible to money laundering related to drug trafficking, organized crime; significant consumer of ecstasy (2008)