Denmark

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Once the seat of Viking raiders and later a major north European power, Denmark has evolved into a modern, prosperous nation that is participating in the general political and economic integration of Europe. It joined NATO in 1949 and the EEC (now the EU) in 1973. However, the country has opted out of certain elements of the European Union's Maastricht Treaty, including the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), European defense cooperation, and issues concerning certain justice and home affairs.

Geography

Location

Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, on a peninsula north of Germany (Jutland); also includes several major islands (Sjaelland, Fyn, and Bornholm)

Geographic coordinates

56.00° N, 10.00° E

Area 134/257

total: 43,094 sq km

land: 42,434 sq km

water: 660 sq km

note: includes the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea and the rest of metropolitan Denmark (the Jutland Peninsula, and the major islands of Sjaelland and Fyn), but excludes the Faroe Islands and Greenland

Area - comparative

slightly less than twice the size of Massachusetts

Land boundaries

total: 140 km

border countries (1): Germany 140 km

Coastline

7,314 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate

temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and cool summers

Terrain

low and flat to gently rolling plains

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Lammefjord -7 m

highest point: Mollehoj/Ejer Bavnehoj 171 m

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, fish, arable land, salt, limestone, chalk, stone, gravel and sand

Land use

agricultural land: 63.4%

arable land 58.9%; permanent crops 0.1%; permanent pasture 4.4%

forest: 12.9%

other: 23.7%

note: highest percentage of arable land for any country in the world (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

4,350 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

6 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 0.66 cu km/yr (58%/5%/36%)

per capita: 118.4 cu m/yr (2009)

Natural hazards

flooding is a threat in some areas of the country (e.g., parts of Jutland, along the southern coast of the island of Lolland) that are protected from the sea by a system of dikes

Environment - current issues

air pollution, principally from vehicle and power plant emissions; nitrogen and phosphorus pollution of the North Sea; drinking and surface water becoming polluted from animal wastes and pesticides

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

controls Danish Straits (Skagerrak and Kattegat) linking Baltic and North Seas; about one-quarter of the population lives in greater Copenhagen

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Dane(s)

adjective: Danish

Ethnic groups

Scandinavian, Inuit, Faroese, German, Turkish, Iranian, Somali

Languages

Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Inuit dialect), German (small minority)

note: English is the predominant second language

Religions

Evangelical Lutheran (official) 80%, Muslim 4%, other (denominations of less than 1% each, includes Roman Catholic, Jehovah's Witness, Serbian Orthodox Christian, Jewish, Baptist, and Buddhist) 16% (2012 est.)

Population 116/238

5,581,503 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 16.77% (male 480,267/female 455,946)

15-24 years: 13.11% (male 373,547/female 358,150)

25-54 years: 39.03% (male 1,085,130/female 1,093,162)

55-64 years: 12.41% (male 344,509/female 348,201)

65 years and over: 18.68% (male 466,566/female 576,025) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 55.9%

youth dependency ratio: 26.3%

elderly dependency ratio: 29.6%

potential support ratio: 3.4% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 41.8 years

male: 40.9 years

female: 42.8 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 182/233

0.22% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 191/224

10.27 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 38/225

10.25 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 49/222

2.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 87.7% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 0.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

COPENHAGEN (capital) 1.268 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

29.1 (2012 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 151/184

6 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 191/224

total: 4.05 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 4.12 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 47/224

total population: 79.25 years

male: 76.82 years

female: 81.81 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 168/224

1.73 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Health expenditures 14/191

10.6% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

3.49 physicians/1,000 population (2010)

Hospital bed density

3.5 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 99.6% of population

rural: 99.6% of population

total: 99.6% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0.4% of population

rural: 0.4% of population

total: 0.4% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.16% (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

6,000 (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

fewer than 100 (2014 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 107/191

21% (2014)

Education expenditures 8/173

8.7% of GDP (2011)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 19 years

male: 18 years

female: 19 years (2012)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 84/134

total: 11.5%

male: 13.7%

female: 12.6% (2014 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Kingdom of Denmark

conventional short form: Denmark

local long form: Kongeriget Danmark

local short form: Danmark

etymology: the name derives from the words "Dane(s)" and "mark"; the latter referring to a march (borderland) or forest

Government type

constitutional monarchy

Capital

name: Copenhagen

geographic coordinates: 55.40° N, 12.35° E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

note: applies to continental Denmark only, not to its North Atlantic components

Administrative divisions

metropolitan Denmark - 5 regions (regioner, singular - region); Hovedstaden (Capital), Midtjylland (Central Jutland), Nordjylland (North Jutland), Sjaelland (Zealand), Syddanmark (Southern Denmark)

note: an extensive local government reform merged 271 municipalities into 98 and 13 counties into five regions, effective 1 January 2007

Independence

ca. 965 (unified and Christianized under HARALD I Gormson); 5 June 1849 (became a constitutional monarchy)

National holiday

none designated; Constitution Day, 5 June (1849) is generally viewed as the National Day

Constitution

several previous; latest adopted 5 June 1953; changed several times, last in 2009 (Danish Act of Succession) (2015)

Legal system

civil law; judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Denmark

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972); Heir Apparent Crown Prince FREDERIK, elder son of the monarch (born on 26 May 1968)

head of government: Prime Minister Helle THORNING-SCHMIDT (since 3 October 2011)

cabinet: Council of State appointed by the monarch

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch

Legislative branch

description: unicameral People's Assembly or Folketing (179 seats, including 2 representing Greenland and 2 representing the Faroe Islands; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms unless the Folketing is dissolved earlier)

elections: last held on 18 June 2015 (next to be held by June 2019)

election results: percent of vote by party - SDP 26.3%, DF 21.1%, V 19.5%, EL 7.8%, LA 7.5%, AP 4.8%, SLP 4.6%, SF 4.2%, C 3.4%, other 0.9%; seats by party - SDP 47, DF 37, V 34, EL 14, LA 13, AP 9, SLP 8, SF 7, C 6; note - does not include the two seats from Greenland and the two seats from the Faroe Islands

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president and 18 judges)

judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the monarch upon the recommendation of the Minister of Justice with the advice of the Judicial Appointments Council, a 6-member independent body of judges and lawyers; judges appointed for life with retirement at age 70

subordinate courts: Special Court of Indictment and Revision; 2 High Courts; Maritime and Commercial Court; county courts

Political parties and leaders

Alternative Party or AP [Uffe ELBAEK]

Conservative People's Party or C [Soren PAPE POULSEN]

Danish People's Party or DF [Kristian THULESEN DAHL]

Liberal Alliance or LA [Anders SAMUELSEN]

Liberal Party or V [Lars LOKKE RAMUSSEN]

Red-Green Alliance (Unity List) or EL [collective leadership, spokesperson Johanne SCHMIDT-NIELSEN]

Social Democratic Party or SDP [Mette FREDERIKSEN]

Social Liberal Party or SLP [Morten OSTERGAARD]

Socialist People's Party or SF [Pia OLSEN DYHR]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Confederation of Danish Employers or DA [President Jergen VORSHOLT

Confederation of Danish Industries or DI [CEO Karsten DYBVAD]

Confederation of Danish Labor Unions (Landsorganisationen) or LO [President Lizette RISGAARD]

DaneAge Association [President Bjarne HASTRUP]

Danish Shipowners' Association [Director General and CEO Anne STEFFENSEN]]

Danish Bankers Association [CEO Ulrik NODGAARD]

Danish Society for Nature Conservation or DN [President Ella Maria BISSCHOP-LARSEN]

other: environmental groups; humanitarian relief; development assistance; human rights NGOs

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Flag description

red with a white cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side; the banner is referred to as the Dannebrog (Danish flag) and is one of the oldest national flags in the world; traditions as to the origin of the flag design vary, but the best known is a legend that the banner fell from the sky during an early-13th century battle; caught up by the Danish king before it ever touched the earth, this heavenly talisman inspired the royal army to victory; in actuality, the flag may derive from a crusade banner or ensign

note: the shifted cross design element was subsequently adopted by the other Nordic countries of Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden

National symbol(s)

lion, mute swan; national colors: red, white

National anthem

name: "Der er et yndigt land" (There is a Lovely Land); "Kong Christian" (King Christian)

lyrics/music: Adam Gottlob OEHLENSCHLAGER/Hans Ernst KROYER; Johannes EWALD/unknown

note: Denmark has two national anthems with equal status; "Der er et yndigt land," adopted 1844, is a national anthem, while "Kong Christian," adopted 1780, serves as both a national and royal anthem; "Kong Christian" is also known as "Kong Christian stod ved hojen mast" (King Christian Stood by the Lofty Mast) and "Kongesangen" (The King's Anthem); within Denmark, the royal anthem is played only when royalty is present and is usually followed by the national anthem; when royalty is not present, only the national anthem is performed; outside Denmark, the royal anthem is played, unless the national anthem is requested

Economy

Economy - overview

This thoroughly modern market economy features a high-tech agricultural sector, advanced industry with world-leading firms in pharmaceuticals, maritime shipping and renewable energy, and a high dependence on foreign trade. Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the Danish economy is characterized by extensive government welfare measures and an equitable distribution of income. An ageing population will be a major long-term issue.

Denmark is a member of the European Union (EU); Danish legislation and regulations conform to EU standards on almost all issues. Despite previously meeting the criteria to join the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), Denmark has negotiated an opt-out with the EU and is not required to adopt the euro.

Denmark is a net exporter of food and energy and enjoys a comfortable balance of payments surplus, but depends on imports of raw materials for the manufacturing sector. Within the EU, Denmark is among the strongest supporters of trade liberalization.

After a long consumption-driven upswing, Denmark's economy began slowing in 2007 with the end of a housing boom. Housing prices dropped markedly in 2008-09 and, following a short respite in 2010, have since continued to decline. Household indebtedness is still relatively high at more than 275% of gross disposable income in the first half of 2013. The global financial crisis exacerbated this cyclical slowdown by increasing domestic borrowing costs and lowering foreign demand for Danish exports. Denmark maintained a healthy budget surplus for many years up to 2008, but the budget balance swung into deficit in 2009. Denmark made a modest recovery in 2010, in part because of increased government spending; however, the country experienced a recession in late 2010-early 2011 and has been slow to recover. Historically low levels of unemployment rose with the economic downturn and have remained at about 6% in 2010-13, based on the national measure.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 59/230

$257.1 billion (2015 est.)

$253.1 billion (2014 est.)

$250.4 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$291 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 158/225

1.6% (2015 est.)

1.1% (2014 est.)

-0.5% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 33/230

$45,800 (2015 est.)

$45,100 (2014 est.)

$44,600 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 36/179

26.9% of GDP (2015 est.)

25.7% of GDP (2014 est.)

26% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 48.1%

government consumption: 26.4%

investment in fixed capital: 18.3%

investment in inventories: 0.4%

exports of goods and services: 51.9%

imports of goods and services: -45.1%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 1.3%

industry: 22.4%

services: 76.3% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

barley, wheat, potatoes, sugar beets; pork, dairy products; fish

Industries

iron, steel, nonferrous metals, chemicals, food processing, machinery and transportation equipment, textiles and clothing, electronics, construction, furniture and other wood products, shipbuilding and refurbishment, windmills, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment

Industrial production growth rate 154/202

0.7% (2015 est.)

Labor force 108/233

2.774 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 2.6%

industry: 20.3%

services: 77.1% (2011 est.)

Unemployment rate 47/207

4.7% (2015 est.)

4.9% (2014 est.)

Population below poverty line

13.4% (2011 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 1.9%

highest 10%: 28.7% (2007)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 142/144

24.8 (2011 est.)

24.7 (1992)

Budget

revenues: $161.7 billion

expenditures: $170.9 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 9/219

55.6% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 123/220

-3.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 90/176

47.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

45.1% of GDP (2014 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 55/226

0.6% (2015 est.)

0.6% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 126/156

0.75% (31 December 2011)

0.75% (31 December 2010)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 171/184

2.9% (31 December 2015 est.)

3.62% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 26/192

$157.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$154.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 42/193

$181.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$189.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 21/191

$631.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$705.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 34/121

$224.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$179.5 billion (31 December 2011)

$231.7 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance 16/197

$20.33 billion (2015 est.)

$21.43 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 37/224

$94.1 billion (2015 est.)

$111.4 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

machinery and instruments, meat and meat products, dairy products, fish, pharmaceuticals, furniture, windmills

Exports - partners

Germany 18.6%, Sweden 12.1%, UK 8.1%, US 6.7%, Norway 6.5%, Netherlands 4.4% (2014)

Imports 36/223

$83.81 billion (2015 est.)

$101.3 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery and equipment, raw materials and semimanufactures for industry, chemicals, grain and foodstuffs, consumer goods

Imports - partners

Germany 21.3%, Sweden 12.8%, Netherlands 8%, Norway 6.3%, China 6.3%, UK 4.9% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 23/170

$102.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$75.38 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 25/206

$534.6 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$609.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 37/120

$145.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$144.5 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 25/105

$252.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$249.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

Danish kroner (DKK) per US dollar -

6.59 (2015 est.)

5.61 (2014 est.)

5.61 (2013 est.)

5.79 (2012 est.)

5.37 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 66/220

28.93 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 60/219

31.96 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 20/218

10.38 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 18/219

11.46 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 50/214

14.05 million kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 142/214

56.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 78/214

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 153/214

0.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 1/212

43.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 40/214

165,200 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 34/214

136,600 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports 48/214

99,690 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 46/215

611 million bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 57/214

177,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 65/212

153,900 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 42/214

129,500 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 38/213

141,100 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production 53/216

4.612 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 71/215

3.16 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - exports 37/215

2.093 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - imports 63/214

625 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 65/212

43.01 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 68/212

40.51 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 61/219

total subscriptions: 1.88 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 34 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 106/217

total: 7.1 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 128 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: excellent telephone and telegraph services

domestic: buried and submarine cables and microwave radio relay form trunk network, multiple cellular mobile communications systems

international: country code - 45; a series of fiber-optic submarine cables link Denmark with Canada, Faroe Islands, Germany, Iceland, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden, and UK; satellite earth stations - 18 (6 Intelsat, 10 Eutelsat, 1 Orion, 1 Inmarsat (Blaavand-Atlantic-East)); note - the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) share the Danish earth station and the Eik, Norway, station for worldwide Inmarsat access (2011)

Broadcast media

strong public-sector TV presence with state-owned Danmarks Radio operating 4 channels and publicly owned TV2 operating roughly a half dozen channels; broadcasts of privately owned stations are available via satellite and cable feed; DR operates 4 nationwide FM radio stations, 15 digital audio broadcasting stations, and about 15 web-based radio stations; approximately 250 commercial and community radio stations (2007)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 1, FM 355, shortwave 0 (1998)

Television broadcast stations

172 (2008)

Internet country code

.dk

Internet hosts 25/232

4.297 million (2012)

Internet users 62/217

total: 5.4 million

percent of population: 96.1% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 68/236

80 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 28

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 7

1,524 to 2,437 m: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 12

under 914 m: 2 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 52

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 47 (2013)

Pipelines

condensate 11 km; gas 4,377 km; oil 647 km; oil/gas/water 2 km (2013)

Railways 63/136

total: 2,414 km

standard gauge: 2,414 km 1.435-m gauge (626 km electrified) (2014)

Roadways 63/223

total: 73,929 km

paved: 73,929 km (includes 1,143 km of expressways) (2012)

Waterways 87/107

400 km (2010)

Merchant marine 27/156

total: 367

by type: bulk carrier 4, cargo 48, carrier 1, chemical tanker 125, container 94, liquefied gas 4, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 40, petroleum tanker 36, refrigerated cargo 3, roll on/roll off 8, specialized tanker 3

foreign-owned: 27 (Germany 9, Greenland 1, Norway 2, Sweden 15)

registered in other countries: 582 (Antigua and Barbuda 20, Bahamas 69, Belgium 4, Brazil 3, Curacao 1, Cyprus 6, Egypt 1, France 11, Gibraltar 7, Hong Kong 42, Isle of Man 30, Italy 4, Jamaica 1, Liberia 8, Lithuania 8, Luxembourg 1, Malaysia 1, Malta 34, Marshall Islands 7, Moldova 1, Netherlands 27, Norway 7, Panama 41, Philippines 2, Portugal 4, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 9, Singapore 149, Sweden 4, UK 43, Uruguay 1, US 31, Venezuela 1, unknown 4) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Baltic Sea - Aarhus, Copenhagen, Fredericia, Kalundborg; North Sea - Esbjerg,

river port(s): Aalborg (Langerak)

dry bulk cargo port(s): Ensted (coal)

cruise port(s): Copenhagen

Military and Security

Military branches

Defense Command: Army Operational Command, Admiral Danish Fleet, Arctic Command, Tactical Air Command, Home Guard (2010)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscripts serve an initial training period that varies from 4 to 12 months according to specialization; reservists are assigned to mobilization units following completion of their conscript service; women eligible to volunteer for military service (2012)

Military expenditures 71/132

1.37% of GDP (2013)

1.41% of GDP (2012)

1.35% of GDP (2011)

1.41% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Iceland, the UK, and Ireland dispute Denmark's claim that the Faroe Islands' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm; Faroese continue to study proposals for full independence; sovereignty dispute with Canada over Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland; Denmark (Greenland) and Norway have made submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) and Russia is collecting additional data to augment its 2001 CLCS submission

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 7,253 (Afghanistan) (2014)

stateless persons: 4,725 (2014)