Egypt

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The regularity and richness of the annual Nile River flood, coupled with semi-isolation provided by deserts to the east and west, allowed for the development of one of the world's great civilizations. A unified kingdom arose circa 3200 B.C., and a series of dynasties ruled in Egypt for the next three millennia. The last native dynasty fell to the Persians in 341 B.C., who in turn were replaced by the Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines. It was the Arabs who introduced Islam and the Arabic language in the 7th century and who ruled for the next six centuries. A local military caste, the Mamluks took control about 1250 and continued to govern after the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517. Completion of the Suez Canal in 1869 elevated Egypt as an important world transportation hub. Ostensibly to protect its investments, Britain seized control of Egypt's government in 1882, but nominal allegiance to the Ottoman Empire continued until 1914. Partially independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt acquired full sovereignty from Britain in 1952. The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world), limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress society. The government has struggled to meet the demands of Egypt's population through economic reform and massive investment in communications and physical infrastructure.

Inspired by the 2010 Tunisian revolution, Egyptian opposition groups led demonstrations and labor strikes countrywide, culminating in President Hosni MUBARAK's ouster. Egypt's military assumed national leadership until a new parliament was in place in early 2012; later that same year, Mohammed MORSI won the presidential election. Following often violent protests throughout the spring of 2013 against MORSI's government and the Muslim Brotherhood, the Egyptian Armed Forces intervened and removed MORSI from power in July 2013 and replaced him with interim president Adly MANSOUR. In January 2014, voters approved a new constitution by referendum and in May 2014 elected Abdel Fattah Al SISI president. Egypt elected a new legislature in December 2015, the first parliament since 2012.

Geography

Location

Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula

Geographic coordinates

27.00° N, 30.00° E

Area 30/257

total: 1,001,450 sq km

land: 995,450 sq km

water: 6,000 sq km

Area - comparative

more than eight times the size of Ohio; slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico

Land boundaries

total: 2,612 km

border countries (4): Gaza Strip 13 km, Israel 208 km, Libya 1,115 km, Sudan 1,276 km

Coastline

2,450 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or the equidistant median line with Cyprus

continental shelf: 200 nm

Climate

desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters

Terrain

vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m

highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, rare earth elements, zinc

Land use

agricultural land: 3.6%

arable land 2.8%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 0%

forest: 0.1%

other: 96.3% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

36,500 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

57.3 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 68.3 cu km/yr (8%/6%/86%)

per capita: 973.3 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards

periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes; flash floods; landslides; hot, driving windstorms called khamsin occur in spring; dust storms; sandstorms

Environment - current issues

agricultural land being lost to urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salination below Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; limited natural freshwater resources away from the Nile, which is the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining the Nile and natural resources

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, a sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size, and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics; dependence on upstream neighbors; dominance of Nile basin issues; prone to influxes of refugees from Sudan and the Palestinian territories

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Egyptian(s)

adjective: Egyptian

Ethnic groups

Egyptian 99.6%, other 0.4% (2006 census)

Languages

Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes

Religions

Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 90%, Christian (majority Coptic Orthodox, other Christians include Armenian Apostolic, Catholic, Maronite, Orthodox, and Anglican) 10% (2012 est.)

Population 16/238

88,487,396 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 31.89% (male 14,430,312/female 13,790,448)

15-24 years: 17.64% (male 7,985,589/female 7,620,404)

25-54 years: 38.45% (male 17,307,230/female 16,715,153)

55-64 years: 6.86% (male 2,971,475/female 3,100,747)

65 years and over: 5.16% (male 2,058,911/female 2,507,127) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 62.3%

youth dependency ratio: 53.8%

elderly dependency ratio: 8.5%

potential support ratio: 11.8% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 25.3 years

male: 24.9 years

female: 25.6 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 65/233

1.79% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 69/224

22.9 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 195/225

4.77 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 118/222

-0.19 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 43.1% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 1.68% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

CAIRO (capital) 18.772 million; Alexandria 4.778 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female

total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

22.7

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2014 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 92/184

33 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 81/224

total: 21.55 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 23 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 20.02 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 126/224

total population: 73.7 years

male: 71.06 years

female: 76.47 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 61/224

2.83 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

60.3% (2008)

Health expenditures 142/191

5.1% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

2.83 physicians/1,000 population (2009)

Hospital bed density

0.5 beds/1,000 population (2012)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 100% of population

rural: 99% of population

total: 99.4% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0% of population

rural: 1% of population

total: 0.6% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 96.8% of population

rural: 93.1% of population

total: 94.7% of population

unimproved:

urban: 3.2% of population

rural: 6.9% of population

total: 5.3% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.02% (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

8,800 (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

300 (2014 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 17/191

27.7% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight 77/138

6.8% (2008)

Education expenditures 117/173

3.8% of GDP (2008)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 14 years

male: 14 years

female: 13 years (2012)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 37/134

total: 34.3%

male: 28.7%

female: 52.2% (2013 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt

conventional short form: Egypt

local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah

local short form: Misr

former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)

etymology: the English name "Egypt" derives from the ancient Greek name for the country "Aigyptos"; the Arabic name "Misr" can be traced to the ancient Akkadian "misru" meaning border or frontier

Government type

republic

Capital

name: Cairo

geographic coordinates: 30.03° N, 31.15° E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

27 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazat); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah (Alexandria), Al Isma'iliyah (Ismailia), Al Jizah (Giza), Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah (Cairo), Al Qalyubiyah, Al Uqsur (Luxor), Al Wadi al Jadid (New Valley), As Suways (Suez), Ash Sharqiyah, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id (Port Said), Dumyat (Damietta), Janub Sina' (South Sinai), Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina' (North Sinai), Suhaj

Independence

28 February 1922 (from UK protectorate status; the revolution that began on 23 July 1952 led to a republic being declared on 18 June 1953 and all British troops withdrawn on 18 June 1956); note - it was ca. 3200 B.C. that the Two Lands of Upper (southern) and Lower (northern) Egypt were first united politically

National holiday

Revolution Day, 23 July (1952)

Constitution

several previous; latest approved by a constitutional committee in December 2013, approved by referendum held on 14-15 January 2014, ratified by interim president on 19 January 2014 (2015)

Legal system

mixed legal system based on Napoleonic civil and penal law, Islamic religious law, and vestiges of colonial-era laws; judicial review of the constitutionality of laws by the Supreme Constitutional Court

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: if the father was born in Egypt

dual citizenship recognized: only with prior permission from the government

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch

Chief of state: President Abdelfattah Said ELSISI (since 8 June 2014)

head of government: Prime Minister Sherif ISMAIL (since 12 September 2015); note - Prime Minister Ibrahim MEHLAB resigned 12 September 2015

cabinet: Cabinet sworn in 19 September 2015

elections/appointments: president elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 26-28 May 2014 (next to be held in May 2018); prime minister appointed by the president, approved by the House of Representatives

election results: Abdelfattah Said ELSISI elected president; percent of vote in 1 round - Abdelfattah Said ELSISI (independent) 96.6%, Hamdeen SABAHI (Egyptian Current Party ) 3.4%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral House of Representatives (Majlis Al-Nowaab); 596 seats; 448 members directly elected by individual candidacy system, 120 members - with quotas for women, youth, Christians and workers - elected in party-list constituencies by simple majority popular vote, and 28 members selected by the president; member term NA; note - inaugural session held on 10 January 2016

elections: multi-phase election completed on 16 December 2015 (next election NA)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Constitutional Court or SCC (consists of the court president and 10 justices); the SCC serves as the final court of arbitrator on the constitutionality of laws and conflicts between lower courts regarding jurisdiction and rulings; Court of Cassation (CC) (consists of the court president and 550 judges organized in circuits with cases heard by panels of 5 judges); the CC is the highest appeals body for civil and criminal cases, also known as “ordinary justices"; Supreme Administrative Court (SAC) - consists of the court president and organized in circuits with cases heard by panels of 5 judges); the SAC is the highest court of the State Council

judge selection and term of office: under the 2014 constitution, all judges and justices selected by the Supreme Judiciary Council and appointed by the president of the Republic; tenure NA

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Courts of First Instance; courts of limited jurisdiction; Family Court (established in 2004)

Political parties and leaders

officially recognized: Al-Dustour (Constitution) Party [Tamer GOMAA]

Al-Karama Party [Mohamed SAMY]

Al-Nour [Yunis MAKHYUN]

Al-Wasat Party [Mohamad Abdel LATIF]

Al-Watan [Imad Abd al-GHAFUR]

Building and Development Party or BDP [Yomna EL-HAMAKI];; Conference Party [Omar EL-MOKHTAR]

Congress Party [Omar Mokhtar SEMEIDA]

Egyptian National Movement Party [Ahmed SHAFIK]

Egyptian Social Democratic Party [Mervat TALAWAY]

El Tagamu'u Party [Sayed Abdel AAL]

Free Egyptians Party [Essam KHALIL]

Future of Homeland Party [Qadry ABU HUSSEIN]

Knights of Egypt Party [General Abdel Rafe DARWISH]

Mostaqbal Watan Party [Mohamed BADRAN]

New Wafd Party [Sayed al-BADADWI]

Popular Current Party [Ahmed Kamel AL-BEHERI]

Reform and Development Party [Mohamad Anwar al-SADAT]

Socialist Popular Alliance [Abu Al-Izz AL-HARIRI]

Strong Egypt Party [Abdel Moneim Aboul FOTOUH]

Political pressure groups and leaders

NA

International organization participation

ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, BSEC (observer), CAEU, CD, CICA, COMESA, D-8, EBRD, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the national emblem (a gold Eagle of Saladin facing the hoist side with a shield superimposed on its chest above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in the white band; the band colors derive from the Arab Liberation flag and represent oppression (black), overcome through bloody struggle (red), to be replaced by a bright future (white)

note: similar to the flag of Syria, which has two green stars in the white band, Iraq, which has an Arabic inscription centered in the white band, and Yemen, which has a plain white band

National symbol(s)

golden eagle, white lotus; national colors: red, white, black

National anthem

name: "Bilady, Bilady, Bilady" (My Homeland, My Homeland, My Homeland)

lyrics/music: Younis-al QADI/Sayed DARWISH

note: adopted 1979; the current anthem, less militaristic than the previous one, was created after the signing of the 1979 peace treaty with Israel; Sayed DARWISH, commonly considered the father of modern Egyptian music, composed the anthem

Economy

Economy - overview

Occupying the northeast corner of the African continent, Egypt is bisected by the highly fertile Nile valley, where most economic activity takes place. Egypt's economy was highly centralized during the rule of former President Gamal Abdel NASSER but opened up considerably under former Presidents Anwar EL-SADAT and Mohamed Hosni MUBARAK.

Cairo from 2004 to 2008 pursued business climate reforms to attract foreign investment and facilitate growth. Poor living conditions and limited job opportunities for the average Egyptian contribute to public discontent, a major factor leading to the January 2011 revolution that ousted Mubarak. The uncertain political, security, and policy environment since 2011 caused economic growth to slow significantly, hurting tourism, manufacturing, and other sectors and pushing up unemployment.

Weak growth and limited foreign exchange earnings have made public finances unsustainable, leaving authorities dependent on expensive borrowing for deficit finance and on Gulf allies to help cover the import bill. In 2015, higher levels of foreign investment contributed to a slight rebound in GDP growth after a particularly depressed post-revolution period.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 25/230

$996 billion (2015 est.)

$955.9 billion (2014 est.)

$935.6 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$286.4 billion (2014 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 58/225

4.2% (2015 est.)

2.2% (2014 est.)

2.1% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 129/230

$11,500 (2015 est.)

$11,000 (2014 est.)

$10,800 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 142/179

11.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

13.2% of GDP (2014 est.)

11.8% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 80.8%

government consumption: 11.7%

investment in fixed capital: 12.1%

investment in inventories: 0.5%

exports of goods and services: 14%

imports of goods and services: -19.1%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 14.3%

industry: 39.6%

services: 46.1% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats

Industries

textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals, light manufactures

Industrial production growth rate 75/202

3.3% (2015 est.)

Labor force 23/233

28.87 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 29.2%

industry: 23.5%

services: 47.3% (2011 est.)

Unemployment rate 137/207

12.8% (2015 est.)

13% (2014 est.)

Population below poverty line

25.2% (2011 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 4%

highest 10%: 26.6% (2008)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 116/144

30.8 (2008)

32.1 (2005)

Budget

revenues: $76.61 billion

expenditures: $111.5 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 109/219

26.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 208/220

-12.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 24/176

91.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

93.7% of GDP (2014 est.)

note: data cover central government debt and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions

Fiscal year

1 July - 30 June

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 210/226

10.4% (2015 est.)

10.1% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 23/156

9.75% (30 October 2014)

8.75% (5 December 2013)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 70/184

11.7% (31 December 2015 est.)

11.71% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 45/192

$66.67 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$62.34 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 41/193

$245.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$224.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 37/191

$271 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$259.3 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 47/121

$73.04 billion (30 November 2014 est.)

$58.01 billion (31 December 2012)

$48.68 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Current account balance 170/197

-$5.543 billion (2015 est.)

-$6.151 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 72/224

$20.88 billion (2015 est.)

$26.15 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

crude oil and petroleum products, fruits and vegetables, cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals, processed food

Exports - partners

Italy 9.2%, Saudi Arabia 7.4%, India 7.2%, Turkey 5.4%, US 4.2% (2014)

Imports 47/223

$57.91 billion (2015 est.)

$70.46 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, wood products, fuels

Imports - partners

China 11.2%, Germany 7.9%, US 7.4%, Kuwait 5.1%, Italy 4.6%, Ukraine 4.4%, Russia 4.2%, Turkey 4.1% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 65/170

$17.05 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$14.45 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 68/206

$41.32 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$45.75 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 47/120

$89.65 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$84.39 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 66/105

$7.362 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$6.839 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

Egyptian pounds (EGP) per US dollar -

7.72 (2015 est.)

7.08 (2014 est.)

7.08 (2013 est.)

6.06 (2012 est.)

5.94 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 26/220

155.3 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 26/219

135.6 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 49/218

1.474 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - imports 97/219

77 million kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 32/214

27 million kW (2013 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 81/214

87.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 83/214

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 118/214

9.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 75/212

2.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 29/214

478,400 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 31/214

189,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports 49/214

80,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 26/215

4.4 billion bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 37/214

445,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 25/212

752,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 49/214

83,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 33/213

170,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production 17/216

57.6 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 14/215

52.72 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports 32/215

3.823 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports 43/214

2.832 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 16/212

2.18 trillion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 30/212

206.3 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 26/219

total subscriptions: 6.32 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 7 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 17/217

total: 95.3 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 110 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: underwent extensive upgrading during 1990s; principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave radio relay

domestic: largest fixed-line system in the region; multiple mobile-cellular networks with a near 100-percent penetration of the market

international: country code - 20; landing point for Aletar, the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks, Link Around the Globe (FLAG) Falcon and FLAG FEA; satellite earth stations - 4 (2 Intelsat - Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean, 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat); tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to Israel; a participant in Medarabtel (2015)

Broadcast media

mix of state-run and private broadcast media; state-run TV operates 2 national and 6 regional terrestrial networks, as well as a few satellite channels; about 20 private satellite channels and a large number of Arabic satellite channels are available via subscription; state-run radio operates about 70 stations belonging to 8 networks; 2 privately owned radio stations operational (2008)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 42 (plus 15 repeaters), FM 22, shortwave 1 (2010)

Television broadcast stations

64 (2010)

Internet country code

.eg

Internet hosts 71/232

200,430 (2012)

Internet users 15/217

total: 42 million

percent of population: 48.3% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 66/236

83 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 72

over 3,047 m: 15

2,438 to 3,047 m: 36

1,524 to 2,437 m: 15

under 914 m: 6 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 11

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 3 (2013)

Heliports

7 (2013)

Pipelines

condensate 486 km; condensate/gas 74 km; gas 7,986 km; liquid petroleum gas 957 km; oil 5,225 km; oil/gas/water 37 km; refined products 895 km; water 65 km (2013)

Railways 34/136

total: 5,085 km

standard gauge: 5,085 km 1.435-m gauge (62 km electrified) (2014)

Roadways 37/223

total: 137,430 km

paved: 126,742 km (includes 838 km of expressways)

unpaved: 10,688 km (2010)

Waterways 29/107

3,500 km (includes the Nile River, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in Nile Delta; the Suez Canal (193.5 km including approaches) is navigable by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 17.68 m) (2011)

Merchant marine 62/156

total: 67

by type: bulk carrier 16, cargo 20, container 3, passenger/cargo 7, petroleum tanker 12, roll on/roll off 9

foreign-owned: 13 (Denmark 1, France 1, Greece 8, Jordan 2, Lebanon 1)

registered in other countries: 42 (Cambodia 4, Georgia 7, Honduras 2, Liberia 3, Malta 1, Marshall Islands 1, Moldova 5, Panama 11, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, Saudi Arabia 1, Sierra Leone 3, unknown 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Mediterranean Sea - Alexandria, Damietta, El Dekheila, Port Said; Gulf of Suez - Suez

oil terminal(s): Ain Sukhna terminal, Sidi Kerir terminal

container port(s) (TEUs): Alexandria (1,108,826), Port Said(East) (2,617,043), Port Said(West) (1,138,753)

LNG terminal(s) (export): Damietta, Idku (Abu Qir Bay)

Military and Security

Military branches

Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Forces (2015)

Military service age and obligation

18-30 years of age for male conscript military service; service obligation - 18-36 months, followed by a 9-year reserve obligation; voluntary enlistment possible from age 16 (2012)

Military expenditures 53/132

1.76% of GDP (2014)

1.67% of GDP (2013)

1.72% of GDP (2012)

1.86% of GDP (2011)

1.72% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Sudan claims but Egypt de facto administers security and economic development of Halaib region north of the 22nd parallel boundary; Egypt no longer shows its administration of the Bir Tawil trapezoid in Sudan on its maps; Gazan breaches in the security wall with Egypt in January 2008 highlight difficulties in monitoring the Sinai border; Saudi Arabia claims Egyptian-administered islands of Tiran and Sanafir

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 70,023 (West Bank and Gaza Strip); 12,730 (Sudan); 5,149 (Iraq) (2014); 117,658 (Syria); 7,682 (Somalia) (2015)

stateless persons: 20 (2014)

Illicit drugs

transit point for cannabis, heroin, and opium moving to Europe, Israel, and North Africa; transit stop for Nigerian drug couriers; concern as money laundering site due to lax enforcement of financial regulations