Ethiopia

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Unique among African countries, the ancient Ethiopian monarchy maintained its freedom from colonial rule with the exception of a short-lived Italian occupation from 1936-41. In 1974, a military junta, the Derg, deposed Emperor Haile SELASSIE (who had ruled since 1930) and established a socialist state. Torn by bloody coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought, and massive refugee problems, the regime was finally toppled in 1991 by a coalition of rebel forces, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front. A constitution was adopted in 1994, and Ethiopia's first multiparty elections were held in 1995. A border war with Eritrea in the late 1990s ended with a peace treaty in December 2000. In November 2007, the Eritrea-Ethiopia Border Commission (EEBC) issued specific coordinates as virtually demarcating the border and pronounced its work finished. Alleging that the EEBC acted beyond its mandate in issuing the coordinates, Ethiopia has not accepted them and has not withdrawn troops from previously contested areas pronounced by the EEBC as belonging to Eritrea. In August 2012, longtime leader Prime Minister MELES Zenawi died in office and was replaced by his Deputy Prime Minister HAILEMARIAM Desalegn, marking the first peaceful transition of power in decades.

Geography

Location

Eastern Africa, west of Somalia

Geographic coordinates

8.00° N, 38.00° E

Area 27/257

total: 1,104,300 sq km

land: 1 million sq km

water: 104,300 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries

total: 5,925 km

border countries (6): Djibouti 342 km, Eritrea 1,033 km, Kenya 867 km, Somalia 1,640 km, South Sudan 1,299 km, Sudan 744 km

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation

Terrain

high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Danakil Depression -125 m

highest point: Ras Dejen 4,533 m

Natural resources

small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash, natural gas, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 36.3%

arable land 15.2%; permanent crops 1.1%; permanent pasture 20%

forest: 12.2%

other: 51.5% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

2,900 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

122 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 5.56 cu km/yr (13%/1%/86%)

per capita: 80.5 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards

geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts

volcanism: volcanic activity in the Great Rift Valley; Erta Ale (elev. 613 m), which has caused frequent lava flows in recent years, is the country's most active volcano; Dabbahu became active in 2005, forcing evacuations; other historically active volcanoes include Alayta, Dalaffilla, Dallol, Dama Ali, Fentale, Kone, Manda Hararo, and Manda-Inakir

Environment - current issues

deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; water shortages in some areas from water-intensive farming and poor management

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea

Geography - note

landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost with the de jure independence of Eritrea on 24 May 1993; Ethiopia is, therefore, the most populous landlocked country in the world; the Blue Nile, the chief headstream of the Nile by water volume, rises in T'ana Hayk (Lake Tana) in northwest Ethiopia; three major crops are believed to have originated in Ethiopia: coffee, grain sorghum, and castor bean

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Ethiopian(s)

adjective: Ethiopian

Ethnic groups

Oromo 34.4%, Amhara (Amara) 27%, Somali (Somalie) 6.2%, Tigray (Tigrinya) 6.1%, Sidama 4%, Gurage 2.5%, Welaita 2.3%, Hadiya 1.7%, Afar (Affar) 1.7%, Gamo 1.5%, Gedeo 1.3%, Silte 1.3%, Kefficho 1.2%, other 10.5% (2007 est.)

Languages

Oromo (official working language in the State of Oromiya) 33.8%, Amharic (official national language) 29.3%, Somali (official working language of the State of Sumale) 6.2%, Tigrigna (Tigrinya) (official working language of the State of Tigray) 5.9%, Sidamo 4%, Wolaytta 2.2%, Gurage 2%, Afar (official working language of the State of Afar) 1.7%, Hadiyya 1.7%, Gamo 1.5%, Gedeo 1.3%, Opuuo 1.2%, Kafa 1.1%, other 8.1%, English (major foreign language taught in schools), Arabic (2007 est.)

Religions

Ethiopian Orthodox 43.5%, Muslim 33.9%, Protestant 18.5%, traditional 2.7%, Catholic 0.7%, other 0.6% (2007 est.)

Population 14/238

99,465,819

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 43.94% (male 21,900,571/female 21,809,643)

15-24 years: 19.98% (male 9,865,976/female 10,009,596)

25-54 years: 29.31% (male 14,487,280/female 14,667,179)

55-64 years: 3.88% (male 1,882,315/female 1,981,762)

65 years and over: 2.88% (male 1,289,336/female 1,572,161) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 81.6%

youth dependency ratio: 75.2%

elderly dependency ratio: 6.3%

potential support ratio: 15.8% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 17.7 years

male: 17.5 years

female: 17.8 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 10/233

2.89% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 13/224

37.27 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 90/225

8.19 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 119/222

-0.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population

note: repatriation of Ethiopian refugees residing in Sudan is expected to continue for several years; some Sudanese, Somali, and Eritrean refugees, who fled to Ethiopia from the fighting or famine in their own countries, continue to return to their homes (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 19.5% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 4.89% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

ADDIS ABABA (capital) 3.238 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

19.6

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 33/184

353 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 31/224

total: 53.37 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 61.08 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 45.43 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 193/224

total population: 61.48 years

male: 59.11 years

female: 63.93 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 14/224

5.15 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

28.6% (2010/11)

Health expenditures 166/191

5.1% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

0.03 physicians/1,000 population (2009)

Hospital bed density

6.3 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 93.1% of population

rural: 48.6% of population

total: 57.3% of population

unimproved:

urban: 6.9% of population

rural: 51.4% of population

total: 42.7% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 27.2% of population

rural: 28.2% of population

total: 28% of population

unimproved:

urban: 72.8% of population

rural: 71.8% of population

total: 72% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

1.15% (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

730,300 (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

23,400 (2014 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 191/191

3.3% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight 15/138

25.2% (2014)

Education expenditures 85/173

4.7% of GDP (2010)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 7 years

male: 8 years

female: 6 years (2005)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 36/134

total: 7.3%

male: 5%

female: 9.6% (2013 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

conventional short form: Ethiopia

local long form: Ityop'iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik

local short form: Ityop'iya

former: Abyssinia, Italian East Africa

abbreviation: FDRE

etymology: the country name derives from the Greek word "Aethiopia," which in classical times referred to lands south of Egypt in the Upper Nile region

Government type

federal republic

Capital

name: Addis Ababa

geographic coordinates: 9.02° N, 38.42° E

time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

9 ethnically based states (kililoch, singular - kilil) and 2 self-governing administrations* (astedaderoch, singular - astedader); Adis Abeba* (Addis Ababa), Afar, Amara (Amhara), Binshangul Gumuz, Dire Dawa*, Gambela Hizboch (Gambela Peoples), Hareri Hizb (Harari People), Oromiya (Oromia), Sumale (Somali), Tigray, Ye Debub Biheroch Bihereseboch na Hizboch (Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples)

Independence

oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world - at least 2,000 years (may be traced to the Aksumite Kingdom, which coalesced in the first century B.C.)

National holiday

National Day (defeat of MENGISTU regime), 28 May (1991)

Constitution

several previous; latest drafted June 1994, adopted 8 December 1994, entered into force 21 August 1995 (2015)

Legal system

civil law system

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Ethiopia

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President MULATU Teshome Wirtu (since 7 October 2013)

head of government: Prime Minister HAILEMARIAM Desalegn (since 21 September 2012); Deputy Prime Ministers ASTER Mamo, DEBRETSION Gebre-Michael, DEMEKE Mekonnen Hassen; note - prior to his approval as prime minister, HAILEMARIAM had been acting prime minister due to the death of former Prime Minister MELES

cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the prime minister and approved by the House of People's Representatives

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by both chambers of Parliament for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 October 2013 (next to be held in October 2019); prime minister designated by the majority party following legislative elections

election results: MULATU Teshome Wirtu (OPDO) elected president by acclamation

Legislative branch

bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Federation or Yefedereshein Mikir Bete (108 seats; members indirectly elected by state assemblies to serve 5-year terms) and the House of People's Representatives or Yehizb Tewokayoch Mekir Bete (547 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms); note - the House of Federation is responsible for interpreting the constitution and federal-regional issues and the House of People's Representatives is responsible for passing legislation

elections: last held on 24 May 2015 (next to be held in 2020)

election results: House of Representatives percent of vote - NA; seats by party - EPRDF 500, SPDP 24, BGPDP 9, ANDP 8, GPUDM 3, APDO 1, HNL 1, independent 1

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Federal Supreme Court or Supreme Imperial Court (consists of 11 judges); note - the Federal Supreme Court has jurisdiction for all constitutional issues

judge selection and term of office: president and vice president of Federal Supreme Court nominated by the prime minister and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; other Supreme Court judges nominated by the Federal Judicial Administrative Council and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; judges serve until retirement at age 60

subordinate courts: federal high courts and federal courts of first instance; state court systems (mirror structure of federal system); sharia courts and customary and traditional courts

Political parties and leaders

Afar National Democratic Party or ANDP [Mohammed KEDIR]

Argoba People's Democratic Organization or APDO

Benishangul Gumuz People's Democratic Party or BGPDP

Blue Party (Semayawi Party) [Yanatan TESFAYE, spokesman]

Ethiopian Federal Democratic Forum or FORUM [Dr. Moga FRISSA] (a UDJ-led 6-party alliance established for the 2010 parliamentary elections)

Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front or EPRDF [Hailemarian DESALEGN] (including the following organizations: Amhara National Democratic Movement or ANDM; Oromo People's Democratic Organization or OPDO; Southern Ethiopian People's Democratic Movement or SEPDM; Tigray People's Liberation Front or TPLF)

Gambella Peoples Unity Democratic Movement or GPUDM

Harari National League or HNL [YASIN Husein]

Somali People's Democratic Party or SPDP

Political pressure groups and leaders

Ethiopian People's Patriotic Front or EPPF

Ogaden National Liberation Front or ONLF

Oromo Liberation Front or OLF [DAOUD Ibsa]

International organization participation

ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red, with a yellow pentagram and single yellow rays emanating from the angles between the points on a light blue disk centered on the three bands; green represents hope and the fertility of the land, yellow symbolizes justice and harmony, while red stands for sacrifice and heroism in the defense of the land; the blue of the disk symbolizes peace and the pentagram represents the unity and equality of the nationalities and peoples of Ethiopia

note: Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and the three main colors of her flag (adopted ca. 1895) were so often appropriated by other African countries upon independence that they became known as the Pan-African colors; the emblem in the center of the current flag was added in 1996

National symbol(s)

Abyssinian lion (traditional), yellow pentagram with five rays of light on a blue field (promoted by current government); national colors: green, yellow, red

National anthem

name: "Whedefit Gesgeshi Woud Enat Ethiopia" (March Forward, Dear Mother Ethiopia)

lyrics/music: DEREJE Melaku Mengesha/SOLOMON Lulu

note: adopted 1992

Economy

Economy - overview

Ethiopia's economy is based on agriculture, but the government is pushing to diversify into manufacturing, textiles, and energy generation. Coffee is a major export crop. The agricultural sector suffers from poor cultivation practices and frequent drought. Although recent joint efforts by the Government of Ethiopia and donors have strengthened Ethiopia's agricultural resilience, changes in rainfall associated with world-wide weather patterns continue to create food insecurity for millions of Ethiopians.

The banking, insurance, telecommunications, and micro-credit industries are restricted to domestic investors, but Ethiopia has attracted significant foreign investment in textiles, leather, commercial agriculture, and manufacturing. Under Ethiopia's constitution, the state owns all land and provides long-term leases to the tenants; land use certificates are now being issued in some areas so that tenants have more recognizable rights to continued occupancy and hence make more concerted efforts to improve their leaseholds.

While GDP growth has remained high, based on high saving and high investment, per capita income is among the lowest in the world. Ethiopia issued a second state-led Growth and Transformation development plan in mid-2015, which prioritizes industrialization and urbanization. Ethiopia has achieved high single-digit growth rates for the last decade through government-led infrastructure expansion and commercial agriculture development.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 73/230

$159.2 billion (2015 est.)

$146.5 billion (2014 est.)

$132.8 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$57.56 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 5/225

8.7% (2015 est.)

10.3% (2014 est.)

9.8% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 212/230

$1,700 (2015 est.)

$1,600 (2014 est.)

$1,500 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 28/179

28% of GDP (2015 est.)

25.1% of GDP (2014 est.)

28.3% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 68.6%

government consumption: 8.3%

investment in fixed capital: 39%

investment in inventories: 0%

exports of goods and services: 10.3%

imports of goods and services: -26.2%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 41.4%

industry: 15.6%

services: 43% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

cereals, coffee, oilseed, cotton, sugarcane, vegetables, khat, cut flowers; hides, cattle, sheep, goats; fish

Industries

food processing, beverages, textiles, leather, chemicals, metals processing, cement

Industrial production growth rate 14/202

8.5% (2015 est.)

Labor force 14/233

49.27 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 85%

industry: 5%

services: 10% (2009 est.)

Unemployment rate 160/207

17.5% (2012 est.)

18% (2011 est.)

Population below poverty line

39% (2012 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 4.1%

highest 10%: 25.6% (2005)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 104/144

33 (2011)

30 (2000)

Budget

revenues: $9.114 billion

expenditures: $11 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 187/219

15.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 125/220

-3.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 95/176

45.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

47.5% of GDP (2014 est.)

note: official data cover central government debt, including debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury and treasury debt owned by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Fiscal year

8 July - 7 July

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 209/226

10.3% (2015 est.)

7.4% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate

NA%

Commercial bank prime lending rate 71/184

11.5% (31 December 2015 est.)

11% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 74/192

$11.53 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$9.981 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 84/193

$23.77 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$20.75 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 77/191

$27.75 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$22.58 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares

$NA

Current account balance 165/197

-$3.78 billion (2015 est.)

-$4.704 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 121/224

$3.761 billion (2015 est.)

$3.721 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

coffee, khat, gold, leather products, live animals, oilseeds

Exports - partners

China 17.1%, Germany 7.6%, US 7.2%, Belgium 6.8%, Saudi Arabia 6.7% (2014)

Imports 94/223

$10.69 billion (2015 est.)

$11.57 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

food and live animals, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, machinery, motor vehicles, cereals, textiles

Imports - partners

China 19.2%, US 11.4%, Saudi Arabia 6.7%, India 5% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 103/170

$3.589 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$3.483 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 95/206

$15.55 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$12.56 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Exchange rates

birr (ETB) per US dollar -

21.55 (2015 est.)

19.8 (2014 est.)

19.8 (2013 est.)

17.71 (2012 est.)

16.9 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 111/220

6.632 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 114/219

5.227 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 71/218

400 million kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - imports 146/219

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 99/214

2.47 million kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 201/214

8.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 89/214

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 14/214

88.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 66/212

3.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 132/214

0 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 121/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - imports 187/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 101/215

430,000 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 179/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 98/212

51,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 178/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 79/213

51,960 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Natural gas - production 184/216

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 141/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports 96/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports 194/214

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 72/212

24.92 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 109/212

8.213 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 87/219

total subscriptions: 820,000

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 41/217

total: 30.5 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 32 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: inadequate telephone system with the Ethio Telecom maintaining a monopoly over telecommunication services; open-wire, microwave radio relay; radio communication in the HF, VHF, and UHF frequencies; 2 domestic satellites provide the national trunk service

domestic: the number of fixed lines and mobile telephones is increasing from a small base; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 15 per 100 persons

international: country code - 251; open-wire to Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio relay to Kenya and Djibouti; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean) (2011)

Broadcast media

1 public TV station broadcasting nationally and 1 public radio broadcaster with stations in each of the 13 administrative districts; a few commercial radio stations and roughly a dozen community radio stations (2009)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 8, FM 0, shortwave 1 (2001)

Television broadcast stations

1 (plus 24 repeaters) (2001)

Internet country code

.et

Internet hosts 203/232

179 (2012)

Internet users 107/217

total: 1.6 million

percent of population: 1.7% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 83/236

57 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 17

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 8

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

under 914 m: 2 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 40

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 9

914 to 1,523 m: 20

under 914 m: 8 (2013)

Railways 103/136

total: 681 km (Ethiopian segment of the 781 km Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad)

narrow gauge: 681 km 1.000-m gauge

note: railway is under joint control of Djibouti and Ethiopia (2015)

Roadways 78/223

total: 44,359 km

paved: 6,064 km

unpaved: 38,295 km (2007)

Merchant marine 121/156

total: 8

by type: cargo 8 (2010)

Ports and terminals

Ethiopia is landlocked and uses the ports of Djibouti in Djibouti and Berbera in Somalia

Military and Security

Military branches

Ethiopian National Defense Force (ENDF): Ground Forces, Ethiopian Air Force (Ye Ityopya Ayer Hayl, ETAF) (2013)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for voluntary military service; no compulsory military service, but the military can conduct callups when necessary and compliance is compulsory (2012)

Military expenditures 107/132

0.91% of GDP (2012)

1.1% of GDP (2011)

0.91% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Eritrea and Ethiopia agreed to abide by the 2002 Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission's (EEBC) delimitation decision, but neither party responded to the revised line detailed in the November 2006 EEBC Demarcation Statement; the undemarcated former British administrative line has little meaning as a political separation to rival clans within Ethiopia's Ogaden and southern Somalia's Oromo region; Ethiopian forces invaded southern Somalia and routed Islamist courts from Mogadishu in January 2007; "Somaliland" secessionists provide port facilities in Berbera and trade ties to landlocked Ethiopia; civil unrest in eastern Sudan has hampered efforts to demarcate the porous boundary with Ethiopia

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 251,797 (Somalia); 155,207 (Eritrea) (refugees and asylum seekers); 37,952 (Sudan); 8,114 (Yemen) (2015); 282,437 (South Sudan) (2016)

IDPs: 413,400 (border war with Eritrea from 1998-2000; ethnic clashes; and ongoing fighting between the Ethiopian military and separatist rebel groups in the Sumale and Oromiya regions; natural disasters; intercommunal violence; most IDPs live in Sumale state) (2015)

Illicit drugs

transit hub for heroin originating in Southwest and Southeast Asia and destined for Europe, as well as cocaine destined for markets in southern Africa; cultivates qat (khat) for local use and regional export, principally to Djibouti and Somalia (legal in all three countries); the lack of a well-developed financial system limits the country's utility as a money laundering center