Finland

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Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries, and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. It gained complete independence in 1917. During World War II, Finland successfully defended its independence through cooperation with Germany and resisted subsequent invasions by the Soviet Union - albeit with some loss of territory. In the subsequent half century, Finland transformed from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per capita income is among the highest in Western Europe. A member of the European Union since 1995, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro single currency at its initiation in January 1999. In the 21st century, the key features of Finland's modern welfare state are high quality education, promotion of equality, and a national social welfare system - currently challenged by an aging population and the fluctuations of an export-driven economy.

Geography

Location

Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia

Geographic coordinates

64.00° N, 26.00° E

Area 65/257

total: 338,145 sq km

land: 303,815 sq km

water: 34,330 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly more than two times the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries

total: 2,563 km

border countries (3): Norway 709 km, Sweden 545 km, Russia 1,309 km

Coastline

1,250 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm (in the Gulf of Finland - 3 nm)

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm; extends to continental shelf boundary with Sweden, Estonia, and Russia

continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate

cold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes

Terrain

mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m

highest point: Halti (alternatively Haltia, Haltitunturi, Haltiatunturi) 1,328 m

Natural resources

timber, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, limestone

Land use

agricultural land: 7.5%

arable land 7.4%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0.1%

forest: 72.9%

other: 19.6% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

690 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

110 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 1.63 cu km/yr (25%/72%/3%)

per capita: 308.9 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards

NA

Environment - current issues

air pollution from manufacturing and power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Finn(s)

adjective: Finnish

Ethnic groups

Finn 93.4%, Swede 5.6%, Russian 0.5%, Estonian 0.3%, Roma 0.1%, Sami 0.1% (2006)

Languages

Finnish (official) 89%, Swedish (official) 5.3%, Russian 1.3%, other 4.4% (2014 est.)

Religions

Lutheran 73.8%, Orthodox 1.1%, other oe none 25.1% (2014 est.)

Population 117/238

5,476,922 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 16.41% (male 459,560/female 439,343)

15-24 years: 11.79% (male 329,815/female 316,130)

25-54 years: 38.03% (male 1,062,429/female 1,020,216)

55-64 years: 13.56% (male 365,383/female 377,390)

65 years and over: 20.21% (male 477,024/female 629,632) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 58.3%

youth dependency ratio: 25.9%

elderly dependency ratio: 32.4%

potential support ratio: 3.1% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 42.4 years

male: 40.7 years

female: 44.3 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 165/233

0.4% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 183/224

10.72 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 47/225

9.83 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 38/222

3.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 84.2% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 0.5% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

HELSINKI (capital) 1.18 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

28.5 (2012 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 174/184

3 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 218/224

total: 2.52 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 2.65 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 2.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 30/224

total population: 80.77 years

male: 77.82 years

female: 83.86 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 164/224

1.75 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Health expenditures 39/191

9.4% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

2.91 physicians/1,000 population (2009)

Hospital bed density

5.5 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 99.4% of population

rural: 88% of population

total: 97.6% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0.6% of population

rural: 12% of population

total: 2.4% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths

NA

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 77/191

22.8% (2014)

Education expenditures 27/173

6.8% of GDP (2011)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 17 years

male: 16 years

female: 18 years (2012)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 65/134

total: 20%

male: 23%

female: 17.2% (2013 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Finland

conventional short form: Finland

local long form: Suomen tasavalta/Republiken Finland

local short form: Suomi/Finland

etymology: name may derive from the ancient Fenni peoples who are first described as living in northeastern Europe in the first centuries A.D.

Government type

republic

Capital

name: Helsinki

geographic coordinates: 60.10° N, 24.56° E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

19 regions (maakunnat, singular - maakunta (Finnish); landskapen, singular - landskapet (Swedish)); Aland (Swedish), Ahvenanmaa (Finnish); Etela-Karjala (Finnish), Sodra Karelen (Swedish) [South Karelia]; Etela-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Sodra Osterbotten (Swedish) [South Ostrobothnia]; Etela-Savo (Finnish), Sodra Savolax (Swedish) [South Savo]; Kanta-Hame (Finnish), Egentliga Tavastland (Swedish); Kainuu (Finnish), Kajanaland (Swedish); Keski-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Mellersta Osterbotten (Swedish) [Central Ostrobothnia]; Keski-Suomi (Finnish), Mellersta Finland (Swedish) [Central Finland]; Kymenlaakso (Finnish), Kymmenedalen (Swedish); Lappi (Finnish), Lappland (Swedish); Paijat-Hame (Finnish), Paijanne-Tavastland (Swedish); Pirkanmaa (Finnish), Birkaland (Swedish) [Tampere]; Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Osterbotten (Swedish) [Ostrobothnia]; Pohjois-Karjala (Finnish), Norra Karelen (Swedish) [North Karelia]; Pohjois-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Norra Osterbotten (Swedish) [North Ostrobothnia]; Pohjois-Savo (Finnish), Norra Savolax (Swedish) [North Savo]; Satakunta (Finnish and Swedish); Uusimaa (Finnish), Nyland (Swedish) [Newland]; Varsinais-Suomi (Finnish), Egentliga Finland (Swedish) [Southwest Finland]

Independence

6 December 1917 (from Russia)

National holiday

Independence Day, 6 December (1917)

Constitution

previous 1906, 1919; latest drafted 17 June 1997, approved by Parliament 11 June 1999, entered into force 1 March 2000; amended several times, last in 2011 (2015)

Legal system

civil law system based on the Swedish model

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Finland

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 6 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Sauli NIINISTO (since 1 March 2012)

head of government: Prime Minister Juha SIPILA (since 29 May 2015)

cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the president, responsible to Parliament

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 5 February 2012 (next to be held in February 2018); prime minister appointed by Parliament in 2015

election results: percent of vote in first round - Sauli NIINISTO (Kok) 37%, Pekka HAAVISTO (Vihr) 18.8%, Paavo VAYRYNEN (Kesk) 17.5%, Timo SOINI (TF) 9.4%, Paavo LIPPONEN (SDP) 6.7%, Paavo ARHINMAKI (Vas) 5.5%, Eva BIAUDET (SFP) 2.7%, Sari ESSAYAH (KD) 2.5%; Sauli NIINISTO elected president in second round held on 5 February 2012 - NIINISTO 62.6%, HAAVISTO 37.4%; Juha SIPILA appointed prime minister

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats; 199 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 1 member in the province of Aland directly elected by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 19 April 2015 (next to be held in April 2019)

election results: percent of vote by party - Kesk 21.1%, PS 17.6%, Kok 18.2%, SDP 16.5%, Vihr 8.5%, Vas 7.1%, SFP 4.9%, KD 3.5%, other 2.6%; seats by party - Kesk 49, PS 38, Kok 37, SDP 34, Vihr 15, Vas 12, SFP 9, KD 5, other 1 (Aland Coalition)

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus (consists of the court president and 18 judges); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 21 judges including the court president and organized into 3 chambers); note - Finland has a dual judicial system - courts with civil and criminal jurisdiction, and administrative courts with jurisdiction for litigation between individuals and administrative organs of the state and communities

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Supreme Administrative Court judges appointed by the president of the republic; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 65

subordinate courts: 6 Courts of Appeal; 8 regional administrative courts; 27 district courts; special courts for issues relating to markets, labor, insurance, impeachment, land, tenancy, and water rights

Political parties and leaders

Center Party or Kesk [Juha SIPILA]

Christian Democrats or KD [Sari ESSAYAH]

Green League or Vihr [Ville NIINISTO]

Left Alliance or Vas [Paavo ARHINMAKI]

National Coalition Party or Kok [Alexander STUBB]

Social Democratic Party or SDP [Antii RINNE]

Swedish People's Party or SFP [Carl HAGLUND]

The Finns Party or PS [Timo SOINI]

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Flag description

white with a blue cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the blue represents the thousands of lakes scattered across the country, while the white is for the snow that covers the land in winter

National symbol(s)

lion; national colors: blue, white

National anthem

name: "Maamme" (Our Land)

lyrics/music: Johan Ludvig RUNEBERG/Fredrik PACIUS

note: in use since 1848; although never officially adopted by law, the anthem has been popular since it was first sung by a student group in 1848; Estonia's anthem uses the same melody as that of Finland

Economy

Economy - overview

Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free-market economy with per capita GDP almost as high as that of Austria, Belgium, the Netherlands, or Sweden. Trade is important, with exports accounting for over one-third of GDP in recent years.

Finland is historically competitive in manufacturing - principally the wood, metals, engineering, telecommunications, and electronics industries. Finland excels in export of technology for mobile phones as well as promotion of startups in the ICT, gaming, cleantech, and biotechnology sectors. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some components for manufactured goods. Because of the climate, agricultural development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products. Forestry, an important export industry, provides a secondary occupation for the rural population.

Finland had been one of the best performing economies within the EU before 2009 and its banks and financial markets avoided the worst of global financial crisis. However, the world slowdown hit exports and domestic demand hard in that year, causing Finland’s economy to contract from 2012-14 . The recession affected general government finances and the debt ratio.

Finland's main challenges will be reducing high labor costs and boosting demand for its exports. In the long term, Finland must address a rapidly aging population and decreasing productivity in traditional industries that threaten competitiveness, fiscal sustainability, and economic growth. The depreciating ruble and Russia’s general economic slowdown will dampen exports to Russia.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 63/230

$224.7 billion (2015 est.)

$223.8 billion (2014 est.)

$224.7 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$230.7 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 195/225

0.4% (2015 est.)

-0.4% (2014 est.)

-1.1% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 39/230

$41,200 (2015 est.)

$41,100 (2014 est.)

$41,200 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 89/179

19.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

18.7% of GDP (2014 est.)

19.3% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 53.8%

government consumption: 23.9%

investment in fixed capital: 19.7%

investment in inventories: 1.4%

exports of goods and services: 36.1%

imports of goods and services: -34.9%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 2.9%

industry: 26.9%

services: 70.2% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

barley, wheat, sugar beets, potatoes; dairy cattle; fish

Industries

metals and metal products, electronics, machinery and scientific instruments, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing

Industrial production growth rate 128/202

1.6% (2015 est.)

Labor force 110/233

2.673 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture and forestry: 4.4%

industry: 15.5%

construction: 7.1%

commerce: 21.3%

finance, insurance, and business services: 13.3%

transport and communications: 9.9%

public services: 28.5% (2011)

Unemployment rate 109/207

9.4% (2015 est.)

8.7% (2014 est.)

Population below poverty line

NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.6%

highest 10%: 24.7% (2007)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 133/144

26.8 (2008)

25.6 (1991)

Budget

revenues: $131.4 billion

expenditures: $137.3 billion

note: Central Government Budget (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 7/219

57% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 89/220

-2.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 58/176

61.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

59.3% of GDP (2014 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 29/226

-0.2% (2015 est.)

1.2% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 152/156

0.05% (31 December 2013)

0.3% (31 December 2010)

note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

Commercial bank prime lending rate 180/184

1.9% (31 December 2015 est.)

2.21% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 30/192

$121.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$118.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

Stock of broad money 43/193

$179.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$195.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 28/191

$404.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$410.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 38/121

$158.7 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$143.1 billion (31 December 2011)

$118.2 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance 150/197

-$2.443 billion (2015 est.)

-$5.083 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 43/224

$66.9 billion (2015 est.)

$79.2 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

electrical and optical equipment, machinery, transport equipment, paper and pulp, chemicals, basic metals; timber

Exports - partners

Germany 12.2%, Sweden 11.2%, Russia 8.1%, US 6.7%, Netherlands 6.2%, UK 5.5%, China 4.5% (2014)

Imports 46/223

$58.05 billion (2015 est.)

$72.94 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, computers, electronic industry products, textile yarn and fabrics, grains

Imports - partners

Sweden 15.8%, Germany 15.3%, Russia 14.8%, Netherlands 8.7%, Denmark 4.2% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 76/170

$11.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$10.67 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 24/206

$547.5 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$571.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 39/120

$139.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$138 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 26/105

$208.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$202.2 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

0.89 (2015 est.)

0.75 (2014 est.)

0.76 (2013 est.)

0.78 (2012 est.)

0.72 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 41/220

67.51 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 35/219

82.04 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 45/218

1.876 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 10/219

17.59 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 44/214

16.94 million kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 147/214

51.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 11/214

16.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 96/214

18.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 26/212

13.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 133/214

0 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 122/214

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports 31/214

236,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 131/215

0 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 43/214

300,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 59/212

196,300 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 35/214

182,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 44/213

127,300 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production 94/216

3 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 72/215

3.082 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - exports 97/215

0 cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - imports 41/214

3.08 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 136/212

0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 62/212

46.81 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 90/219

total subscriptions: 640,000

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 12 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 99/217

total: 7.6 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 139 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: modern system with excellent service

domestic: digital fiber-optic fixed-line network and an extensive mobile-cellular network provide domestic needs

international: country code - 358; submarine cables provide links to Estonia and Sweden; satellite earth stations - access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Finland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) (2011)

Broadcast media

a mix of publicly operated TV stations and privately owned TV stations; in 2008, the 2 publicly owned TV stations expanded services and the largest private TV station has introduced several special-interest pay-TV channels; cable and satellite multi-channel subscription services are available; all TV signals have been broadcast digitally since September 2007; analog broadcasts via cable networks were terminated in February 2008; public broadcasting maintains a network of 13 national and 25 regional radio stations; a large number of private radio broadcasters (2008)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 2, FM 59, shortwave 2 (2008)

Television broadcast stations

120 (plus 431 repeaters) (1999); note - on 1 September 2007, Finland began broadcasting all television signals digitally; analog broadcasts via cable networks were discontinued 29 February 2008

Internet country code

.fi; note - Aland Islands assigned .ax

Internet hosts 22/232

4.763 million (2012)

Internet users 64/217

total: 5.1 million

percent of population: 94.0% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 39/236

148 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 74

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 26

1,524 to 2,437 m: 10

914 to 1,523 m: 21

under 914 m: 14 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 74

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 71 (2013)

Pipelines

gas 1,689 km (2010)

Railways 31/136

total: 5,919 km

broad gauge: 5,919 km 1.524-m gauge (3,067 km electrified) (2014)

Roadways 60/223

total: 454,000 km

highways: 78,000 km (50,000 paved, including 700 km of expressways; 28,000 unpaved)

urban roads: 26,000 km

private and forest roads: 350,000 km (2012)

Waterways 17/107

8,000 km (includes Saimaa Canal system of 3,577 km; southern part leased from Russia; water transport used frequently in the summer and widely replaced with sledges on the ice in winter; there are 187,888 lakes in Finland that cover 31,500 km); Finand also maintains 8,200 km of coastal fairways (2013)

Merchant marine 51/156

total: 97

by type: bulk carrier 2, cargo 25, carrier 1, chemical tanker 6, container 3, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 16, petroleum tanker 5, roll on/roll off 31, vehicle carrier 3

foreign-owned: 5 (Cyprus 1, Estonia 2, Iceland 1, Sweden 1)

registered in other countries: 47 (Bahamas 8, Germany 3, Gibraltar 2, Malta 3, Netherlands 13, Panama 2, Sweden 16) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Helsinki, Kotka, Naantali, Porvoo, Raahe, Rauma

Military and Security

Military branches

Finnish Defense Forces (FDF): Army (Puolustusvoimat), Navy (Merivoimat; includes Coastal Defense Forces), Air Force (Ilmavoimat) (2013)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for male voluntary and compulsory - and female voluntary - national military and nonmilitary service; service obligation 6-12 months; military obligation to age 60 (2012)

Military expenditures 62/132

1.47% of GDP (2012)

1.42% of GDP (2011)

1.47% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia and other areas ceded to the Soviet Union, but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands

Refugees and internally displaced persons

stateless persons: 2,293 (2014)