Germany

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As Europe's largest economy and second most populous nation (after Russia), Germany is a key member of the continent's economic, political, and defense organizations. European power struggles immersed Germany in two devastating World Wars in the first half of the 20th century and left the country occupied by the victorious Allied powers of the US, UK, France, and the Soviet Union in 1945. With the advent of the Cold War, two German states were formed in 1949: the western Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the eastern German Democratic Republic (GDR). The democratic FRG embedded itself in key Western economic and security organizations, the EC, which became the EU, and NATO, while the communist GDR was on the front line of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. The decline of the USSR and the end of the Cold War allowed for German unification in 1990. Since then, Germany has expended considerable funds to bring Eastern productivity and wages up to Western standards. In January 1999, Germany and 10 other EU countries introduced a common European exchange currency, the euro.

Geography

Location

Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark

Geographic coordinates

51.00° N, 9.00° E

Area 63/257

total: 357,022 sq km

land: 348,672 sq km

water: 8,350 sq km

Area - comparative

three times the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries

total: 3,714 km

border countries (9): Austria 801 km, Belgium 133 km, Czech Republic 704 km, Denmark 140 km, France 418 km, Luxembourg 128 km, Netherlands 575 km, Poland 467 km, Switzerland 348 km

Coastline

2,389 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate

temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm mountain (foehn) wind

Terrain

lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Neuendorf bei Wilster -3.54 m

highest point: Zugspitze 2,963 m

Natural resources

coal, lignite, natural gas, iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, potash, salt, construction materials, timber, arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 48%

arable land 34.1%; permanent crops 0.6%; permanent pasture 13.3%

forest: 31.8%

other: 20.2% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

6,500 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

154 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 32.3 cu km/yr (16%/84%/0%)

per capita: 391.4 cu m/yr (2007)

Natural hazards

flooding

Environment - current issues

emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers in eastern Germany; hazardous waste disposal; government established a mechanism for ending the use of nuclear power by 2022; government working to meet EU commitment to identify nature preservation areas in line with the EU's Flora, Fauna, and Habitat directive

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

strategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to the Baltic Sea

People and Society

Nationality

noun: German(s)

adjective: German

Ethnic groups

German 91.5%, Turkish 2.4%, other 6.1% (made up largely of Greek, Italian, Polish, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Spanish)

Languages

German (official)

note: Danish, Frisian, Sorbian, and Romany are official minority languages; Low German, Danish, North Frisian, Sater Frisian, Lower Sorbian, Upper Sorbian, and Romany are recognized as regional languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages

Religions

Protestant 34%, Roman Catholic 34%, Muslim 3.7%, unaffiliated or other 28.3%

Population 18/238

80,854,408 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 12.88% (male 5,346,086/female 5,068,071)

15-24 years: 10.38% (male 4,279,962/female 4,113,746)

25-54 years: 41.38% (male 16,934,180/female 16,519,932)

55-64 years: 13.91% (male 5,571,694/female 5,675,104)

65 years and over: 21.45% (male 7,591,298/female 9,754,335) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 51.8%

youth dependency ratio: 19.6%

elderly dependency ratio: 32.2%

potential support ratio: 3.1% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 46.5 years

male: 45.4 years

female: 47.5 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 214/233

-0.17% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 217/224

8.47 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 30/225

11.42 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 60/222

1.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 75.3% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 0.16% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

BERLIN (capital) 3.563 million; Hamburg 1.831 million; Munich 1.438 million; Cologne 1.037 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

29.2 (2012 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 165/184

6 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 208/224

total: 3.43 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 3.72 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.12 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 32/224

total population: 80.57 years

male: 78.26 years

female: 83 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 206/224

1.44 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

66.2%

note: percent of women aged 18-49 (2005)

Health expenditures 13/191

11.3% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

3.89 physicians/1,000 population (2012)

Hospital bed density

8.2 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 99.3% of population

rural: 99% of population

total: 99.2% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0.7% of population

rural: 1% of population

total: 0.8% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.15% (2013 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

77,500 (2013 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

400 (2013 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 59/191

22.7% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight 132/138

1.1% (2006)

Education expenditures 74/173

5% of GDP (2011)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 16 years

male: 17 years

female: 16 years (2012)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 112/134

total: 7.9%

male: 8.6%

female: 7.1% (2013 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Federal Republic of Germany

conventional short form: Germany

local long form: Bundesrepublik Deutschland

local short form: Deutschland

former: German Empire, German Republic, German Reich

etymology: the Gauls (Celts) of Western Europe may have referred to the newly arriving Germanic tribes who settled in neighboring areas east of the Rhine in the first centuries B.C. as "Germani," a term that the Romans adopted as "Germania"; the native designation "Deutsch" comes from the Old High German "diutisc" meaning "of the people"

Government type

federal republic

Capital

name: Berlin

geographic coordinates: 52.31° N, 13.24° E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

16 states (Laender, singular - Land); Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bayern (Bavaria), Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen (Hesse), Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania), Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony), Nordrhein-Westfalen (North Rhine-Westphalia), Rheinland-Pfalz (Rhineland-Palatinate), Saarland, Sachsen (Saxony), Sachsen-Anhalt (Saxony-Anhalt), Schleswig-Holstein, Thueringen (Thuringia); note - Bayern, Sachsen, and Thueringen refer to themselves as free states (Freistaaten, singular - Freistaat), while Hamburg prides itself on being a Free and Hanseatic City (Freie und Hansestadt)

Independence

18 January 1871 (establishment of the German Empire); divided into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and France) in 1945 following World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany) proclaimed on 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US, and French zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) proclaimed on 7 October 1949 and included the former USSR zone; West Germany and East Germany unified on 3 October 1990; all four powers formally relinquished rights on 15 March 1991; notable earlier dates: 10 August 843 (Eastern Francia established from the division of the Carolingian Empire); 2 February 962 (crowning of OTTO I, recognized as the first Holy Roman Emperor)

National holiday

Unity Day, 3 October (1990)

Constitution

previous 1919 (Weimar Constitution); latest drafted 10 to 23 August 1948, approved 12 May 1949, promulgated 23 May 1949, entered into force 24 May 1949; amended many times, last in 2012 (2015)

Legal system

civil law system

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a German citizen or a resident alien who has lived in Germany at least 8 years

dual citizenship recognized: yes, but requires prior permission from government

residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Joachim GAUCK (since 23 March 2012)

head of government: Chancellor Angela MERKEL (since 22 November 2005)

cabinet: Cabinet or Bundesminister (Federal Ministers) recommended by the chancellor, appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term) by a Federal Convention consisting of the 630-member Federal Parliament (Bundestag) and 630 delegates indirectly elected by the state parliaments; election last held on 19 February 2012 (next to be held by June 2017); chancellor indirectly elected by absolute majority by the Federal Parliament for a 4-year term; Federal Parliament vote for chancellor last held on 17 December 2013 (next to be held following the September 2017 general election)

election results: Joachim GAUCK elected president; Federal Convention vote count - Joachim GAUCK (independent) 991, Beate KLARSFELD (independent) 126, Olaf ROSE (National People's Union) 3; Angela MERKEL (CDU) reelected chancellor; Federal Parliament vote - 462 for, 150 against, 4 abstentions

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Federal Council or Bundesrat (69 seats; members appointed by each of the 16 state governments or landtags) and the Federal Diet or Bundestag (631 seats - total seats can vary each electoral term; approximately one-half of members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and approximately one-half directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: Bundestag - last held on 22 September 2013 (next to be held no later than autumn 2017); most all postwar German governments have been coalitions; note - there are no elections for the Bundesrat; composition is determined by the composition of the state-level governments; the composition of the Bundesrat has the potential to change any time one of the 16 states holds an election

election results: Bundestag - percent of vote by party - CDU/CSU 41.5%, SPD 25.7%, Left 8.6%, Greens 8.4%, FDP 4.8%, other 10.9%; seats by party - CDU/CSU 311, SPD 193, Left 64, Greens 63

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Federal Court of Justice (court consists of 127 judges including the court president, vice-presidents, presiding judges, and other judges, and organized into 25 Senates subdivided into 12 civil panels, 5 criminal panels, and 8 special panels; Federal Constitutional Court or Bundesverfassungsgericht (consists of 2 Senates each subdivided into 3 chambers, each with a chairman and 8 members)

judge selection and term of office: Federal Court of Justice judges selected by the Judges Election Committee, which consists of the Secretaries of Justice from each of the 16 federated States and 16 members appointed by the Federal Parliament; judges appointed by the president of Germany; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 65; Federal Constitutional Court judges - one-half elected by the House of Representatives and one-half by the Senate; judges appointed for 12-year terms with mandatory retirement at age 68

subordinate courts: Federal Administrative Court; Federal Finance Court; Federal Labor Court; Federal Social Court; each of the 16 German states or Land has its own constitutional court and a hierarchy of ordinary (civil, criminal, family) and specialized (administrative, finance, labor, social) courts

Political parties and leaders

Alliance '90/Greens [Cem OEZDEMIR and Simone PETER]

Alternative for Germany or AfD [Bernd LUCKE]

Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Angela MERKEL]

Christian Social Union or CSU [Horst SEEHOFER]

Free Democratic Party or FDP [Christian LINDNER]

Left Party or Die Linke [Katia KIPPING and Bernd RIEXINGER]

Social Democratic Party or SPD [Sigmar GABRIEL]

Political pressure groups and leaders

other: business associations and employers' organizations

trade unions; religious, immigrant, expellee, and veterans groups

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CD, CDB, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and gold; these colors have played an important role in German history and can be traced back to the medieval banner of the Holy Roman Emperor - a black eagle with red claws and beak on a gold field

National symbol(s)

golden eagle; national colors: black, red, yellow

National anthem

name: "Das Lied der Deutschen" (Song of the Germans)

lyrics/music: August Heinrich HOFFMANN VON FALLERSLEBEN/Franz Joseph HAYDN

note: adopted 1922; the anthem, also known as "Deutschlandlied" (Song of Germany), was originally adopted for its connection to the March 1848 liberal revolution; following appropriation by the Nazis of the first verse, specifically the phrase, "Deutschland, Deutschland ueber alles" (Germany, Germany above all) to promote nationalism, it was banned after 1945; in 1952, its third verse was adopted by West Germany as its national anthem; in 1990, it became the national anthem for the reunited Germany

Economy

Economy - overview

The German economy - the fifth largest economy in the world in PPP terms and Europe's largest - is a leading exporter of machinery, vehicles, chemicals, and household equipment and benefits from a highly skilled labor force. Like its Western European neighbors, Germany faces significant demographic challenges to sustained long-term growth. Low fertility rates and a large increase in net immigration are increasing pressure on the country's social welfare system and necessitate structural reforms.

Reforms launched by the government of Chancellor Gerhard SCHROEDER (1998-2005), deemed necessary to address chronically high unemployment and low average growth, contributed to strong growth and falling unemployment. These advances, as well as a government subsidized, reduced working hour scheme, help explain the relatively modest increase in unemployment during the 2008-09 recession - the deepest since World War II. The new German government introduced a minimum wage of about $11.60 (8.50 euros) per hour that took effect in 2015.

Stimulus and stabilization efforts initiated in 2008 and 2009 and tax cuts introduced in Chancellor Angela MERKEL's second term increased Germany's total budget deficit - including federal, state, and municipal - to 4.1% in 2010, but slower spending and higher tax revenues reduced the deficit to 0.8% in 2011 and in 2015 Germany reached a budget surplus of 0.9%. A constitutional amendment approved in 2009 limits the federal government to structural deficits of no more than 0.35% of GDP per annum as of 2016 though the target was already reached in 2012.

The German economy suffers from low levels of investment, and a government plan to invest 15 billion euros during 2016-18, largely in infrastructure, is intended to spur needed private investment. Following the March 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, Chancellor Angela MERKEL announced in May 2011 that eight of the country's 17 nuclear reactors would be shut down immediately and the remaining plants would close by 2022. Germany plans to replace nuclear power largely with renewable energy, which accounted for 27.8% of gross electricity consumption in 2014, up from 9% in 2000. Before the shutdown of the eight reactors, Germany relied on nuclear power for 23% of its electricity generating capacity and 46% of its base-load electricity production. Domestic consumption, bolstered by low energy prices and a weak euro, are likely to drive German GDP growth again in 2016.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 6/230

$3.842 trillion (2015 est.)

$3.785 trillion (2014 est.)

$3.726 trillion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$3.371 trillion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 161/225

1.5% (2015 est.)

1.6% (2014 est.)

0.4% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 29/230

$47,400 (2015 est.)

$46,700 (2014 est.)

$45,900 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 33/179

27.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

26.7% of GDP (2014 est.)

25.8% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 54.2%

government consumption: 19.1%

investment in fixed capital: 20.2%

investment in inventories: -0.7%

exports of goods and services: 46.1%

imports of goods and services: -38.9%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 0.7%

industry: 30.2%

services: 69.1%

(2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbages; milk products; cattle, pigs, poultry

Industries

among the world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, automobiles, food and beverages, shipbuilding, textiles

Industrial production growth rate 129/202

1.5% (2015 est.)

Labor force 15/233

45.04 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 1.6%

industry: 24.6%

services: 73.8%

(2011)

Unemployment rate 49/207

4.8% (2015 est.)

5% (2014 est.)

Population below poverty line

15.5% (2010 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.6%

highest 10%: 24% (2000)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 131/144

27 (2006)

30 (1994)

Budget

revenues: $1.515 trillion

expenditures: $1.484 trillion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 25/219

45% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 19/220

0.9% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 44/176

71.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

74.3% of GDP (2014 est.)

note: general government gross debt is defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA95): currency and deposits (AF.2), securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives (AF.3, excluding AF.34), and loans (AF.4); the general government sector comprises the sub-sectors of central government, state government, local government and social security funds; the series are presented as a percentage of GDP and in millions of euro; GDP used as a denominator is the gross domestic product at current market prices; data expressed in national currency are converted into euro using end-of-year exchange rates provided by the European Central Bank

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 44/226

0.2% (2015 est.)

0.8% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 153/156

0.05% (31 December 2013)

0.3% (31 December 2010)

note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

Commercial bank prime lending rate 182/184

1.7% (31 December 2015 est.)

2.47% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 5/192

$1.936 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)

$1.841 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)

note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

Stock of broad money 5/193

$4.347 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)

$4.451 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 5/191

$5.036 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)

$4.976 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 9/121

$1.486 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)

$1.184 trillion (31 December 2011)

$1.43 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance 3/197

$286.3 billion (2015 est.)

$286.4 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 4/224

$1.292 trillion (2015 est.)

$1.492 trillion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

motor vehicles, machinery, chemicals, computer and electronic products, electrical equipment, pharmaceuticals, metals, transport equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, rubber and plastic products

Exports - partners

France 9.6%, UK 7.9%, US 6.9%, Netherlands 6.9%, China 5.8%, Austria 5.3%, Italy 5.1%, Poland 4.5%, Switzerland 4.3% (2014)

Imports 4/223

$983.9 billion (2015 est.)

$1.188 trillion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery, data processing equipment, vehicles, chemicals, oil and gas, metals, electric equipment, pharmaceuticals, foodstuffs, agricultural products

Imports - partners

Netherlands 13.8%, France 8%, China 6.6%, Belgium 6.3%, Italy 5.4%, UK 4.8%, Poland 4.6%, Czech Republic 4.4%, Austria 4.3%, Switzerland 4.1% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 14/170

$192.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$198.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Debt - external 4/206

$5.597 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)

$5.998 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 6/120

$1.442 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)

$1.416 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 3/105

$2.068 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)

$1.986 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

0.89 (2015 est.)

0.75 (2014 est.)

0.76 (2013 est.)

0.78 (2012 est.)

0.72 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 8/220

585.2 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 7/219

540.1 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 2/218

71.43 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 5/219

39.16 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 7/214

177.1 million kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 158/214

45.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 23/214

6.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 134/214

2.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 2/212

41.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 58/214

48,830 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 86/214

670.7 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports 6/214

1.83 million bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 57/215

226.8 million bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 9/214

2.15 million bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 10/212

2.399 million bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 19/214

407,300 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 9/213

734,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production 44/216

10.06 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 9/215

77.48 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - exports 15/215

19.24 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - imports 3/214

86.84 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 50/212

116 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 7/212

788.3 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 5/219

total subscriptions: 47.02 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 58 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 15/217

total: 99.5 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 123 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: one of the world's most technologically advanced telecommunications systems; as a result of intensive capital expenditures since reunification, the formerly backward system of the eastern part of the country, dating back to World War II, has been modernized and integrated with that of the western part

domestic: extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, and a domestic satellite system; cellular telephone service is widely available, expanding rapidly, and includes roaming service to many foreign countries

international: country code - 49; Germany's international service is excellent worldwide, consisting of extensive land and undersea cable facilities as well as earth stations in the Inmarsat, Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems (2011)

Broadcast media

a mixture of publicly operated and privately owned TV and radio stations; national and regional public broadcasters compete with nearly 400 privately owned national and regional TV stations; more than 90% of households have cable or satellite TV; hundreds of radio stations including multiple national radio networks, regional radio networks, and a large number of local radio stations (2008)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 51, FM 787, shortwave 4 (1998)

Television broadcast stations

373 (plus 8,042 repeaters) (1995)

Internet country code

.de

Internet hosts 6/232

20.043 million (2012)

Internet users 8/217

total: 70.3 million

percent of population: 86.8% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 13/236

539 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 318

over 3,047 m: 14

2,438 to 3,047 m: 49

1,524 to 2,437 m: 60

914 to 1,523 m: 70

under 914 m: 125 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 221

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 35

under 914 m: 185 (2013)

Heliports

23 (2013)

Pipelines

condensate 37 km; gas 26,985 km; oil 2,826 km; refined products 4,479 km; water 8 km (2013)

Railways 6/136

total: 43,468.3 km

standard gauge: 43,209.3 km 1.435-m gauge (19,973 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 220 km 1.000-m gauge (79 km electrified); 15 km 0.900-m gauge; 24 km 0.750-m gauge (2014)

Roadways 12/223

total: 645,000 km

paved: 645,000 km (includes 12,800 km of expressways)

note: includes local roads (2010)

Waterways 18/107

7,467 km (Rhine River carries most goods; Main-Danube Canal links North Sea and Black Sea) (2012)

Merchant marine 24/156

total: 427

by type: barge carrier 2, bulk carrier 6, cargo 51, carrier 1, chemical tanker 15, container 298, liquefied gas 6, passenger 4, passenger/cargo 24, petroleum tanker 10, refrigerated cargo 3, roll on/roll off 6, vehicle carrier 1

foreign-owned: 6 (Finland 3, Netherlands 1, Switzerland 2)

registered in other countries: 3,420 (Antigua and Barbuda 1094, Australia 2, Bahamas 30, Bermuda 14, Brazil 6, Bulgaria 12, Burma 1, Cayman Islands 3, Cook Islands 1, Curacao 25, Cyprus 192, Denmark 9, Dominica 5, Estonia 1, France 1, Gibraltar 123, Hong Kong 10, Isle of Man 56, Jamaica 10, Liberia 1185, Luxembourg 9, Malta 135, Marshall Islands 248, Morocco 1, Netherlands 86, NZ 2, Panama 24, Papua New Guinea 1, Philippines 2, Portugal 14, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3, Singapore 32, Slovakia 3, Spain 4, Sri Lanka 8, Sweden 3, UK 59, US 5, Venezuela 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Baltic Sea - Rostock; North Sea - Wilhelmshaven

river port(s): Bremen (Weser); Bremerhaven (Geeste); Duisburg, Karlsruhe, Neuss-Dusseldorf (Rhine); Brunsbuttel, Hamburg (Elbe); Lubeck (Wakenitz)

oil terminal(s): Brunsbuttel Canal terminals

container port(s): Bremen/Bremerhaven (5,915,487), Hamburg (9,014,165) (2011)

LNG terminal(s) (import): Hamburg

Military and Security

Military branches

Federal Armed Forces (Bundeswehr): Army (Heer), Navy (Deutsche Marine, includes naval air arm), Air Force (Luftwaffe), Joint Support Services (Streitkraeftebasis, SKB), Central Medical Service (Zentraler Sanitaetsdienst, ZSanDstBw) (2013)

Military service age and obligation

17-23 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; conscription ended 1 July 2011; service obligation 8-23 months or 12 years; women have been eligible for voluntary service in all military branches and positions since 2001 (2013)

Military expenditures 74/132

1.35% of GDP (2012)

1.34% of GDP (2011)

1.35% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 41,167 (Iraq); 40,994 (Syria); 27,814 (Afghanistan); 22,242 (Turkey); 18,814 (Iran); 9,294 (Serbia and Kosovo) (2014)

stateless persons: 11,917 (2014)

Illicit drugs

source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine processors; transshipment point for and consumer of Southwest Asian heroin, Latin American cocaine, and European-produced synthetic drugs; major financial center