Gibraltar

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Strategically important, Gibraltar was reluctantly ceded to Great Britain by Spain in the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht; the British garrison was formally declared a colony in 1830. In a referendum held in 1967, Gibraltarians voted overwhelmingly to remain a British dependency. The subsequent granting of autonomy in 1969 by the UK led Spain to close the border and sever all communication links. Between 1997 and 2002, the UK and Spain held a series of talks on establishing temporary joint sovereignty over Gibraltar. In response to these talks, the Gibraltar Government called a referendum in late 2002 in which the majority of citizens voted overwhelmingly against any sharing of sovereignty with Spain. Since late 2004, Spain, the UK, and Gibraltar have held tripartite talks with the aim of cooperatively resolving problems that affect the local population, and work continues on cooperation agreements in areas such as taxation and financial services; communications and maritime security; policy, legal and customs services; environmental protection; and education and visa services. Throughout 2009, a dispute over Gibraltar's claim to territorial waters extending out three miles gave rise to periodic non-violent maritime confrontations between Spanish and UK naval patrols and in 2013, the British reported a record number of entries by Spanish vessels into waters claimed by Gibraltar following a dispute over Gibraltar's creation of an artificial reef in those waters. A new noncolonial constitution came into effect in 2007, and the European Court of First Instance recognized Gibraltar's right to regulate its own tax regime in December 2008. The UK retains responsibility for defense, foreign relations, internal security, and financial stability.

Geography

Location

Southwestern Europe, bordering the Strait of Gibraltar, which links the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, on the southern coast of Spain

Geographic coordinates

36.08° N, 5.21° W

Area 244/257

total: 6.5 sq km

land: 6.5 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative

more than 10 times the size of The National Mall in Washington, D.C.

Land boundaries

total: 1.2 km

border countries (1): Spain 1.2 km

Coastline

12 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate

Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers

Terrain

a narrow coastal lowland borders the Rock of Gibraltar

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

highest point: Rock of Gibraltar 426 m

Natural resources

none

Land use

agricultural land: 0%

arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0%

forest: 0%

other: 100% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

NA

Natural hazards

NA

Environment - current issues

limited natural freshwater resources: large concrete or natural rock water catchments collect rainwater (no longer used for drinking water) and adequate desalination plant

Geography - note

strategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that links the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Gibraltarian(s)

adjective: Gibraltar

Ethnic groups

Spanish, Italian, English, Maltese, Portuguese, German, North Africans

Languages

English (used in schools and for official purposes), Spanish, Italian, Portuguese

Religions

Roman Catholic 78.1%, Church of England 7%, Muslim 4%, other Christian 3.2%, Jewish 2.1%, Hindu 1.8%, other 0.9%, none 2.9% (2001 est.)

Population 219/238

29,258 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 20.11% (male 3,014/female 2,870)

15-24 years: 15.58% (male 2,383/female 2,174)

25-54 years: 38.44% (male 5,678/female 5,569)

55-64 years: 10.47% (male 1,418/female 1,644)

65 years and over: 15.41% (male 2,216/female 2,292) (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 34.2 years

male: 33.3 years

female: 35.2 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 180/233

0.24% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 139/224

14.08 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 83/225

8.37 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 183/222

-3.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 100% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 0.07% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

GIBRALTAR (capital) 29,000 (2014)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.1 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.97 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 164/224

total: 6.16 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 6.85 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 5.42 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 46/224

total population: 79.28 years

male: 76.43 years

female: 82.34 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 134/224

1.91 children born/woman (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths

NA

Education expenditures

NA

Government

Country name

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Gibraltar

etymology: from the Spanish derivation of the Arabic "Jabal Tariq," which means "Mountain of Tariq" and which refers to the Rock of Gibraltar

Government type

NA

Capital

name: Gibraltar

geographic coordinates: 36.08° N, 5.21° W

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

none (overseas territory of the UK)

Independence

none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday

National Day, 10 September (1967); note - day of the national referendum to decide whether to remain with the UK or join Spain

Constitution

previous 1969; latest passed by referendum 30 November 2006, entered into effect 14 December 2006, entered into force 2 January 2007 (2015)

Legal system

the laws of the UK, where applicable, apply

Citizenship

see United Kingdom

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal; and British citizens with six months residence or more

Executive branch

chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Lt. Gen. Edward DAVIS (since 19 January 2016)

head of government: Chief Minister Fabian PICARDO (since 9 December 2011)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed from among the 17 elected members of the Parliament by the governor in consultation with the chief minister

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed chief minister by the governor

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament (18 seats; 17 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by majority vote and 1 appointed by Parliament as speaker; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 26 November 2015 (next to be held not later than December 2019)

election results: percent of vote by party - GSLP 68.4%, GSD 31.6%; seats by party - GSLP 10, GSD 7

Judicial branch

highest resident court(s): Court of Appeal (consists of at least 3 judges, including the court president); Supreme Court of Gibraltar (consists of the chief justice and 3 judges); note - appeals beyond the Court of Appeal are heard by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London)

judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal and Supreme Court judges appointed by the governor upon the advice of the Judicial Service Commission, a 7-member body of judges and appointees of the governor; tenure of the Court of Appeal president based on terms of appointment; Supreme Court chief justice and judge normally appointed until retirement at age 67, but can be extended 3 years

subordinate courts: Court of First Instance; Magistrates' Court; specialized tribunals for issues relating to social security, taxes, and employment

Political parties and leaders

Gibraltar Liberal Party [Joseph GARCIA]

Gibraltar Social Democrats or GSD [Daniel FEETHAM]

Gibraltar Socialist Labor Party or GSLP [Fabian PICARDO]

Progressive Democratic Party [Nick CRUZ]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Chamber of Commerce

Gibraltar Representatives Organization

Women's Association

International organization participation

ICC (NGOs), Interpol (subbureau), UPU

Flag description

two horizontal bands of white (top, double width) and red with a three-towered red castle in the center of the white band; hanging from the castle gate is a gold key centered in the red band; the design is that of Gibraltar's coat of arms granted on 10 July 1502 by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain; the castle symbolizes Gibraltar as a fortress, while the key represents Gibraltar's strategic importance - the key to the Mediterranean

National symbol(s)

Barbary macaque; national colors: red, white, yellow

National anthem

name: "Gibraltar Anthem"

lyrics/music: Peter EMBERLEY

note: adopted 1994; serves as a local anthem; as a territory of the United Kingdom, "God Save the Queen" remains official (see United Kingdom)

Economy

Economy - overview

Self-sufficient Gibraltar benefits from an extensive shipping trade, offshore banking, and its position as an international conference center. Tax rates are low to attract foreign investment. The British military presence has been sharply reduced and now contributes about 7% to the local economy, compared with 60% in 1984. The financial sector, tourism (over 11 million visitors in 2012), gaming revenues, shipping services fees, and duties on consumer goods also generate revenue. The financial sector, tourism, and the shipping sector contribute 30%, 30%, and 25%, respectively, of GDP. Telecommunications, e-commerce, and e-gaming account for the remaining 15%. In recent years, Gibraltar has seen major structural change from a public to a private sector economy, but changes in government spending still have a major impact on the level of employment.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 197/230

$1.85 billion (2013 est.)

$2 billion (2012 est.)

$1.106 billion (2006 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate)

$1.85 billion (2013 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 28/225

6% (2008 est.)

8.8% (2007 est.)

0% (2006 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 36/230

$43,000 (2008 est.)

$41,200 (2007 est.)

$38,400 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 0%

industry: 0%

services: 100% (2008 est.)

Agriculture - products

none

Industries

tourism, banking and finance, ship repairing, tobacco

Industrial production growth rate

NA%

Labor force 211/233

22,910 (2001) (2013 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: NEGL

industry: 40%

services: 60% (2001)

Unemployment rate 23/207

3% (2005 est.)

Population below poverty line

NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Budget

revenues: $475.8 million

expenditures: $452.3 million (2008 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 117/219

25.7% of GDP (2008 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 17/220

1.3% of GDP (2008 est.)

Public debt 171/176

7.5% of GDP (2008 est.)

9.3% of GDP (2006 est.)

Fiscal year

1 July - 30 June

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 127/226

2.5% (2013 est.)

2.2% (2012 est.)

Exports 183/224

$271 million (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities

(principally reexports) petroleum 51%, manufactured goods (2010 est.)

Imports 146/223

$2.967 billion (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities

fuels, manufactured goods, foodstuffs

Debt - external

$NA

Exchange rates

Gibraltar pounds (GIP) per US dollar -

0.89 (2015 est.)

0.75 (2014 est.)

0.76 (2013 est.)

0.64 (2012)

0.62 (2011)

Energy

Electricity - production 190/220

165 million kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 193/219

160 million kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 143/218

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 154/219

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 193/214

43,000 kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 11/214

100% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 99/214

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 174/214

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 178/212

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 140/214

0 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 129/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - imports 196/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 138/215

0 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 187/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 95/212

53,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 183/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 76/213

53,970 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Natural gas - production 193/216

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 147/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports 106/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports 201/214

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 143/212

0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 131/212

3.946 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 179/219

total subscriptions: 23,400

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 80 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 205/217

total: 38,000

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 130 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: adequate, automatic domestic system and adequate international facilities

domestic: automatic exchange facilities

international: country code - 350; radiotelephone; microwave radio relay; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Broadcast media

Gibraltar Broadcasting Corporation (GBC) provides TV and radio broadcasting services via 1 TV station and 4 radio stations; British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS) operates 1 radio station; broadcasts from Spanish radio and TV stations are accessible (2008)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 0 (1998)

Television broadcast stations

1 (plus 3 repeaters) (1997)

Internet country code

.gi

Internet hosts 151/232

3,509 (2012)

Internet users 200/217

total: 20,200

percent of population: 70.14% (2009)

Transportation

Airports 220/236

1 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)

Roadways 221/223

total: 29 km

paved: 29 km (2007)

Merchant marine 32/156

total: 267

by type: bulk carrier 3, cargo 146, chemical tanker 64, container 28, liquefied gas 2, petroleum tanker 14, roll on/roll off 2, vehicle carrier 8

foreign-owned: 254 (Belgium 1, Cyprus 1, Denmark 7, Finland 2, Germany 123, Greece 8, Iceland 1, Italy 4, Jersey 1, Morocco 4, Netherlands 34, Norway 46, Sweden 11, UAE 5, UK 6)

registered in other countries: 6 (Liberia 5, Panama 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Gibraltar

Military and Security

Military branches

Royal Gibraltar Regiment (2013)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

in 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any "shared sovereignty" arrangement; the Government of Gibraltar insists on equal participation in talks between the UK and Spain; Spain disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar even greater autonomy