Grenada

WorldABC.xyz: facts on every entity in the world

Carib Indians inhabited Grenada when Christopher COLUMBUS discovered the island in 1498, but it remained uncolonized for more than a century. The French settled Grenada in the 17th century, established sugar estates, and imported large numbers of African slaves. Britain took the island in 1762 and vigorously expanded sugar production. In the 19th century, cacao eventually surpassed sugar as the main export crop; in the 20th century, nutmeg became the leading export. In 1967, Britain gave Grenada autonomy over its internal affairs. Full independence was attained in 1974 making Grenada one of the smallest independent countries in the Western Hemisphere. Grenada was seized by a Marxist military council on 19 October 1983. Six days later the island was invaded by US forces and those of six other Caribbean nations, which quickly captured the ringleaders and their hundreds of Cuban advisers. Free elections were reinstituted the following year and have continued since then.

Geography

Location

Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean, north of Trinidad and Tobago

Geographic coordinates

12.07° N, 61.40° W

Area 207/257

total: 344 sq km

land: 344 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative

twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries

0 km

Coastline

121 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate

tropical; tempered by northeast trade winds

Terrain

volcanic in origin with central mountains

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point: Mount Saint Catherine 840 m

Natural resources

timber, tropical fruit, deepwater harbors

Land use

agricultural land: 32.3%

arable land 8.8%; permanent crops 20.6%; permanent pasture 2.9%

forest: 50%

other: 17.7% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

20 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

NA

Natural hazards

lies on edge of hurricane belt; hurricane season lasts from June to November

Environment - current issues

NA

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

the administration of the islands of the Grenadines group is divided between Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Grenada

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Grenadian(s)

adjective: Grenadian

Ethnic groups

African descent 89.4%, mixed 8.2%, East Indian 1.6%, other 0.9% (includes indigenous) (2001 est.)

Languages

English (official), French patois

Religions

Roman Catholic 44.6%, Protestant 43.5% (includes Anglican 11.5%, Pentecostal 11.3%, Seventh Day Adventist 10.5%, Baptist 2.9%, Church of God 2.6%, Methodist 1.8%, Evangelical 1.6%, other 1.3%), Jehovah's Witness 1.1%, Rastafarian 1.1%, other 6.2%, none 3.6%

Population 191/238

110,694 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 24.35% (male 13,958/female 12,998)

15-24 years: 16.02% (male 8,830/female 8,906)

25-54 years: 40.35% (male 22,891/female 21,771)

55-64 years: 9.65% (male 5,482/female 5,204)

65 years and over: 9.62% (male 4,888/female 5,766) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 50.7%

youth dependency ratio: 39.9%

elderly dependency ratio: 10.8%

potential support ratio: 9.3% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 30.4 years

male: 30.4 years

female: 30.4 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 161/233

0.48% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 120/224

16.03 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 96/225

8.08 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 182/222

-3.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 35.6% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 0.33% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

SAINT GEORGE'S (capital) 38,000 (2014)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.1 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female

total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 134/184

27 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 136/224

total: 10.21 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 9.59 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 10.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 125/224

total population: 74.05 years

male: 71.47 years

female: 76.88 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 112/224

2.06 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Health expenditures 97/191

6.3% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

0.66 physicians/1,000 population (2006)

Hospital bed density

3.5 beds/1,000 population (2012)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 99% of population

rural: 95.3% of population

total: 96.6% of population

unimproved:

urban: 1% of population

rural: 4.7% of population

total: 3.4% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 97.5% of population

rural: 98.3% of population

total: 98% of population

unimproved:

urban: 2.5% of population

rural: 1.7% of population

total: 2% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths

NA

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 78/191

24.6% (2014)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 16 years

male: 15 years

female: 16 years (2009)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Grenada

etymology: probably named for the Spanish city of Granada; in Spanish "granada" means "pomegranate"

Government type

parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm

Capital

name: Saint George's

geographic coordinates: 12.03° N, 61.45° W

time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

6 parishes and 1 dependency*; Carriacou and Petite Martinique*, Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mark, Saint Patrick

Independence

7 February 1974 (from the UK)

National holiday

Independence Day, 7 February (1974)

Constitution

previous 1967; latest presented 19 December 1973, came into operation 7 February 1974, suspended 1979 following a revolution, but restored in 1983; amended 1991 (Constitutional Judicature Act, 1991); note - in early 2014, the prime minister launched a constitutional reform committee but progress toward actual constitutional reform has stalled (2015)

Legal system

common law based on English model

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent: yes

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years for persons from a non-Caribbean state and 4 years for a person from a Caribbean state

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Cecile LA GRENADE (since 7 May 2013)

head of government: Prime Minister Keith MITCHELL (since 20 February 2013)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (13 seats; members appointed by the governor general - 10 on the advice of the prime minister and 3 on the advice of the opposition party leader; members serve 5-year terms) and the House of Representatives (15 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 19 February 2013 (next to be held in 2018)

election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NNP 59%, NDC 41%; seats by party - NNP 15

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Grenada (consists of the High Court with 3 justices and a 2-tier Court of Appeal with NA justices); note - the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (ECSC) is the itinerant superior court of record for the 9-member Organization of Eastern Caribbean States to include Grenada; the ECSC - with its headquarters on St. Lucia - is headed by the chief justice and is comprised of the Court of Appeal with 3 justices and the High Court with 16 judges; sittings of the Court of Appeal and High Court rotate among the member states

judge selection and term of office: justice selection and tenure NA

subordinate courts: magistrates' courts; Court of Magisterial Appeals

Political parties and leaders

Grenada United Labor Party or GULP [Wilfred HAYES]

National Democratic Congress or NDC [Tillman THOMAS]

New National Party or NNP [Keith MITCHELL]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Committee for Human Rights in Grenada or CHRG

New Jewel Movement Support Group

The British Grenada Friendship Society

The New Jewel 19 Committee

International organization participation

ACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CDB, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, ITUC, LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, Petrocaribe, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTO

Flag description

a rectangle divided diagonally into yellow triangles (top and bottom) and green triangles (hoist side and outer side), with a red border around the flag; there are seven yellow, five-pointed stars with three centered in the top red border, three centered in the bottom red border, and one on a red disk superimposed at the center of the flag; there is also a symbolic nutmeg pod on the hoist-side triangle (Grenada is the world's second-largest producer of nutmeg, after Indonesia); the seven stars stand for the seven administrative divisions, with the central star denoting the capital, St. George; yellow represents the sun and the warmth of the people, green stands for vegetation and agriculture, and red symbolizes harmony, unity, and courage

National symbol(s)

Grenada dove, Bougainvillea flower; national colors: red, yellow, green

National anthem

name: "Hail Grenada"

lyrics/music: Irva Merle BAPTISTE/Louis Arnold MASANTO

note: adopted 1974

Economy

Economy - overview

Grenada relies on tourism as its main source of foreign exchange especially since the construction of an international airport in 1985. Hurricanes Ivan (2004) and Emily (2005) severely damaged the agricultural sector - particularly nutmeg and cocoa cultivation - which had been a key driver of economic growth. Grenada has rebounded from the devastating effects of the hurricanes but is now saddled with the debt burden from the rebuilding process. Public debt-to-GDP is about 110%, leaving the MITCHELL administration limited room to engage in public investments and social spending. MITCHELL in 2013 announced a structural adjustment program that includes a plan to increase tax revenue. Strong performances in construction and manufacturing, together with the development of tourism and higher education - especially in medicine - have contributed to growth in national output; however, economic growth remained stagnant in 2010-14 after a sizable contraction in 2009, because of the global economic slowdown's effects on tourism and remittances. Gross national saving – and wealth – has been declining since 2010.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 199/230

$1.385 billion (2015 est.)

$1.339 billion (2014 est.)

$1.267 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$957 million (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 83/225

3.4% (2015 est.)

5.7% (2014 est.)

2.3% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 120/230

$13,000 (2015 est.)

$12,600 (2014 est.)

$11,900 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 170/179

1.6% of GDP (2015 est.)

1.4% of GDP (2014 est.)

-3.2% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 93%

government consumption: 15.2%

investment in fixed capital: 16.1%

investment in inventories: -0.1%

exports of goods and services: 16.9%

imports of goods and services: -41.1%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 6.2%

industry: 14.3%

services: 79.5% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

bananas, cocoa, nutmeg, mace, citrus, avocados, root crops, sugarcane, corn, vegetables

Industries

food and beverages, textiles, light assembly operations, tourism, construction

Industrial production growth rate 171/202

-1% (2015 est.)

Labor force 188/233

59,900 (2013 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 11%

industry: 20%

services: 69% (2008 est.)

Unemployment rate 191/207

33.5% (2013)

25% (2008)

Population below poverty line

38% (2008 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Budget

revenues: $192.4 million

expenditures: $231.6 million (2012 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 157/219

20.1% of GDP (2012 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 149/220

-4.1% of GDP (2012 est.)

Public debt 10/176

110% of GDP (2012 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 95/226

1.7% (2015 est.)

-0.9% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 52/156

6.5% (31 December 2009)

6.5% (31 December 2008)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 92/184

9.2% (31 December 2015 est.)

9.19% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 183/192

$183.3 million (31 December 2015 est.)

$172.8 million (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 174/193

$773.7 million (31 December 2015 est.)

$747.4 million (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 164/191

$627.1 million (31 December 2015 est.)

$623.8 million (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares

$NA

Current account balance 73/197

-$131 million (2015 est.)

-$142 million (2014 est.)

Exports 203/224

$43.8 million (2015 est.)

$42.2 million (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

nutmeg, bananas, cocoa, fruit and vegetables, clothing, mace

Exports - partners

Nigeria 45%, St. Lucia 11.2%, Antigua and Barbuda 7.6%, St. Kitts and Nevis 6.8%, Dominica 6.8%, US 6.7% (2014)

Imports 198/223

$310.4 million (2015 est.)

$306.6 million (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

food, manufactured goods, machinery, chemicals, fuel

Imports - partners

Trinidad and Tobago 48.6%, US 15.8% (2014)

Debt - external 173/206

$679 million (2013 est.)

$538 million (2010 est.)

Exchange rates

East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar -

2.7 (2015 est.)

2.7 (2014 est.)

2.7 (2013 est.)

2.7 (2012 est.)

2.7 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 186/220

193 million kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 190/219

178 million kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 144/218

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 155/219

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 186/214

48,700 kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 52/214

98.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 100/214

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 175/214

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 89/212

1.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 141/214

0 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 130/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - imports 197/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 139/215

0 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 188/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 187/212

2,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 184/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 182/213

2,012 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Natural gas - production 194/216

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 148/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports 107/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports 202/214

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 144/212

0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 185/212

431,300 Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 174/219

total subscriptions: 28,600

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 26 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 186/217

total: 134,500

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 122 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: automatic, island-wide telephone system

domestic: interisland VHF and UHF radiotelephone links

international: country code - 1-473; landing point for the East Caribbean Fiber Optic System (ECFS) submarine cable with links to 13 other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; SHF radiotelephone links to Trinidad and Tobago and Saint Vincent; VHF and UHF radio links to Trinidad (2009)

Broadcast media

the Grenada Broadcasting Network, jointly owned by the government and the Caribbean Communications Network of Trinidad and Tobago, operates a TV station and 2 radio stations; multi-channel cable TV subscription service is available; a dozen private radio stations also broadcast (2007)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 2, FM 12, shortwave 0 (2009)

Television broadcast stations

2 (2009)

Internet country code

.gd

Internet hosts 212/232

80 (2012)

Internet users 183/217

total: 49,600

percent of population: 45.1% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 195/236

3 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2013)

Roadways 184/223

total: 1,127 km

paved: 687 km

unpaved: 440 km (2001)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Saint George's

Military and Security

Military branches

no regular military forces; Royal Grenada Police Force (includes Coast Guard) (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

none

Illicit drugs

small-scale cannabis cultivation; lesser transshipment point for marijuana and cocaine to US