Haiti

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The native Taino - who inhabited the island of Hispaniola when it was discovered by Christopher COLUMBUS in 1492 - were virtually annihilated by Spanish settlers within 25 years. In the early 17th century, the French established a presence on Hispaniola. In 1697, Spain ceded to the French the western third of the island, which later became Haiti. The French colony, based on forestry and sugar-related industries, became one of the wealthiest in the Caribbean but only through the heavy importation of African slaves and considerable environmental degradation. In the late 18th century, Haiti's nearly half million slaves revolted under Toussaint L'OUVERTURE. After a prolonged struggle, Haiti became the first post-colonial black-led nation in the world, declaring its independence in 1804. Currently the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, Haiti has experienced political instability for most of its history. After an armed rebellion led to the forced resignation and exile of President Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE in February 2004, an interim government organized new elections under the auspices of the UN. Continued instability and technical delays prompted repeated postponements, but Haiti inaugurated a democratically elected president and parliament in May 2006. This was followed by contested elections in 2010 that resulted in the election of Haiti's current President, Michel MARTELLY. A massive magnitude 7.0 earthquake struck Haiti in January 2010 with an epicenter about 25 km (15 mi) west of the capital, Port-au-Prince. Estimates are that over 300,000 people were killed and some 1.5 million left homeless. The earthquake was assessed as the worst in this region over the last 200 years.

Geography

Location

Caribbean, western one-third of the island of Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of the Dominican Republic

Geographic coordinates

19.00° N, 72.25° W

Area 148/257

total: 27,750 sq km

land: 27,560 sq km

water: 190 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries

total: 376 km

border countries (1): Dominican Republic 376 km

Coastline

1,771 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: to depth of exploitation

Climate

tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds

Terrain

mostly rough and mountainous

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point: Chaine de la Selle 2,680 m

Natural resources

bauxite, copper, calcium carbonate, gold, marble, hydropower, arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 66.4%

arable land 38.5%; permanent crops 10.2%; permanent pasture 17.7%

forest: 3.6%

other: 30% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

970 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

14.03 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 1.2 cu km/yr (17%/3%/80%)

per capita: 134.3 cu m/yr (2009)

Natural hazards

lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding and earthquakes; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues

extensive deforestation (much of the remaining forested land is being cleared for agriculture and used as fuel); soil erosion; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: Hazardous Wastes

Geography - note

shares island of Hispaniola with Dominican Republic (western one-third is Haiti, eastern two-thirds is the Dominican Republic)

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Haitian(s)

adjective: Haitian

Ethnic groups

black 95%, mulatto and white 5%

Languages

French (official), Creole (official)

Religions

Roman Catholic (official) 54.7%, Protestant 28.5% (Baptist 15.4%, Pentecostal 7.9%, Adventist 3%, Methodist 1.5%, other .7%), voodoo (official) 2.1%, other 4.6%, none 10.2%

note: many Haitians practice elements of voodoo in addition to another religion, most often Roman Catholicism; voodoo was recognized as an official religion in 2003

Population 89/238

10,110,019

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 33.28% (male 1,686,647/female 1,678,156)

15-24 years: 21.64% (male 1,093,024/female 1,094,591)

25-54 years: 35.78% (male 1,801,988/female 1,815,819)

55-64 years: 5.11% (male 247,588/female 269,103)

65 years and over: 4.18% (male 188,952/female 234,151) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 62.3%

youth dependency ratio: 54.8%

elderly dependency ratio: 7.5%

potential support ratio: 13.3% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 22.5 years

male: 22.3 years

female: 22.7 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 103/233

1.17%

note: the preliminary 2011 numbers differ significantly from those of 2010, which were strongly influenced by the demographic effect of the January 2010 earthquake; the latest figures more closely correspond to those of 2009 (2015 est.)

Birth rate 73/224

22.31 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 103/225

7.83 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 177/222

-2.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 58.6% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 3.78% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

PORT-AU-PRINCE (capital) 2.44 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.01 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

22.7

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012)

Maternal mortality rate 31/184

359 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 40/224

total: 47.98 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 51.71 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 44.21 deaths/1,000 live births

note: the preliminary 2011 numbers differ significantly from those of 2010, which were strongly influenced by the demographic effect of the January 2010 earthquake; the latest figures more closely correspond to those of 2009 (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 187/224

total population: 63.51 years

male: 62.07 years

female: 64.95 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 71/224

2.69 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

34.5% (2012)

Health expenditures 96/191

9.4% of GDP (2013)

Hospital bed density

1.3 beds/1,000 population (2007)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 64.9% of population

rural: 47.6% of population

total: 57.7% of population

unimproved:

urban: 35.1% of population

rural: 52.4% of population

total: 42.3% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 33.6% of population

rural: 19.2% of population

total: 27.6% of population

unimproved:

urban: 66.4% of population

rural: 80.8% of population

total: 72.4% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

1.93% (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

141,300 (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

3,800 (2014 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 137/191

10.7% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight 64/138

11.6% (2012)

Education expenditures

NA

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Haiti

conventional short form: Haiti

local long form: Republique d'Haiti/Repiblik d Ayiti

local short form: Haiti/Ayiti

etymology: the native Taino name means "land of high mountains" and was originally applied to the entire island of Hispaniola

Government type

republic

Capital

name: Port-au-Prince

geographic coordinates: 18.32° N, 72.20° W

time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November

Administrative divisions

10 departments (departements, singular - departement); Artibonite, Centre, Grand'Anse, Nippes, Nord, Nord-Est, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Est

Independence

1 January 1804 (from France)

National holiday

Independence Day, 1 January (1804)

Constitution

many previous (23 total); latest adopted 10 March 1987; amended 2012 (2015)

Legal system

civil law system strongly influenced by Napoleonic Code

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a native-born citizen of Haiti

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President (vacant); note - President Michel MARTELLY stepped down from office 7 February 2016; parliament is expected to choose an interim president soon

head of government: Prime Minister Evans PAUL (since 16 January 2015)

cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister in consultation with the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a single non-consecutive term); election last held on 25 November 2015, with a runoff now scheduled for 24 April 2016; prime minister chosen by the president from among members of the majority party in the National Assembly

election results: 2010 election - Michel MARTELLY elected president in runoff; percent of vote - Michel MARTELLY (Peasant's Response) 68%, Mirlande MANIGAT (RDNP) 32%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral legislature or "le Corps Legislatif ou parlement" consists of le Senat or Senate (30 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in two rounds if needed; members serve 6-year terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 2 years) and la Chambre de deputes or Chamber of Deputies (118 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in two rounds if needed; members serve 4-year terms); note - when the two chambers meet collectively it is known as L'Assemblee Nationale or the National Assembly that is convened for specific purposes spelled out in the constitution

elections: Senate - last held on 9 August 2015 with run-off election on 25 October 2015 (next possible election in 2017); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 9 August 2015 with run-off election on 25 October 2015 (next regular election may be held in 2017)

election results: 2015 Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; 2015 Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; note - official results pending

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour de Cassation (consists of a chief judge and other judges); note - Haiti is a member of the Caribbean Court of Justice

judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president from candidate lists submitted by the Senate of the National Assembly; note - Article 174 of the Haiti Constitution states "Judges of the Supreme Court.... are appointed for 10 years." whereas Article 177 states "Judges of the Supreme Court..... are appointed for life."

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Courts of First Instance; magistrates' courts; special courts

Political parties and leaders

Assembly of Progressive National Democrats or RDNP [Mirlande MANIGAT]

Christian and Citizen For Haiti's Reconstruction or ACCRHA [Chavannes JEUNE]

Christian Movement for a New Haiti or MCNH [Luc MESADIEU]

Convention for Democratic Unity or KID [Evans PAUL]

Cooperative Action to Rebuild Haiti or KONBA [Jean William JEANTY]

December 16 Platform or Platfom 16 Desanm [Dr. Gerard BLOT]

Democratic Alliance or ALYANS [Evans PAUL] (coalition composed of KID and PPRH)

Democratic Centers's National Council or CONACED [Osner FEVRY]

Democratic Movement for the Liberation of Haiti-Revolutionary Party of Haiti or MODELH-PRDH

Effort and Solidarity to Create an Alternative for the People or ESKAMP [Joseph JASME]

Fanmi Lavalas or FL [Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE]

For Us All or PONT [Jean-Marie CHERESTAL]

Fusion of Haitian Social Democrats or FHSD [Edmonde Supplice BEAUZILE]

Grouping of Citizens for Hope or RESPE [Charles-Henri BAKER]

Haiti in Action or AAA [Youri LATORTUE]

Haitian Tet Kale Party or PHTK [Ann Valerie Timothee MILFORT]

Haitians for Haiti [Yvon NEPTUNE]

Independent Movement for National Reconstruction or MIRN [Luc FLEURINORD]

Konbit Pou refe Ayiti or KONBIT

Lavni Organization or LAVNI [Yves CRISTALIN]

Liberal Party of Haiti or PLH [Jean Andre VICTOR]

Liberation Platform or PLATFORME LIBERATION

Love Haiti or Renmen Ayiti [Jean-Henry CEANT and Camille LEBLANC]

Merging of Haitian Social Democratics or FUSION [Edmonde Supplice BEAUZILE] (coalition of Ayiti Capable, Haitian National Revolutionary Party, and National Congress of Democratic Movements)

Mobilization for National Development or MDN [Hubert de RONCERAY]

National Front for the Reconstruction of Haiti or FRN [Guy PHILIPPE]

New Christian Movement for a New Haiti or MOCHRENA [Luc MESADIEU]

Patriotic Movement of the Democratic Opposition or MOPOD

Patriotic Unity or IP [Marie Denise CLAUDE]

Peasant Platform or PP

Peasant's Response or Repons Peyizan [Michel MARTELLY]

Platform Alternative for Progress and Democracy or ALTENATIV [Victor BENOIT and Evans PAUL]

Platform of Haitian Patriots or PLAPH [Dejean BELISAIRE and Himmler REBU]

Platform Pitit Dessalines or PPD [Moise JEAN-CHARLES]

Pont

Popular Party for the Renewal of Haiti or PPRH [Claude ROMAIN]

PPG18

Rally or RASAMBLE

Renmen Ayiti or RA [Jean-Henry CEANT]

Respect or RESPE

Socialist Action Movement or MAS

Strength in Unity or Ansanm Nou Fo [Leslie VOLTAIRE]

Struggling People's Organization or OPL [Sauveur PIERRE-ETIENNE]

Truth (Verite)

Union [Chavannes JEUNE]

Union of Haitian Citizens for Democracy, Development, and Education or UCADDE [Jeantel JOSEPH]

Union of Nationalist and Progressive Haitians or UNPH [Edouard FRANCISQUE]

Unity or Inite [Levaillant LOUIS-JEUNE] (coalition that includes Front for Hope or L'ESPWA)

Vigilance or Veye Yo [Lavarice GAUDIN]

Youth for People's Power or JPP [Rene CIVIL]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Autonomous Organizations of Haitian Workers or CATH [Fignole ST-CYR]

Confederation of Haitian Workers or CTH

Economic Forum of the Private Sector or EF [Reginald BOULOS]

Federation of Workers Trade Unions or FOS

General Organization of Independent Haitian Workers [Patrick NUMAS]

Grand-Anse Resistance Committee or KOREGA

Haitian Association of Industries or ADIH [Georges SASSINE]

National Popular Assembly or APN

Papaye Peasants Movement or MPP [Chavannes JEAN-BAPTISTE]

Popular Organizations Gathering Power or PROP

Protestant Federation of Haiti

Roman Catholic Church

International organization participation

ACP, AOSIS, Caricom, CD, CDB, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OIF, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, Petrocaribe, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Flag description

two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a centered white rectangle bearing the coat of arms, which contains a palm tree flanked by flags and two cannons above a scroll bearing the motto L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE (Union Makes Strength); the colors are taken from the French Tricolor and represent the union of blacks and mulattoes

National symbol(s)

Hispaniolan trogon (bird), hibiscus flower; national colors: blue, red

National anthem

name: "La Dessalinienne" (The Dessalines Song)

lyrics/music: Justin LHERISSON/Nicolas GEFFRARD

note: adopted 1904; named for Jean-Jacques DESSALINES, a leader in the Haitian Revolution and first ruler of an independent Haiti

Economy

Economy - overview

Haiti is a free market economy that enjoys the advantages of low labor costs and tariff-free access to the US for many of its exports. Poverty, corruption, vulnerability to natural disasters, and low levels of education for much of the population are among Haiti's most serious impediments to economic growth. Haiti's economy suffered a severe setback in January 2010 when a 7.0 magnitude earthquake destroyed much of its capital city, Port-au-Prince, and neighboring areas. Currently the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere with 80% of the population living under the poverty line and 54% in abject poverty, the earthquake further inflicted $7.8 billion in damage and caused the country's GDP to contract. In 2011, the Haitian economy began recovering from the earthquake. However, two hurricanes adversely affected agricultural output and the low public capital spending slowed the recovery in 2012. Two-fifths of all Haitians depend on the agricultural sector, mainly small-scale subsistence farming, and remain vulnerable to damage from frequent natural disasters, exacerbated by the country's widespread deforestation. US economic engagement under the Caribbean Basin Trade Preference Agreement (CBTPA) and the 2008 Haitian Hemispheric Opportunity through Partnership Encouragement (HOPE II) Act helped increase apparel exports and investment by providing duty-free access to the US. Congress voted in 2010 to extend the CBTPA and HOPE II until 2020 under the Haiti Economic Lift Program (HELP) Act; the apparel sector accounts for about 90% of Haitian exports and nearly one-twentieth of GDP. Remittances are the primary source of foreign exchange, equaling one-fifth of GDP and representing more than five times the earnings from exports in 2012. Haiti suffers from a lack of investment, partly because of weak infrastructure such as access to electricity. Haiti's outstanding external debt was cancelled by donor countries following the 2010 earthquake, but has since risen to $1.43 billion as of December 2014. The government relies on formal international economic assistance for fiscal sustainability, with over half of its annual budget coming from outside sources.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 147/230

$19.02 billion (2015 est.)

$18.56 billion (2014 est.)

$18.06 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$8.797 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 121/225

2.5% (2015 est.)

2.8% (2014 est.)

4.2% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 210/230

$1,800 (2015 est.)

$1,800 (2014 est.)

$1,700 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 72/179

21.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

24.8% of GDP (2014 est.)

23.7% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 103.9%

government consumption: 0%

investment in fixed capital: 29.5%

investment in inventories: -5.3%

exports of goods and services: 14%

imports of goods and services: -42.1%

note: figure for household consumption also includes government consumption (2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 23.6%

industry: 20.1%

services: 56.3% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

coffee, mangoes, cocoa, sugarcane, rice, corn, sorghum; wood, vetiver

Industries

textiles, sugar refining, flour milling, cement, light assembly using imported parts

Industrial production growth rate 34/202

5% (2015 est.)

Labor force 86/233

4.81 million

note: shortage of skilled labor, unskilled labor abundant (2010 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 38.1%

industry: 11.5%

services: 50.4% (2010)

Unemployment rate 197/207

40.6% (2010 est.)

note: widespread unemployment and underemployment; more than two-thirds of the labor force do not have formal jobs

Population below poverty line

58.5% (2012 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 0.7%

highest 10%: 47.7% (2001)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 8/144

59.2 (2001)

Budget

revenues: $1.814 billion

expenditures: $2.135 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 154/219

20.6% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 137/220

-3.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

Fiscal year

1 October - 30 September

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 180/226

5.5% (2015 est.)

4.6% (2014 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 64/184

12.3% (31 December 2015 est.)

10.8% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 150/192

$1.112 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$1.092 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 143/193

$3.509 billion (31 October 2012 est.)

$3.43 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 135/191

$2.302 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$2.175 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares

$NA

Current account balance 91/197

-$382 million (2015 est.)

-$552 million (2014 est.)

Exports 161/224

$955.2 million (2015 est.)

$917.7 million (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

apparel, manufactures, oils, cocoa, mangoes, coffee

Exports - partners

US 83.2% (2014)

Imports 141/223

$3.22 billion (2015 est.)

$3.392 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

food, manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, fuels, raw materials

Imports - partners

Dominican Republic 29.2%, US 23.8%, Algeria 11.7%, Netherlands Antilles 7.8%, China 7.3% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 122/170

$1.803 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$1.99 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 157/206

$1.366 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$1.271 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 109/120

$1.299 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$1.185 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

gourdes (HTG) per US dollar -

47.63 (2015 est.)

45.22 (2014 est.)

45.22 (2013 est.)

41.95 (2012 est.)

40.52 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 147/220

1.089 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 173/219

452 million kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 150/218

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 160/219

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 153/214

267,800 kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 96/214

77.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 107/214

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 87/214

22.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 182/212

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 146/214

0 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 135/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - imports 203/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 145/215

0 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 193/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 143/212

15,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 189/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 127/213

14,720 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Natural gas - production 200/216

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 154/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports 114/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports 208/214

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 149/212

0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 148/212

2.094 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 167/219

total subscriptions: 41,000

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 107/217

total: 6.8 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 68 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: telecommunications infrastructure is among the least-developed in Latin America and the Caribbean; domestic facilities barely adequate; international facilities slightly better

domestic: mobile-cellular telephone services are expanding rapidly due, in part, to the introduction of low-cost GSM phones; mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 40 per 100 persons

international: country code - 509; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2010)

Broadcast media

several TV stations, including 1 government owned; cable TV subscription service available; government-owned radio network; more than 250 private and community radio stations with about 50 FM stations in Port-au-Prince alone (2007)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 41, FM 53, shortwave 0 (2009)

Television broadcast stations

2 (plus a cable TV service) (1997)

Internet country code

.ht

Internet hosts 181/232

555 (2012)

Internet users 119/217

total: 1.2 million

percent of population: 11.6% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 148/236

14 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 10

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 8 (2013)

Roadways 156/223

total: 4,266 km

paved: 768 km

unpaved: 3,498 km (2009)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Cap-Haitien, Gonaives, Jacmel, Port-au-Prince

Military and Security

Military branches

no regular military forces - small Coast Guard; a Ministry of National Defense established May 2012; the regular Haitian Armed Forces (FAdH) - Army, Navy, and Air Force - have been demobilized but still exist on paper until or unless they are constitutionally abolished (2011)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

since 2004, peacekeepers from the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti have assisted in maintaining civil order in Haiti; the mission currently includes 6,685 military, 2,607 police, and 443 civilian personnel; despite efforts to control illegal migration, Haitians cross into the Dominican Republic and sail to neighboring countries; Haiti claims US-administered Navassa Island

Refugees and internally displaced persons

IDPs: 59,000 (includes only IDPs from the 2010 earthquake living in camps or camp-like situations; information is lacking about IDPs living outside camps or who have left camps) (2015)

Illicit drugs

Caribbean transshipment point for cocaine en route to the US and Europe; substantial bulk cash smuggling activity; Colombian narcotics traffickers favor Haiti for illicit financial transactions; pervasive corruption; significant consumer of cannabis