Hungary

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Hungary became a Christian kingdom in A.D. 1000 and for many centuries served as a bulwark against Ottoman Turkish expansion in Europe. The kingdom eventually became part of the polyglot Austro-Hungarian Empire, which collapsed during World War I. The country fell under communist rule following World War II. In 1956, a revolt and an announced withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact were met with a massive military intervention by Moscow. Under the leadership of Janos KADAR in 1968, Hungary began liberalizing its economy, introducing so-called "Goulash Communism." Hungary held its first multiparty elections in 1990 and initiated a free market economy. It joined NATO in 1999 and the EU five years later.

Geography

Location

Central Europe, northwest of Romania

Geographic coordinates

47.00° N, 20.00° E

Area 110/257

total: 93,028 sq km

land: 89,608 sq km

water: 3,420 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Virginia; about the same size as Indiana

Land boundaries

total: 2,106 km

border countries (7): Austria 321 km, Croatia 348 km, Romania 424 km, Serbia 164 km, Slovakia 627 km, Slovenia 94 km, Ukraine 128 km

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers

Terrain

mostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the Slovakian border

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Tisza River 78 m

highest point: Kekes 1,014 m

Natural resources

bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils, arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 58.9%

arable land 48.5%; permanent crops 2%; permanent pasture 8.4%

forest: 22.5%

other: 18.6% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

1,721 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

104 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 5.58 cu km/yr (12%/83%/5%)

per capita: 555.9 cu m/yr (2007)

Environment - current issues

the upgrading of Hungary's standards in waste management, energy efficiency, and air, soil, and water pollution to meet EU requirements will require large investments

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin; the north-south flowing Duna (Danube) and Tisza Rivers divide the country into three large regions

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Hungarian(s)

adjective: Hungarian

Ethnic groups

Hungarian 85.6%, Roma 3.2%, German 1.9%, other 2.6%, unspecified 14.1%

note: percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify more than one ethnic group (2011 est.)

Languages

Hungarian (official) 99.6%, English 16%, German 11.2%, Russian 1.6%, Romanian 1.3%, French 1.2%, other 4.2%

note: shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census; Hungarian is the mother tongue of 98.9% of Hungarian speakers (2011 est.)

Religions

Roman Catholic 37.2%, Calvinist 11.6%, Lutheran 2.2%, Greek Catholic 1.8%, other 1.9%, none 18.2%, unspecified 27.2% (2011 est.)

Population 90/238

9,897,541 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 14.8% (male 754,729/female 710,394)

15-24 years: 11.44% (male 583,320/female 548,520)

25-54 years: 41.65% (male 2,070,725/female 2,051,695)

55-64 years: 13.87% (male 630,426/female 742,657)

65 years and over: 18.24% (male 677,420/female 1,127,655) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 47.9%

youth dependency ratio: 21.5%

elderly dependency ratio: 26.3%

potential support ratio: 3.8% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 41.4 years

male: 39.5 years

female: 43.8 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 216/233

-0.22% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 207/224

9.16 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 20/225

12.73 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 58/222

1.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 71.2% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 0.47% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

BUDAPEST (capital) 1.714 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female

total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

28.3 (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 135/184

17 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 176/224

total: 5.02 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 5.3 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 4.74 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 94/224

total population: 75.69 years

male: 71.96 years

female: 79.62 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 207/224

1.43 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Health expenditures 61/191

8% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

3.1 physicians/1,000 population (2012)

Hospital bed density

7.2 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 97.8% of population

rural: 98.6% of population

total: 98% of population

unimproved:

urban: 2.2% of population

rural: 1.4% of population

total: 2% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths

100 (2013 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 37/191

26% (2014)

Education expenditures 81/173

4.7% of GDP (2011)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 15 years

male: 15 years

female: 16 years (2012)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 31/134

total: 27.2%

male: 26.3%

female: 28.4% (2013 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Hungary

local long form: none

local short form: Magyarorszag

etymology: the Byzantine Greeks refered to the tribes that arrived in the steppes of Eastern Europe in the 9th century as the "Oungroi," a name that was later Latinized to "Ungri" and which became "Hungari"; the name originally meant an "[alliance of] ten tribes"; the Hungarian name "Magyarorszag" means "Land of the Magyars"; the term may derive from the most prominent of the Hungarian tribes, the Megyer

Government type

parliamentary democracy

Capital

name: Budapest

geographic coordinates: 47.30° N, 19.05° E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

19 counties (megyek, singular - megye), 23 cities with county rights (megyei jogu varosok, singular - megyei jogu varos), and 1 capital city (fovaros)

counties: Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Csongrad, Fejer, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Komarom-Esztergom, Nograd, Pest, Somogy, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Zala

cities with county rights: Bekescsaba, Debrecen, Dunaujvaros, Eger, Erd, Gyor, Hodmezovasarhely, Kaposvar, Kecskemet, Miskolc, Nagykanizsa, Nyiregyhaza, Pecs, Salgotarjan, Sopron, Szeged, Szekesfehervar, Szekszard, Szolnok, Szombathely, Tatabanya, Veszprem, Zalaegerszeg

capital city: Budapest

Independence

16 November 1918 (republic proclaimed); notable earlier dates: 25 December 1000 (crowning of King STEPHEN I, traditional founding date); 30 March 1867 (Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy established)

National holiday

Saint Stephen's Day, 20 August; note - commemorates the date when his remains were transferred to Buda (now Budapest)

Constitution

previous 1949 (heavily amended in 1989 following collapse of communism); latest approved 18 April 2011, signed 25 April 2011, effective 1 January 2012; amended several times, last in 2013 (2015)

Legal system

civil legal system influenced by the German model

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Hungary

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years

Suffrage

18 years of age, 16 if married; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: Janos ADER (since 10 May 2012)

head of government: Prime Minister Viktor ORBAN (since 29 May 2010)

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers proposed by the prime minister and appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly with two-thirds majority vote in first round or simple majority vote in second round for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 2 May 2012 (next to be held by May 2017); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president

election results: Janos ADER (Fidesz) elected president; National Assembly vote - 262 to 40; Viktor ORBAN (Fidesz) elected prime minister; National Assembly vote - 130 to 57 (in 2014)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Orszaggyules (199 seats; 106 members directly elected in single-member constituencies by simple majority vote and 93 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by party list proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 6 April 2014 (next to be held by April 2018)

election results: percent of vote by party - Fidesz-KDNP 44.5%, Unity 26%, Jobbik 20.5%, LMP 5.3%, other 3.7%; seats by party - Fidesz-KDNP 133, Unity 38, Jobbik 23, LMP 5

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Curia or Supreme Judicial Court (consists of the Curia president, vice president, and approximately 76 judges organized into 16 civil chambers, 3 criminal chambers, and 4 administrative chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of 15 judges including the court president and 2 vice-presidents)

judge selection and term of office: Curia president elected from among its members for 9 years by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president of the republic; other Curia judges appointed by the president upon the recommendation of the National Judicial Council, a separate 15-member administrative body; judge tenure based on interim evaluations until normal retirement age; Constitutional Court judges elected by two-thirds vote of the National Assembly; members serve single renewable 12-year terms with mandatory retirement at age 70

subordinate courts: 5 regional courts of appeal; 19 regional or county courts (including Budapest Metropolitan Court); 20 administrative and labor courts; 111 district or local courts

Political parties and leaders

Christian Democratic People's Party or KDNP [Zsolt SEMJEN]

Democratic Coalition or DK [Ferenc GYURCSANY]

Dialogue for Hungary or PM [Javor BENEDEK, Timea SZABO, co-chairs]

Fidesz-Hungarian Civic Alliance or Fidesz [Viktor ORBAN]

Hungarian Liberal Party or MLP [Gabor FODOR]

Hungarian Socialist Party or MSZP [Jozsef TOBIAS]

Movement for a Better Hungary or Jobbik [Gabor VONA]

Politics Can Be Different or LMP [Andras SCHIFFER, Bernadett SZEL]

Together 2014 or Egyutt [Peter JUHASZ, Peter KONYA, Viktor SZIGETVARI]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Civil Osszefogas Forum ("Civil Unity Forum," nominally independent organization that serves as the steering committee for the pro-government mass organization Bekemenet (Peace March), supporting ORBAN government's policies)

Hungarian Civil Liberties Union (Tarsasag a Szabadsagjogokert) or TASZ (freedom of expression, information privacy)

Hungarian Helsinki Committee (asylum seekers' rights, human rights in law enforcement and the judicial system)

MigSzol (Migrant Solidarity Group of Hungary) (independent advocacy group on migration crisis)

MostMi ("Now Us") [Bori TAKACS, Zsolt VARADY](Facebook group that was a major participant at anti-government demonstrations in late 2014-early 2015; pro-Europe, anti-establishment movement that blames Fidesz for the state of the country, but also blames all established political parties for perceived political and economic failures since the fall of communism)

Okotars (empowerment of civil society in Hungary)

other:

Energy Club (Energia Klub)

Greenpeace Hungary (Greenpeace Magyarorszag)

International organization participation

Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA (cooperating state), EU, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green; the flag dates to the national movement of the 18th and 19th centuries, and fuses the medieval colors of the Hungarian coat of arms with the revolutionary tricolor form of the French flag; folklore attributes virtues to the colors: red for strength, white for faithfulness, and green for hope; alternatively, the red is seen as being for the blood spilled in defense of the land, white for freedom, and green for the pasturelands that make up so much of the country

National symbol(s)

Holy Crown of Hungary (Crown of Saint Stephen); national colors: red, white, green

National anthem

name: "Himnusz" (Hymn)

lyrics/music: Ferenc KOLCSEY/Ferenc ERKEL

note: adopted 1844

Economy

Economy - overview

Hungary has made the transition from a centrally planned to a market economy, with a per capita income nearly two-thirds that of the EU-28 average.

In late 2008, Hungary's impending inability to service its short-term debt - brought on by the global financial crisis - led Budapest to obtain an IMF/EU/World Bank-arranged financial assistance package worth over $25 billion. The global economic downturn, declining exports, and low domestic consumption and investment, dampened by government austerity measures, resulted in a severe economic contraction in 2009. In 2010 the new government implemented a number of changes including cutting business and personal income taxes, but imposed "crisis taxes" on financial institutions, energy and telecom companies, and retailers. The IMF/EU bail-out program lapsed at the end of 2010 and was replaced by Post Program Monitoring and Article IV Consultations on overall economic and fiscal processes. At the end of 2011 the government turned to the IMF and the EU to obtain financial backstop to support its efforts to refinance foreign currency debt and bond obligations in 2012 and beyond, but Budapest's rejection of EU and IMF economic policy recommendations led to a breakdown in talks with the lenders in late 2012. Global demand for high yield has since helped Hungary to obtain funds on international markets.

Hungary’s progress reducing its deficit to under 3% of GDP led the European Commission in 2013 to permit Hungary for the first time since joining the EU in 2004 to exit the Excessive Deficit Procedure. The government remains committed to keeping the budget deficit in check and lowering public debt by using sectoral taxes, while relying on state interventionist measures to lower utility prices and boost growth and employment.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 60/230

$257 billion (2015 est.)

$249.5 billion (2014 est.)

$240.9 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$118.5 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 101/225

3% (2015 est.)

3.6% (2014 est.)

1.5% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 71/230

$26,000 (2015 est.)

$25,300 (2014 est.)

$24,400 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 39/179

26.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

25.8% of GDP (2014 est.)

23.9% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 49.8%

government consumption: 19.2%

investment in fixed capital: 21.8%

investment in inventories: 0.2%

exports of goods and services: 93.1%

imports of goods and services: -84.1%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 4.4%

industry: 30.9%

services: 64.8% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

wheat, corn, sunflower seed, potatoes, sugar beets; pigs, cattle, poultry, dairy products

Industries

mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles

Industrial production growth rate 86/202

3% (2015 est.)

Labor force 90/233

4.446 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 7.1%

industry: 29.7%

services: 63.2% (2011 est.)

Unemployment rate 83/207

7.1% (2015 est.)

7.7% (2014 est.)

Population below poverty line

14% (2012 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.1%

highest 10%: 22.6% (2009)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 143/144

24.7 (2009)

24.4 (1998)

Budget

revenues: $61.61 billion

expenditures: $64.69 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 11/219

52% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 90/220

-2.6% of GDP

note: Hungary has been under the EU Excessive Deficit Procedure since it joined the EU in 2004; in March 2012 the EU elevated its Excessive Deficit Procedure against Hungary and proposed freezing 30% of the country's Cohesion Funds because 2011 deficit reductions were not achieved in a sustainable manner; in June 2012, the EU lifted the freeze, recognizing that steps had been taken to reduce the deficit; the latest EC forecasts project the Hungarian deficit to increase above 3% both in 2013 and in 2014 due to sluggish growth and the government's fiscal tightening (2015 est.)

Public debt 35/176

76.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

76.2% of GDP (2014 est.)

note: general government gross debt is defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and government, state government, local government, and social security funds.

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 39/226

0.1% (2015 est.)

-0.2% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 68/156

5.75% (19 December 2012)

7% (31 December 2011)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 169/184

3% (31 December 2015 est.)

4.43% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 52/192

$47.18 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$41.44 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 61/193

$68.87 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$66.91 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 56/191

$74.85 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$76.19 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 63/121

$22.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$22.8 billion (31 December 2011)

$27.71 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance 28/197

$5.925 billion (2015 est.)

$5.455 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 36/224

$97.57 billion (2015 est.)

$100 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

machinery and equipment 53.5%, other manufactures 31.2%, food products 8.7%, raw materials 3.4%, fuels and electricity 3.9% (2012 est.)

Exports - partners

Germany 28.8%, Austria 5.8%, Romania 5.7%, Slovakia 5.1%, Italy 4.8%, France 4.7%, Poland 4%, Czech Republic 4% (2014)

Imports 34/223

$92.92 billion (2015 est.)

$96.42 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery and equipment 45.4%, other manufactures 34.3%, fuels and electricity 12.6%, food products 5.3%, raw materials 2.5% (2012)

Imports - partners

Germany 25.6%, Austria 7.4%, Russia 7%, China 6.2%, Slovakia 5.5%, Poland 5.3%, France 4.8%, Czech Republic 4.6%, Italy 4.5%, Netherlands 4.1% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 46/170

$39.39 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$42.02 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 36/206

$182.2 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$202.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 42/120

$119.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$115.5 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 39/105

$50.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$47.74 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

forints (HUF) per US dollar -

273.8 (2015 est.)

232.6 (2014 est.)

232.6 (2013 est.)

225.1 (2012 est.)

201.05 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 62/220

32.48 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 58/219

36.76 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 33/218

4.76 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 12/219

16.64 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 58/214

9.289 million kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 103/214

72.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 9/214

20.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 147/214

0.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 52/212

6.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 78/214

11,410 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 81/214

1,485 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports 43/214

115,300 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 84/215

27.19 million bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 61/214

165,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 68/212

140,900 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 56/214

51,170 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 85/213

44,440 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production 57/216

1.854 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 49/215

8.348 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - exports 39/215

740 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - imports 28/214

8.941 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 84/212

7.843 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 61/212

47.9 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 49/219

total subscriptions: 3.01 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 30 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 78/217

total: 11.7 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 118 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: modern telephone system is digital and highly automated; trunk services are carried by fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay; a program for fiber-optic subscriber connections was initiated in 1996

domestic: competition among mobile-cellular service providers has led to a sharp increase in the use of mobile-cellular phones since 2000 and a decrease in the number of fixed-line connections

international: country code - 36; Hungary has fiber-optic cable connections with all neighboring countries; the international switch is in Budapest; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Inmarsat, 1 very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system of ground terminals (2011)

Broadcast media

mixed system of state-supported public service broadcast media and private broadcasters; the 3 publicly owned TV channels and the 2 main privately owned TV stations are the major national broadcasters; a large number of special interest channels; highly developed market for satellite and cable TV services with about two-thirds of viewers utilizing their services; 3 state-supported public-service radio networks and 2 major national commercial stations; a large number of local stations including commercial, public service, nonprofit, and community radio stations; digital transition postponed to the end of 2014 (2007)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 5, FM 90, shortwave 1 (2008)

Television broadcast stations

95 (2008)

Internet country code

.hu

Internet hosts 33/232

3.145 million (2012)

Internet users 50/217

total: 7.4 million

percent of population: 74.4% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 104/236

41 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 20

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 6

1,524 to 2,437 m: 6

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 1 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 21

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 8

under 914 m: 11 (2013)

Heliports

3 (2013)

Pipelines

gas 19,028 km; oil 1,007 km; refined products 842 km (2013)

Railways 26/136

total: 8,049 km

broad gauge: 36 km 1.524-m gauge

standard gauge: 7,794 km 1.435-m gauge (2,889 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 219 km 0.760-m gauge (2014)

Roadways 25/223

total: 199,567 km

paved: 76,075 km (includes 1,477 km of expressways)

unpaved: 123,492 km (2010)

Waterways 47/107

1,622 km (most on Danube River) (2011)

Ports and terminals

river port(s): Baja, Csepel (Budapest), Dunaujvaros, Gyor-Gonyu, Mohacs (Danube)

Military and Security

Military branches

Hungarian Defense Forces: Land Forces, Hungarian Air Force (Magyar Legiero, ML) (2011)

Military service age and obligation

18-25 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; 6-month service obligation (2012)

Military expenditures 113/132

0.8% of GDP (2015)

0.83% of GDP (2012)

0.99% of GDP (2011)

0.83% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

bilateral government, legal, technical and economic working group negotiations continue in 2006 with Slovakia over Hungary's failure to complete its portion of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project along the Danube; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Hungary has implemented the strict Schengen border rules

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (countries of origin): 5,950 applicants for forms of legal stay other than asylum (Ukraine) (2015)

stateless persons: 124 (2014)

note: 392,073 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2016)

Illicit drugs

transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and cannabis and for South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals, particularly for amphetamine and methamphetamine; efforts to counter money laundering, related to organized crime and drug trafficking are improving but remain vulnerable; significant consumer of ecstasy