India

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The Indus Valley civilization, one of the world's oldest, flourished during the 3rd and 2nd millennia B.C. and extended into northwestern India. Aryan tribes from the northwest infiltrated the Indian subcontinent about 1500 B.C.; their merger with the earlier Dravidian inhabitants created the classical Indian culture. The Maurya Empire of the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C. - which reached its zenith under ASHOKA - united much of South Asia. The Golden Age ushered in by the Gupta dynasty (4th to 6th centuries A.D.) saw a flowering of Indian science, art, and culture. Islam spread across the subcontinent over a period of 700 years. In the 10th and 11th centuries, Turks and Afghans invaded India and established the Delhi Sultanate. In the early 16th century, the Emperor BABUR established the Mughal Dynasty which ruled India for more than three centuries. European explorers began establishing footholds in India during the 16th century. By the 19th century, Great Britain had become the dominant political power on the subcontinent. The British Indian Army played a vital role in both World Wars. Years of nonviolent resistance to British rule, led by Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU, eventually resulted in Indian independence, which was granted in 1947. Large-scale communal violence took place before and after the subcontinent partition into two separate states - India and Pakistan. The neighboring nations have fought three wars since independence, the last of which was in 1971 and resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. India's nuclear weapons tests in 1998 emboldened Pakistan to conduct its own tests that same year. In November 2008, terrorists originating from Pakistan conducted a series of coordinated attacks in Mumbai, India's financial capital. Despite pressing problems such as significant overpopulation, environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and widespread corruption, economic growth following the launch of economic reforms in 1991 and a massive youthful population are driving India's emergence as a regional and global power.

Geography

Location

Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan

Geographic coordinates

20.00° N, 77.00° E

Area 7/257

total: 3,287,263 sq km

land: 2,973,193 sq km

water: 314,070 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly more than one-third the size of the US

Land boundaries

total: 13,888 km

border countries (6): Bangladesh 4,142 km, Bhutan 659 km, Burma 1,468 km, China 2,659 km, Nepal 1,770 km, Pakistan 3,190 km

Coastline

7,000 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate

varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north

Terrain

upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Kanchenjunga 8,598 m

Natural resources

coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, rare earth elements, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 60.5%

arable land 52.8%; permanent crops 4.2%; permanent pasture 3.5%

forest: 23.1%

other: 16.4% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

667,000 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

1,911 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 761 cu km/yr (7%/2%/90%)

per capita: 613 cu m/yr (2010)

Natural hazards

droughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes

volcanism: Barren Island (elev. 354 m) in the Andaman Sea has been active in recent years

Environment - current issues

deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources

Environment - international agreements

party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes; Kanchenjunga, third tallest mountain in the world, lies on the border with Nepal

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Indian(s)

adjective: Indian

Ethnic groups

Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2000)

Languages

Hindi 41%, Bengali 8.1%, Telugu 7.2%, Marathi 7%, Tamil 5.9%, Urdu 5%, Gujarati 4.5%, Kannada 3.7%, Malayalam 3.2%, Oriya 3.2%, Punjabi 2.8%, Assamese 1.3%, Maithili 1.2%, other 5.9%

note: English enjoys the status of subsidiary official language but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication; Hindi is the most widely spoken language and primary tongue of 41% of the people; there are 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official language (2001 census)

Religions

Hindu 79.8%, Muslim 14.2%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.7%, other and unspecified 2% (2011 est.)

Population 2/238

1,251,695,584 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 28.09% (male 186,735,337/female 164,835,868)

15-24 years: 18.06% (male 119,933,717/female 106,153,113)

25-54 years: 40.74% (male 262,700,370/female 247,237,448)

55-64 years: 7.16% (male 44,993,382/female 44,620,337)

65 years and over: 5.95% (male 35,313,609/female 39,172,403) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 52.4%

youth dependency ratio: 43.9%

elderly dependency ratio: 8.6%

potential support ratio: 11.7% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 27.3 years

male: 26.7 years

female: 28 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 98/233

1.22% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 87/224

19.55 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 118/225

7.32 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 112/222

-0.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 32.7% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 2.38% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

NEW DELHI (capital) 25.703 million; Mumbai 21.043 million; Kolkata 11.766 million; Bangalore 10.087 million; Chennai 9.62 million; Hyderabad 8.944 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.12 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.13 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.13 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female

total population: 1.08 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

19.9 (2005/06 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 55/184

174 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 50/224

total: 41.81 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 40.56 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 43.22 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 163/224

total population: 68.13 years

male: 66.97 years

female: 69.42 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 78/224

2.48 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

54.8% (2007/08)

Health expenditures 159/191

4% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

0.7 physicians/1,000 population (2012)

Hospital bed density

0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source

97.1improved:

urban: 97.1% of population

rural: 92.6% of population

total: 94.1% of population

unimproved:

urban: 2.9% of population

rural: 7.4% of population

total: 5.9% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 62.6% of population

rural: 28.5% of population

total: 39.6% of population

unimproved:

urban: 37.4% of population

rural: 71.5% of population

total: 60.4% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.26% (2013 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

2,079,700 (2013 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

127,200 (2013 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 184/191

4.7% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight 2/138

43.5% (2006)

Education expenditures 134/173

3.8% of GDP (2012)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 12 years

male: 12 years

female: 11 years (2011)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 97/134

total: 10.7%

male: 10.4%

female: 11.6% (2012 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of India

conventional short form: India

local long form: Republic of India/Bharatiya Ganarajya

local short form: India/Bharat

etymology: the English name derives from the Indus River; the Indian name "Bharat" may derive from the "Bharatas" tribe mentioned in the Vedas of the second millennium B.C.; the name is also associated with the Emperor Bharata, the legendary conqueror of all of India

Government type

federal republic

Capital

name: New Delhi

geographic coordinates: 28.36° N, 77.12° E

time difference: UTC+5.5 (10.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

29 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli*, Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Puducherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal

note: although its status is that of a union territory, the official name of Delhi is National Capital Territory of Delhi

Independence

15 August 1947 (from the UK)

National holiday

Republic Day, 26 January (1950)

Constitution

previous 1935 (preindependence); latest draft completed 4 November 1949, adopted 26 November 1949, effective 26 January 1950; amended many times, last in 2015 (2015)

Legal system

common law system based on the English model; separate personal law codes apply to Muslims, Christians, and Hindus; judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of India

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Pranab MUKHERJEE (since 22 July 2012); Vice President Mohammad Hamid ANSARI (since 11 August 2007)

head of government: Prime Minister Narendra MODI (since 26 May 2014)

cabinet: Union Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister, appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and state legislatures for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 19 July 2012 (next to be held in July 2017); vice president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and state legislatures for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 7 August 2012 (next to be held in August 2017); following legislative elections, the prime minister is elected by parliamentary members of the majority party

election results: Pranab MUKHERJEE elected president; percent of vote - Pranab MUKHERJEE (INC prior to election) 69.31%, Purno SANGMA (independent) 30.69%; Mohammad Hamid ANSARI reelected vice president; electoral college vote - Mohammad Hamid ANSARI 490, Jaswant SINGH 238

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament or Sansad consists of the Council of States or Rajya Sabha (245 seats; 233 members indirectly elected by state and territorial assemblies by proportional representation vote, and 12 members appointed by the president; members serve 6-year terms) and the People's Assembly or Lok Sabha (545 seats; 543 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 2 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: People's Assembly - last held April-May 2014 in 10 phases; (next must be held by May 2019)

election results: People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - BJP 31.0%, INC 19.3%, AITC 3.8%, SP 3.4%, AIADMK 3.3%, CPI(M) 3.3%, TDP 2.6%, YSRC 2.5%, AAP 2.1%, BJD 1.7%, SS 1.7%, NCP 1.6%, SAD 1.8%, RJD 1.3%, TRS 1.3%, LJP 0.4%, other parties 15.9%, independent 3.0%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (the chief justice and 25 associate justices); note - parliament approved an additional 5 judges in 2008

judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president to serve until age 65

subordinate courts: High Courts; District Courts; Labour Court

note: in mid-2011, India’s Cabinet approved the "National Mission for Justice Delivery and Legal Reform" to eliminate judicial corruption and reduce the backlog of cases; as of mid-July 2015, the Indian Government was considering the introduction of pre-trial hearing as a method for reducing the backlog

Political parties and leaders

Aam Aadmi Party or AAP [Arvind KEJRIWAL]

All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or AIADMK [J. JAYALALITHAA]

All India Trinamool Congress or AITC [Mamata BANERJEE]

Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [MAYAWATI]

Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP [Amit SHAH]

Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Naveen PATNAIK]

Communist Party of India-Marxist or CPI(M) [Prakash KARAT]

Indian National Congress or INC [Sonia GANDHI]

Lok Janshakti Party (LJP) [Ram Vilas PASWAN]

Nationalist Congress Party or NCP [Sharad PAWAR]

Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Lalu Prasad YADAV]

Samajwadi Party or SP [Mulayam Singh YADAV]

Shiromani Akali Dal or SAD [Parkash Singh BADAL]

Shiv Sena or SS [Uddhav THACKERAY]

Telegana Rashtra Samithi (TRS) [K. Chandrashekar RAO]

Telugu Desam Party or TDP [Chandrababu NAIDU]

YSR Congress(YSRC) [Jaganmohan REDDY]

note: India has dozens of national and regional political parties

Political pressure groups and leaders

All Parties Hurriyat Conference in the Kashmir Valley (separatist group)

Bajrang Dal (religious organization)

India Against Corruption [Anna HAZARE]

Jamiat Ulema-e Hind [Mahmood MADANI] (religious organization)

Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh [Mohan BHAGWAT] (nationalist organization)

Vishwa Hindu Parishad [Ashok SINGHAL] (religious organization)

other: hundreds of social reform, anti-corruption, and environmental groups at state and local level; numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations; various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy

International organization participation

ADB, AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIMSTEC, BIS, BRICS, C, CD, CERN (observer), CICA, CP, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of saffron (subdued orange) (top), white, and green, with a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white band; saffron represents courage, sacrifice, and the spirit of renunciation; white signifies purity and truth; green stands for faith and fertility; the blue chakra symbolizes the wheel of life in movement and death in stagnation

note: similar to the flag of Niger, which has a small orange disk centered in the white band

National symbol(s)

the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which depicts four Asiatic lions standing back to back mounted on a circular abacus, is the official emblem; Bengal tiger; lotus flower; national colors: saffron, white, green

National anthem

name: "Jana-Gana-Mana" (Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People)

lyrics/music: Rabindranath TAGORE

note: adopted 1950; Rabindranath TAGORE, a Nobel laureate, also wrote Bangladesh's national anthem

Economy

Economy - overview

India is developing into an open-market economy, yet traces of its past autarkic policies remain. Economic liberalization measures, including industrial deregulation, privatization of state-owned enterprises, and reduced controls on foreign trade and investment, began in the early 1990s and served to accelerate the country's growth, which averaged under 7% per year from 1997 to 2011.

India's diverse economy encompasses traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude of services. Slightly less than half of the work force is in agriculture, but, services are the major source of economic growth, accounting for nearly two-thirds of India's output with less than one-third of its labor force. India has capitalized on its large educated English-speaking population to become a major exporter of information technology services, business outsourcing services, and software workers.

India's economic growth began slowing in 2011 because of a decline in investment caused by high interest rates, rising inflation, and investor pessimism about the government's commitment to further economic reforms and about the global situation. Growth in 2014 and 2015 again exceeded 7% per year. Rising macroeconomic imbalances in India, and improving economic conditions in Western countries, led investors to shift capital away from India, prompting a sharp depreciation of the rupee. However, investors' perceptions of India improved in early 2014, due to a reduction of the current account deficit and expectations of post-election economic reform, resulting in a surge of inbound capital flows and stabilization of the rupee. Since the election, economic reforms have focused on administrative and governance changes largely because the ruling party remains a minority in India’s upper house of Parliament, which must approve most bills. Despite a high growth rate compared to the rest of the world, in 2015, India’s government-owned banks faced mounting bad debt, resulting in low credit growth and restrained economic growth.

The outlook for India's long-term growth is moderately positive due to a young population and corresponding low dependency ratio, healthy savings and investment rates, and increasing integration into the global economy. However, India's discrimination against women and girls, an inefficient power generation and distribution system, ineffective enforcement of intellectual property rights, decades-long civil litigation dockets, inadequate transport and agricultural infrastructure, limited non-agricultural employment opportunities, high spending and poorly-targeted subsidies, inadequate availability of quality basic and higher education, and accommodating rural-to-urban migration are significant long-term challenges.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 4/230

$8.027 trillion (2015 est.)

$7.484 trillion (2014 est.)

$6.976 trillion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$2.183 trillion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 14/225

7.3% (2015 est.)

7.3% (2014 est.)

6.9% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 158/230

$6,300 (2015 est.)

$5,900 (2014 est.)

$5,500 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 22/179

29.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

30.2% of GDP (2014 est.)

30.8% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 59.7%

government consumption: 11.7%

investment in fixed capital: 26.8%

investment in inventories: 4.4%

exports of goods and services: 19.4%

imports of goods and services: -22%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 16.1%

industry: 29.5%

services: 54.4% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, lentils, onions, potatoes; dairy products, sheep, goats, poultry; fish

Industries

textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software, pharmaceuticals

Industrial production growth rate 92/202

2.8% (2015 est.)

Labor force 2/233

502.1 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 49%

industry: 20%

services: 31% (2012 est.)

Unemployment rate 84/207

7.1% (2015 est.)

7.3% (2014 est.)

Population below poverty line

29.8% (2010 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.6%

highest 10%: 31.1% (2005)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 101/144

33.6 (2012)

37.8 (1997)

Budget

revenues: $236 billion

expenditures: $326.2 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 211/219

10.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 148/220

-4.1% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 76/176

51.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

51.7% of GDP (2014 est.)

note: data cover central government debt, and exclude debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Fiscal year

1 April - 31 March

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 181/226

5.6% (2015 est.)

6.7% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 39/156

7.75% (31 December 2014)

7.75% (31 December 2013)

note: this is the Indian central bank's policy rate - the repurchase rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate 83/184

9.9% (31 December 2015 est.)

10.25% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 14/192

$368.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$345.6 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 10/193

$1.711 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)

$1.612 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 15/191

$1.587 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)

$1.494 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 11/121

$1.263 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)

$1.015 trillion (31 December 2011)

$1.616 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance 190/197

-$30.38 billion (2015 est.)

-$27.53 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 17/224

$287.6 billion (2015 est.)

$329.6 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

petroleum products, precious stones, vehicles, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, pharmaceutical products, cereals, apparel

Exports - partners

US 13.4%, UAE 10.4%, Hong Kong 4.3%, China 4.2%, Saudi Arabia 4% (2014)

Imports 11/223

$432.3 billion (2015 est.)

$472.8 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

crude oil, precious stones, machinery, chemicals, fertilizer, plastics, iron and steel

Imports - partners

China 12.7%, Saudi Arabia 7.1%, UAE 5.9%, US 4.6%, Switzerland 4.6% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 8/170

$370.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$322.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 28/206

$459.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$427.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 22/120

$297.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$252.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 31/105

$137.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$129.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

Indian rupees (INR) per US dollar -

64.73 (2015 est.)

61.03 (2014 est.)

61.03 (2013 est.)

53.44 (2012 est.)

46.67 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 5/220

1.052 trillion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 6/219

864.7 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 91/218

5 million kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - imports 42/219

4.794 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 5/214

254.7 million kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 114/214

68.7% of total installed capacity (26 February 2014 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 29/214

2% of total installed capacity (26 February 2014 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 99/214

16.9% of total installed capacity (26 February 2014 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 27/212

12.4% of total installed capacity (26 February 2014 est.)

Crude oil - production 25/214

767,600 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 140/214

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports 3/214

3.812 million bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 22/215

5.675 billion bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 5/214

4.433 million bbl/day (2013)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 5/212

3.66 million bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 7/214

1.38 million bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 22/213

312,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production 27/216

31.7 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 16/215

50.6 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - exports 118/215

0 cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - imports 20/214

18.9 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 22/212

1.427 trillion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 4/212

1.831 billion Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 13/219

total subscriptions: 27 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 2/217

total: 944 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 76 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: supported by recent deregulation and liberalization of telecommunications laws and policies, India has emerged as one of the fastest-growing telecom markets in the world; total telephone subscribership base exceeded 900 million in 2011, an overall teledensity of roughly 75%, and subscribership is currently growing more than 20 million per month; urban teledensity now exceeds 100%, and rural teledensity is steadily growing

domestic: mobile cellular service introduced in 1994 and organized nationwide into four metropolitan areas and 19 telecom circles, each with multiple private service providers and one or more state-owned service providers; in recent years significant trunk capacity added in the form of fiber-optic cable and one of the world's largest domestic satellite systems, the Indian National Satellite system (INSAT), with 6 satellites supporting 33,000 very small aperture terminals (VSAT)

international: country code - 91; a number of major international submarine cable systems, including SEA-ME-WE-3 with landing sites at Cochin and Mumbai (Bombay), SEA-ME-WE-4 with a landing site at Chennai, Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) with a landing site at Mumbai (Bombay), South Africa - Far East (SAFE) with a landing site at Cochin, the i2i cable network linking to Singapore with landing sites at Mumbai (Bombay) and Chennai (Madras), and Tata Indicom linking Singapore and Chennai (Madras), provide a significant increase in the bandwidth available for both voice and data traffic; satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region); 9 gateway exchanges operating from Mumbai (Bombay), New Delhi, Kolkata (Calcutta), Chennai (Madras), Jalandhar, Kanpur, Gandhinagar, Hyderabad, and Ernakulam (2011)

Broadcast media

Doordarshan, India's public TV network, operates about 20 national, regional, and local services; a large and increasing number of privately owned TV stations are distributed by cable and satellite service providers; by 2011, more than 100 million homes had access to cable and satellite TV offering more than 700 TV channels; government controls AM radio with All India Radio operating domestic and external networks; news broadcasts via radio are limited to the All India Radio Network; since 2000, privately owned FM stations have been permitted and their numbers have increased rapidly (2007)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 149, FM 171, shortwave 54 (2009)

Television broadcast stations

1,400 (2009)

Internet country code

.in

Internet hosts 17/232

6.746 million (2012)

Internet users 4/217

total: 237.3 million

percent of population: 19.2% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 21/236

346 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 253

over 3,047 m: 22

2,438 to 3,047 m: 59

1,524 to 2,437 m: 76

914 to 1,523 m: 82

under 914 m: 14 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 93

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 6

914 to 1,523 m: 38

under 914 m: 45 (2013)

Heliports

45 (2013)

Pipelines

condensate/gas 9 km; gas 13,581 km; liquid petroleum gas 2,054 km; oil 8,943 km; oil/gas/water 20 km; refined products 11,069 km (2013)

Railways 4/136

total: 68,525 km

broad gauge: 58,404 km 1.676-m gauge (23,654 electrified)

narrow gauge: 9,499 km 1.000-m gauge; 622 km 0.762-m gauge (2014)

Roadways 2/223

total: 4,689,842 km

note: includes 79,116 km of national highways and expressways, 155,716 km of state highways, and 4,455,010 km of other roads (2013)

Waterways 9/107

14,500 km (5,200 km on major rivers and 485 km on canals suitable for mechanized vessels) (2012)

Merchant marine 29/156

total: 340

by type: bulk carrier 104, cargo 78, chemical tanker 22, container 14, liquefied gas 11, passenger 4, passenger/cargo 15, petroleum tanker 92

foreign-owned: 10 (China 1, Hong Kong 2, Jersey 2, Malaysia 1, UAE 4)

registered in other countries: 76 (Cyprus 4, Dominica 2, Liberia 8, Malta 3, Marshall Islands 10, Nigeria 1, Panama 24, Saint Kitts and Nevis 2, Singapore 21, unknown 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Chennai, Jawaharal Nehru Port, Kandla, Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay), Sikka, Vishakhapatnam

container port(s) (TEUs): Chennai (1,558,343), Jawaharal Nehru Port (4,307,622)

LNG terminal(s) (import): Dabhol, Dahej, Hazira

Military and Security

Military branches

Army, Navy (includes naval air arm), Air Force, Coast Guard (2011)

Military service age and obligation

16-18 years of age for voluntary military service (Army 17 1/2, Air Force 17, Navy 16 1/2); no conscription; women may join as officers, but in combat roles as pilots only (2015)

Military expenditures 31/132

2.4% of GDP (2014)

2.4% of GDP (2013)

2.5% of GDP (2012)

2.6% of GDP (2011)

2.7% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

since China and India launched a security and foreign policy dialogue in 2005, consolidated discussions related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, Indian claims that China transferred missiles to Pakistan, and other matters continue; Kashmir remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); India and Pakistan resumed bilateral dialogue in February 2011 after a two-year hiatus, have maintained the 2003 cease-fire in Kashmir, and continue to have disputes over water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries; UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show its Junagadh claim in Indian Gujarat State; Prime Minister Singh's September 2011 visit to Bangladesh resulted in the signing of a Protocol to the 1974 Land Boundary Agreement between India and Bangladesh, which had called for the settlement of longstanding boundary disputes over undemarcated areas and the exchange of territorial enclaves, but which had never been implemented; Bangladesh referred its maritime boundary claims with Burma and India to the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea; Joint Border Committee with Nepal continues to examine contested boundary sections, including the 400 sq km dispute over the source of the Kalapani River; India maintains a strict border regime to keep out Maoist insurgents and control illegal cross-border activities from Nepal

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 109,018 (Tibet/China); 65,057 (Sri Lanka); 14,301 (Burma); 10,395 (Afghanistan) (2014)

IDPs: at least 616,140 (armed conflict and intercommunal violence) (2015)

Illicit drugs

world's largest producer of licit opium for the pharmaceutical trade, but an undetermined quantity of opium is diverted to illicit international drug markets; transit point for illicit narcotics produced in neighboring countries and throughout Southwest Asia; illicit producer of methaqualone; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering through the hawala system; licit ketamine and precursor production