Indonesia

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The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; Japan occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence shortly before Japan's surrender, but it required four years of sometimes brutal fighting, intermittent negotiations, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty in 1949. A period of sometimes unruly parliamentary democracy ended in 1957 when President SOEKARNO declared martial law and instituted "Guided Democracy." After an abortive coup in 1965 by alleged communist sympathizers, SOEKARNO was gradually eased from power. From 1967 until 1988, President SUHARTO ruled Indonesia with his "New Order" government. After rioting toppled SUHARTO in 1998, free and fair legislative elections took place in 1999. Indonesia is now the world's third most populous democracy, the world's largest archipelagic state, and the world's largest Muslim-majority nation. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, improving education, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing economic and financial reforms, stemming corruption, reforming the criminal justice system, holding the military and police accountable for human rights violations, addressing climate change, and controlling infectious diseases, particularly those of global and regional importance. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh, which led to democratic elections in Aceh in December 2006. Indonesia continues to face low intensity armed resistance in Papua by the separatist Free Papua Movement.

Geography

Location

Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates

5.00° S, 120.00° E

Area 15/257

total: 1,904,569 sq km

land: 1,811,569 sq km

water: 93,000 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries

total: 2,958 km

border countries (3): Timor-Leste 253 km, Malaysia 1,881 km, Papua New Guinea 824 km

Coastline

54,716 km

Maritime claims

measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate

tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain

mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Puncak Jaya 4,884 m

Natural resources

petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver

Land use

agricultural land: 31.2%

arable land 13%; permanent crops 12.1%; permanent pasture 6.1%

forest: 51.7%

other: 17.1% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

67,220 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

2,019 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 113.3 cu km/yr (11%/19%/71%)

per capita: 517.3 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards

occasional floods; severe droughts; tsunamis; earthquakes; volcanoes; forest fires

volcanism: Indonesia contains the most volcanoes of any country in the world - some 76 are historically active; significant volcanic activity occurs on Java, Sumatra, the Sunda Islands, Halmahera Island, Sulawesi Island, Sangihe Island, and in the Banda Sea; Merapi (elev. 2,968 m), Indonesia's most active volcano and in eruption since 2010, has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Agung, Awu, Karangetang, Krakatau (Krakatoa), Makian, Raung, and Tambora

Environment - current issues

deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note

archipelago of 17,508 islands, some 6,000 of which are inhabited (Indonesia is the world's largest country comprised solely of islands); straddles equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Indonesian(s)

adjective: Indonesian

Ethnic groups

Javanese 40.1%, Sundanese 15.5%, Malay 3.7%, Batak 3.6%, Madurese 3%, Betawi 2.9%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Buginese 2.7%, Bantenese 2%, Banjarese 1.7%, Balinese 1.7%, Acehnese 1.4%, Dayak 1.4%, Sasak 1.3%, Chinese 1.2%, other 15% (2010 est.)

Languages

Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (of which the most widely spoken is Javanese)

note: more than 700 languages are used in Indonesia

Religions

Muslim 87.2%, Christian 7%, Roman Catholic 2.9%, Hindu 1.7%, other 0.9% (includes Buddhist and Confucian), unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)

Population 5/238

255,993,674 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 25.82% (male 33,651,533/female 32,442,996)

15-24 years: 17.07% (male 22,238,735/female 21,454,563)

25-54 years: 42.31% (male 55,196,144/female 53,124,591)

55-64 years: 8.18% (male 9,608,548/female 11,328,421)

65 years and over: 6.62% (male 7,368,764/female 9,579,379) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 49%

youth dependency ratio: 41.2%

elderly dependency ratio: 7.7%

potential support ratio: 13% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 29.6 years

male: 29 years

female: 30.2 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 125/233

0.92% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 110/224

16.72 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 151/225

6.37 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 152/222

-1.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 53.7% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 2.69% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

JAKARTA (capital) 10.323 million; Surabaya 2.853 million; Bandung 2.544 million; Medan 2.204 million; Semarang 1.63 million; Makassar 1.489 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

22.8

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 52/184

126 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 71/224

total: 24.29 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 28.46 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 19.92 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 140/224

total population: 72.45 years

male: 69.85 years

female: 75.17 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 103/224

2.15 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

61.9% (2012)

Health expenditures 180/191

3.1% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

0.2 physicians/1,000 population (2012)

Hospital bed density

0.9 beds/1,000 population (2012)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 94.2% of population

rural: 79.5% of population

total: 87.4% of population

unimproved:

urban: 5.8% of population

rural: 20.5% of population

total: 12.6% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 72.3% of population

rural: 47.5% of population

total: 60.8% of population

unimproved:

urban: 27.7% of population

rural: 52.5% of population

total: 39.2% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.47% (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

660,300 (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

33,700 (2014 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 160/191

5.7% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight 31/138

19.9% (2013)

Education expenditures 143/173

3.6% of GDP (2012)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 13 years

male: 13 years

female: 13 years (2012)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 49/134

total: 31.3%

male: 19.5%

female: 21.4% (2013 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia

conventional short form: Indonesia

local long form: Republik Indonesia

local short form: Indonesia

former: Netherlands East Indies, Dutch East Indies

etymology: the name is an 18th-century construct composed of two Greek words, "Indos" (India) and "nesoi" (islands), meaning "Indian islands"

Government type

republic

Capital

name: Jakarta

geographic coordinates: 6.10° S, 106.49° E

time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

note: Indonesia has three time zones

Administrative divisions

31 provinces (provinsi-provinsi, singular - provinsi), 1 autonomous province*, 1 special region** (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 national capital district*** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jakarta Raya***, Jambi, Jawa Barat (West Java), Jawa Tengah (Central Java), Jawa Timur (East Java), Kalimantan Barat (West Kalimantan), Kalimantan Selatan (South Kalimantan), Kalimantan Utara (North Kalimantan), Kalimantan Tengah (Central Kalimantan), Kalimantan Timur (East Kalimantan), Kepulauan Bangka Belitung (Bangka Belitung Islands), Kepulauan Riau (Riau Islands), Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara (North Maluku), Nusa Tenggara Barat (West Nusa Tenggara), Nusa Tenggara Timur (East Nusa Tenggara), Papua, Papua Barat (West Papua), Riau, Sulawesi Barat (West Sulawesi), Sulawesi Selatan (South Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tengah (Central Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tenggara (Southeast Sulawesi), Sulawesi Utara (North Sulawesi), Sumatera Barat (West Sumatra), Sumatera Selatan (South Sumatra), Sumatera Utara (North Sumatra), Yogyakarta**

note: following the implementation of decentralization beginning on 1 January 2001, regencies and municipalities have become the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services

Independence

17 August 1945 (declared)

National holiday

Independence Day, 17 August (1945)

Constitution

drafted July to August 1945, effective 17 August 1945, abrogated by 1949 and 1950 constitutions, 1945 constitution restored 5 July 1959; amended several times, last in 2002; note - a new constitutional amendment was proposed in February 2015 (2015)

Legal system

civil law system based on the Roman-Dutch model and influenced by customary law

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Indonesia

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 continuous years

Suffrage

17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age

Executive branch

chief of state: President Joko WIDODO (since 20 October 2014); Vice President Jusuf KALLA (since 20 October 2014); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Joko WIDODO (since 20 October 2014); Vice President Jusuf KALLA (since 20 October 2014)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 9 July 2014 (next to be held in 2019)

election results: Joko WiDODO elected president; percent of vote - Joko WIDODO (PDI-P) 53.2%, PRABOWO Subianto (GERINDRA) 46.8%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral People's Consultative Assembly or Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat consists of the Regional Representative Council or Dewan Perwakilan Daerah (132 seats; non-partisan members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (560 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by single non-transferable vote to serve 5-year terms)

note: 29 other parties received less than the 2.5% vote threshold and failed to win so did not obtain any seats; because of election rules, the number of seats won does not always follow the percentage of votes received by parties

elections: last held on 9 April 2014 (next to be held in 2019)

election results: percent of vote by party - PDI-P 19%, Golkar 15%, Gerindra 12%, PD 10%, PKB 9%, PAN 8%, PKS 7%, NasDem 7%, PPP 7%, Hanura 5%; seats by party - PDI-P 109, Golkar 91, Gerindra 73, PD 61, PKB 47, PAN 49, PKS 40, NasDem 35, PPP 39, Hanura 16

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (51 judges divided into 8 chambers); Constitutional Court or Mahkamah Konstitusi (consists of 9 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by Judicial Commission, appointed by president with concurrence of parliament; judges serve until retirement at age 65; Constitutional Court judges - 3 nominated by president, 3 by Supreme Court, and 3 by parliament; judges appointed by the president; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 70

subordinate courts: High Courts of Appeal, district courts, religious courts

Political parties and leaders

Democrat Party or PD [Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO]

Functional Groups Party or GOLKAR [Aburizal BAKRIE]

Great Indonesia Movement Party or GERINDRA [PRABOWO Subianto Djojohadikusumo]

Indonesia Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri]

National Awakening Party or PKB [Muhaiman ISKANDAR]

National Mandate Party or PAN [Hatta RAJASA]

People's Conscience Party or HANURA [WIRANTO]

Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Anis MATTA]

United Development Party or PPP [NA]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Commission for the "Disappeared" and Victims of Violence or KontraS

Indonesia Corruption Watch or ICW

Indonesian Forum for the Environment or WALHI

International organization participation

ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, CD, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, EAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-11, G-15, G-20, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OECD (Enhanced Engagement, OIC, OPCW, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Flag description

two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; the colors derive from the banner of the Majapahit Empire of the 13th-15th centuries; red symbolizes courage, white represents purity

note: similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red

National symbol(s)

garuda (mythical bird); national colors: red, white

National anthem

name: "Indonesia Raya" (Great Indonesia)

lyrics/music: Wage Rudolf SOEPRATMAN

note: adopted 1945

Economy

Economy - overview

Indonesia has seen a slowdown in growth since 2012, mostly due to the end of the commodities export boom. During the global financial crisis, Indonesia outperformed its regional neighbors and joined China and India as the only G20 members posting growth. The government has promoted fiscally conservative policies, resulting in a debt-to-GDP ratio of less than 25% and historically low rates of inflation. Fitch and Moody's upgraded Indonesia's credit rating to investment grade in December 2011. Indonesia still struggles with poverty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, corruption, a complex regulatory environment, and unequal resource distribution among regions. President Joko WIDODO - elected in July 2014 - has emphasized maritime and other infrastructure development, especially increased electric power capacity, since taking office. Fuel subsidies were almost completely removed in early 2015, a move which has helped the government increase spending on its development priorities. Indonesia, with the nine other ASEAN members, will continue to move towards participation in the ASEAN Economic Community, though full implementation of economic integration was completed by the previously-set deadline of year-end 2015.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 9/230

$2.839 trillion (2015 est.)

$2.712 trillion (2014 est.)

$2.582 trillion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$872.6 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 46/225

4.7% (2015 est.)

5% (2014 est.)

5.6% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 131/230

$11,300 (2015 est.)

$10,800 (2014 est.)

$10,200 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 10/179

31.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

31.7% of GDP (2014 est.)

30.9% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 56.8%

government consumption: 9.4%

investment in fixed capital: 32.3%

investment in inventories: 1.2%

exports of goods and services: 21.7%

imports of goods and services: -21.4%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 13.6%

industry: 42.8%

services: 43.6% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

rubber and similar products, palm oil, poultry, beef, forest products, shrimp, cocoa, coffee, medicinal herbs, essential oil, fish and its similar products, and spices

Industries

petroleum and natural gas, textiles, automotive, electrical appliances, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, medical instruments and appliances, handicrafts, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, processed food, jewelry, and tourism

Industrial production growth rate 40/202

4.5% (2015 est.)

Labor force 5/233

122.4 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 38.9%

industry: 13.2%

services: 47.9% (2012 est.)

Unemployment rate 62/207

5.5% (2015 est.)

5.9% (2014 est.)

Population below poverty line

11.3% (2014 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.4%

highest 10%: 28.2% (2010)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 80/144

36.8 (2009)

39.4 (2005)

Budget

revenues: $123.3 billion

expenditures: $142.8 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 199/219

14.1% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 78/220

-2.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 146/176

27.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

25.9% of GDP (2014 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 188/226

6.7% (2015 est.)

6.4% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 58/156

6.37% (31 December 2010)

6.46% (31 December 2009)

note: this figure represents the 3-month SBI rate; the Bank of Indonesia has not employed the one-month SBI since September 2010

Commercial bank prime lending rate 59/184

12.8% (31 December 2015 est.)

12.61% (31 December 2014 est.)

note: these figures represent the average annualized rate on working capital loans

Stock of narrow money 44/192

$69.01 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$75.74 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 29/193

$348.6 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$305.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 34/191

$342.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$360.2 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 25/121

$396.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$390.1 billion (31 December 2011)

$360.4 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance 186/197

-$19.56 billion (2015 est.)

-$26.23 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 30/224

$152.5 billion (2015 est.)

$176 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

mineral fuels, animal or vegetable fats (includes palm oil), electrical machinery, rubber, machinery and mechanical appliance parts

Exports - partners

Japan 13.1%, China 10%, Singapore 9.5%, US 9.4%, India 7%, South Korea 6%, Malaysia 5.5% (2014)

Imports 31/223

$138.4 billion (2015 est.)

$178.2 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

mineral fuels, boilers, machinery, and mechanical parts, electric machinery, iron and steel, foodstuffs

Imports - partners

China 17.2%, Singapore 14.1%, Japan 9.6%, South Korea 6.7%, Malaysia 6.1%, Thailand 5.5%, US 4.6% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 22/170

$103.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$111.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 33/206

$293.2 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$266.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 25/120

$279 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$253.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 50/105

$34.62 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$24.05 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

Indonesian rupiah (IDR) per US dollar -

13,577.6 (2015 est.)

11,865.2 (2014 est.)

11,865.2 (2013 est.)

9,386.63 (2012 est.)

8,770.43 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 23/220

185.3 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 22/219

167.5 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 152/218

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 162/219

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 23/214

47.75 million kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 92/214

83.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 111/214

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 114/214

11% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 55/212

5.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 23/214

789,800 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 25/214

296,100 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - imports 23/214

391,800 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 29/215

3.693 billion bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 23/214

946,500 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 14/212

1.718 million bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 51/214

78,690 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 10/213

699,500 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Natural gas - production 12/216

70.4 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 24/215

39.1 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports 12/215

31.3 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports 211/214

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 12/212

2.955 trillion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 15/212

456.2 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 11/219

total subscriptions: 29.64 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 12 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 4/217

total: 319 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 126 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: domestic service includes an interisland microwave system, an HF radio police net, and a domestic satellite communications system; international service good

domestic: coverage provided by existing network has been expanded by use of over 200,000 telephone kiosks many located in remote areas; mobile-cellular subscribership growing rapidly

international: country code - 62; landing point for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks that provide links throughout Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) (2011)

Broadcast media

mixture of about a dozen national TV networks - 2 public broadcasters, the remainder private broadcasters - each with multiple transmitters; more than 100 local TV stations; widespread use of satellite and cable TV systems; public radio broadcaster operates 6 national networks, as well as regional and local stations; overall, more than 700 radio stations with more than 650 privately operated (2008)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 678, FM 43, shortwave 82 (1998)

Television broadcast stations

54 local TV stations (11 national TV networks; each with its group of local transmitters) (2006)

Internet country code

.id

Internet hosts 42/232

1.344 million (2012)

Internet users 14/217

total: 42.4 million

percent of population: 16.7% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 10/236

673 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 186

over 3,047 m: 5

2,438 to 3,047 m: 21

1,524 to 2,437 m: 51

914 to 1,523 m: 72

under 914 m: 37 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 487

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 23

under 914 m: 460 (2013)

Heliports

76 (2013)

Pipelines

condensate 1,064 km; condensate/gas 150 km; gas 11,702 km; liquid petroleum gas 119 km; oil 7,767 km; oil/gas/water 77 km; refined products 728 km; unknown 53 km; water 44 km (2013)

Railways 35/136

total: 8,159 km

narrow gauge: 8,159 km 1.067-m gauge (565 km electrified)

note: 4,816 km operational (2014)

Roadways 14/223

total: 496,607 km

paved: 283,102 km

unpaved: 213,505 km (2011)

Waterways 7/107

21,579 km (2011)

Merchant marine 8/156

total: 1,340

by type: bulk carrier 105, cargo 618, chemical tanker 69, container 120, liquefied gas 28, passenger 49, passenger/cargo 77, petroleum tanker 244, refrigerated cargo 6, roll on/roll off 12, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 11

foreign-owned: 69 (China 1, France 1, Greece 1, Japan 8, Jordan 1, Malaysia 1, Norway 3, Singapore 46, South Korea 2, Taiwan 1, UK 2, US 2)

registered in other countries: 95 (Bahamas 2, Cambodia 2, China 2, Hong Kong 10, Liberia 4, Marshall Islands 1, Mongolia 2, Panama 10, Singapore 60, Tuvalu 1, unknown 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Banjarmasin, Belawan, Kotabaru, Krueg Geukueh, Palembang, Panjang, Sungai Pakning, Tanjung Perak, Tanjung Priok

container port(s) (TEUs): Tanjung Priok (5,617,562)

LNG terminal(s) (export): Bontang, Tangguh

LNG terminal(s) (import): Arun, Lampung, West Java

Military and Security

Military branches

Indonesian Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI): Army (TNI-Angkatan Darat (TNI-AD)), Navy (TNI-Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL); includes marines (Korps Marinir, KorMar), naval air arm), Air Force (TNI-Angkatan Udara (TNI-AU)), National Air Defense Command (Kommando Pertahanan Udara Nasional (Kohanudnas)) (2013)

Military service age and obligation

18-45 years of age for voluntary military service, with selective conscription authorized; 2-year service obligation, with reserve obligation to age 45 (officers); Indonesian citizens only (2012)

Military expenditures 116/132

0.78% of GDP (2012)

0.67% of GDP (2011)

0.78% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Indonesia has a stated foreign policy objective of establishing stable fixed land and maritime boundaries with all of its neighbors; three stretches of land borders with Timor-Leste have yet to be delimited, two of which are in the Oecussi exclave area, and no maritime or Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) boundaries have been established between the countries; many refugees from Timor-Leste who left in 2003 still reside in Indonesia and refuse repatriation; all borders between Indonesia and Australia have been agreed upon bilaterally, but a 1997 treaty that would settle the last of their maritime and EEZ boundary has yet to be ratified by Indonesia's legislature; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef; Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier Reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing and placed restrictions on certain catches; land and maritime negotiations with Malaysia are ongoing, and disputed areas include the controversial Tanjung Datu and Camar Wulan border area in Borneo and the maritime boundary in the Ambalat oil block in the Celebes Sea; Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalizing their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island; Indonesian secessionists, squatters, and illegal migrants create repatriation problems for Papua New Guinea; maritime delimitation talks continue with Palau; EEZ negotiations with Vietnam are ongoing, and the two countries in Fall 2011 agreed to work together to reduce illegal fishing along their maritime boundary

Refugees and internally displaced persons

IDPs: at least 31,440 (inter-communal, inter-faith, and separatist violence between 1998 and 2004 in Aceh and Papua; religious attacks and land conflicts in 2012 and 2013; most IDPs in Aceh, Maluku, East Nusa Tengarra) (2015) (2011)

Illicit drugs

illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; producer of methamphetamine and ecstasy; President WIDODO's war on drugs has led to an increase in death sentences and executions, particularly of foreign drug traffickers (2015)