Jersey

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Jersey and the other Channel Islands represent the last remnants of the medieval Dukedom of Normandy that held sway in both France and England. These islands were the only British soil occupied by German troops in World War II. Jersey is a British crown dependency but is not part of the UK or of the European Union. However, the UK Government is constitutionally responsible for its defense and international representation.

Geography

Location

Western Europe, island in the English Channel, northwest of France

Geographic coordinates

49.15° N, 2.10° W

Area 225/257

total: 116 sq km

land: 116 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative

about two-thirds the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries

0 km

Coastline

70 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 3 nm

exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm

Climate

temperate; mild winters and cool summers

Terrain

gently rolling plain with low, rugged hills along north coast

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: unnamed elevation 143 m

Natural resources

arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 66%

arable land 66%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0%

forest: 0%

other: 34% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

NA

Natural hazards

NA

Environment - current issues

NA

Geography - note

largest and southernmost of Channel Islands; about 30% of population concentrated in Saint Helier

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Channel Islander(s)

adjective: Channel Islander

Ethnic groups

Jersey 46.4%, British 32.7%, Portuguese/Madeiran 8.2%, Polish 3.3%, Irish, French, and other white 7.1%, other 2.4% (2011 est.)

Languages

English 94.5% (official), Portuguese 4.6%, other 0.9% (2001 census)

Religions

Protestant (Anglican, Baptist, Congregational New Church, Methodist, Presbyterian), Roman Catholic

Population 197/238

97,294 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 16.02% (male 8,066/female 7,517)

15-24 years: 14.52% (male 7,241/female 6,883)

25-54 years: 41.31% (male 20,130/female 20,063)

55-64 years: 12.24% (male 5,797/female 6,109)

65 years and over: 15.92% (male 6,597/female 8,891) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 47%

youth dependency ratio: 21.6%

elderly dependency ratio: 25.4%

potential support ratio: 3.9%

note: data represents the Channel Islands (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 39 years

male: 36.6 years

female: 41.4 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 140/233

0.8% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 167/224

11.91 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 107/225

7.68 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 36/222

3.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 31.4% of total population (2014)

rate of urbanization: 0.76% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

data is for the Channel Islands

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 197/224

total: 3.82 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 4.03 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.59 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 17/224

total population: 81.76 years

male: 79.3 years

female: 84.37 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 175/224

1.66 children born/woman (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths

NA

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Bailiwick of Jersey

conventional short form: Jersey

etymology: the name is of Old Norse origin, but the meaning of the root "Jer(s)" is uncertain; the "-ey" ending means "island"

Government type

parliamentary democracy

Capital

name: Saint Helier

geographic coordinates: 49.11° N, 2.06° W

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

none (British crown dependency); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 12 parishes; Grouville, Saint Brelade, Saint Clement, Saint Helier, Saint John, Saint Lawrence, Saint Martin, Saint Mary, Saint Ouen, Saint Peter, Saint Saviour, and Trinity

Independence

none (British crown dependency)

National holiday

Liberation Day, 9 May (1945)

Constitution

unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice (2015)

Legal system

the laws of the UK, where applicable, apply; local statutes

Citizenship

see United Kingdom

Suffrage

16 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Lieutenant Governor Sir John MCCOLL (since 26 September 2011)

head of government: Chief Minister Ian GORST (18 December 2011); Bailiff Michael BIRT (since 9 July 2009)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed individually by the states

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; Council of Ministers including the chief minister indirectly elected by the Assembly of States; lieutenant governor and bailiff appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Assembly of the States of Jersey (58 seats; 49 voting members directly elected by simple majority vote include 8 senators to serve 6-year terms, and 29 deputies and 12 constables or heads of parishes to serve 3-year terms; 5 non-voting members appointed by the monarch include the bailiff, lieutenant governor, dean of Jersey, attorney general, and the solicitor general)

elections: last held on 27 April 2011 (next to be held in 2014)

election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 53; note - starting with the 2014 elections, the number of Senators will be reduced to 8

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Jersey Court of Appeal (consists of the bailiff, deputy bailiff, and 12 judges and organized into Heritage, Family, Probate, and Civil and Criminal Divisions); Royal Court (consists of the bailiff, deputy bailiff, 6 commissioners - part-time judges, and NA lay people referred to as jurats)

judge selection and term of office: Jersey Court of Appeal bailiffs and judges appointed by the Crown upon the advice of the Secretary of State for Justice; bailiffs and judges appointed for extent of good behavior; Royal Court bailiffs appointed by the Crown upon the advice of the Secretary of State for Justice; commissioners appointed by the bailiff; jurats appointed by the Electoral College; bailiffs and commissioners appointed for extent of good behavior; jurats appointed until retirement at age 72

subordinate courts: Magistrate's Court; Youth Court; Petty Debts Court; Parish Hall Enquires (a process of preliminary investigation into youth and minor adult offenses to determine need for presentation before a court)

Political parties and leaders

one registered party:

Reform Jersey [Sam MEZEC]

note: most senators and deputies sit as independents

Political pressure groups and leaders

Institute of Directors, Jersey branch (provides business support)

Jersey Hospitality Association [Ian BARNES] (trade association)

Jersey Rights Association [David ROTHERHAM] (human rights)

La Societe Jersiaise (education and conservation group)

Progress Jersey [Daren O'TOOLE, Gino RISOLI] (human rights)

Royal Jersey Agriculture and Horticultural Society or RJA&HS (development and management of the Jersey breed of cattle)

Save Jersey's Heritage (protects heritage through building preservation)

Flag description

white with a diagonal red cross extending to the corners of the flag; in the upper quadrant, surmounted by a yellow crown, a red shield with three lions in yellow; according to tradition, the ships of Jersey - in an attempt to differentiate themselves from English ships flying the horizontal cross of St. George - rotated the cross to the "X" (saltire) configuration; because this arrangement still resembled the Irish cross of St. Patrick, the yellow Plantagenet crown and Jersey coat of arms were added

National symbol(s)

Jersey cow; national colors: red, white

National anthem

name: "Isle de Siez Nous" (Island Home)

lyrics/music: Gerard LE FEUVRE

note: adopted 2008; serves as a local anthem; as a British crown dependency, "God Save the Queen" is official (see United Kingdom)

Economy

Economy - overview

Jersey's economy is based on international financial services, agriculture, and tourism. In 2010 the financial services sector accounted for about 50% of the island's output. Potatoes, cauliflower, tomatoes, and especially flowers are important export crops, shipped mostly to the UK. The Jersey breed of dairy cattle is known worldwide and represents an important export income earner. Tourism accounts for one-quarter of GDP. Living standards come close to those of the UK. In recent years, the government has encouraged light industry to locate in Jersey with the result that an electronics industry has developed, displacing more traditional industries. All raw material and energy requirements are imported as well as a large share of Jersey's food needs. Light taxes and death duties make the island a popular tax haven. In October 2014, Jersey signed an OECD agreement to automatically exchange some financial account information to limit tax avoidance and evasion.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 171/230

$5.771 billion (FY 2012/13 est.)

$5.786 billion (FY 2011/12)

note: data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$5.771 billion (FY 2012/13 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 201/225

-0.3% (FY 2012/13 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 18/230

$57,000 (2005 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 2%

industry: 2%

services: 96% (2010)

Agriculture - products

potatoes, cauliflower, tomatoes; beef, dairy products

Industries

tourism, banking and finance, dairy, electronics

Industrial production growth rate

NA%

Labor force 190/233

53,380 (June 2012)

Unemployment rate 9/207

1.7% (2012 est.)

2.2% (2006 est.)

Population below poverty line

NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Budget

revenues: $829 million

expenditures: $851 million (2005)

Taxes and other revenues 198/219

14.4% of GDP (2005)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 41/220

-0.4% of GDP (2005)

Fiscal year

1 April - 31 March

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 146/226

3.7% (2006)

Market value of publicly traded shares

$NA

Exports

$NA

Exports - commodities

light industrial and electrical goods, dairy cattle, foodstuffs, textiles, flowers

Imports

$NA

Imports - commodities

machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, foodstuffs, mineral fuels, chemicals

Debt - external

$NA

Exchange rates

Jersey pounds (JEP) per US dollar

0.65 (2012)

0.61 (2014)

0.61 (2013)

0.64 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - consumption 168/219

630.1 million kWh (2004 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 148/219

total subscriptions: 83,900

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 95 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 194/217

total: 83,900

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 105 (2004)

Telephone system

general assessment: increasingly modern system, with broadband access

domestic: digital telephone system launch announced in 2006 now implemented; fixed-line and mobile-cellular services widely available; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular density exceeds 100 per 100 persons

international: country code - 44; submarine cable connectivity to Guernsey, the UK, and France (2010)

Broadcast media

multiple UK terrestrial television broadcasts are received via a transmitter in Jersey; satellite packages available; BBC Radio Jersey and 1 other radio station operating (2009)

Radio broadcast stations

AM NA, FM 1, shortwave 0 (UK radio broadcasts carried via local relays) (2008)

Television broadcast stations

2 (UK television carried by local relays with a switch to digital broadcasts scheduled for 2010) (2008)

Internet country code

.je

Internet hosts 193/232

264 (2012)

Internet users 197/217

total: 29,500

percent of population: 31.9% (2009)

Transportation

Airports 223/236

1 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)

Roadways 192/223

total: 576 km (2010)

Merchant marine 102/156

registered in other countries: 14 (Gibraltar 1, India 2, Marshall Islands 11) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Gorey, Saint Aubin, Saint Helier

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

none