Jordan

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Following World War I and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, the League of Nations awarded Britain the mandate to govern much of the Middle East. Britain demarcated a semi-autonomous region of Transjordan from Palestine in the early 1920s. The area gained its independence in 1946 and thereafter became The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The country's long-time ruler, King HUSSEIN (1953-99), successfully navigated competing pressures from the major powers (US, USSR, and UK), various Arab states, Israel, and a large internal Palestinian population. Jordan lost the West Bank to Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War. King HUSSEIN in 1988 permanently relinquished Jordanian claims to the West Bank; in 1994 he signed a peace treaty with Israel. King ABDALLAH II, King HUSSEIN's eldest son, assumed the throne following his father's death in 1999. He implemented modest political and economic reforms, but in the wake of the "Arab Revolution" across the Middle East, Jordanians continue to press for further political liberalization, government reforms, and economic improvements. In January 2014, Jordan assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2014-15 term.

Geography

Location

Middle East, northwest of Saudi Arabia, between Israel (to the west) and Iraq

Geographic coordinates

31.00° N, 36.00° E

Area 112/257

total: 89,342 sq km

land: 88,802 sq km

water: 540 sq km

Area - comparative

about three-quarters the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries

total: 1,744 km

border countries (5): Iraq 179 km, Israel 307 km, Saudi Arabia 731 km, Syria 379 km, West Bank 148 km

Coastline

26 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate

mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)

Terrain

mostly desert plateau in east, highland area in west; Great Rift Valley separates eastern and western banks of the Jordan River

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Dead Sea -408 m

highest point: Jabal Umm ad Dami 1,854 m

Natural resources

phosphates, potash, shale oil

Land use

agricultural land: 11.4%

arable land 2%; permanent crops 1%; permanent pasture 8.4%

forest: 1.1%

other: 87.5% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

964 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

0.94 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 0.94 cu km/yr (31%/4%/65%)

per capita: 166 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards

droughts; periodic earthquakes

Environment - current issues

limited natural freshwater resources; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

strategic location at the head of the Gulf of Aqaba and as the Arab country that shares the longest border with Israel and the occupied West Bank

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Jordanian(s)

adjective: Jordanian

Ethnic groups

Arab 98%, Circassian 1%, Armenian 1%

Languages

Arabic (official), English (widely understood among upper and middle classes)

Religions

Muslim 97.2% (official; predominantly Sunni), Christian 2.2% (majority Greek Orthodox, but some Greek and Roman Catholics, Syrian Orthodox, Coptic Orthodox, Armenian Orthodox, and Protestant denominations), Buddhist 0.4%, Hindu 0.1%, Jewish <.1 folk religion unaffiliated other est.>

Population 98/238

8,117,564

note: increased estimate reflects revised assumptions about the net migration rate due to the increased flow of Syrian refugees (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 35.42% (male 1,474,464/female 1,400,926)

15-24 years: 20.25% (male 840,714/female 803,237)

25-54 years: 36.12% (male 1,468,388/female 1,463,452)

55-64 years: 4.3% (male 169,857/female 179,275)

65 years and over: 3.91% (male 149,207/female 168,044) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 64.8%

youth dependency ratio: 58.5%

elderly dependency ratio: 6.2%

potential support ratio: 16% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 22 years

male: 21.7 years

female: 22.4 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 132/233

0.83% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 50/224

25.37 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 211/225

3.79 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 217/222

-13.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 83.7% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 3.79% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

AMMAN (capital) 1.155 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female

total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

24.7

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 97/184

58 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 104/224

total: 15.18 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 16.05 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 14.25 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 122/224

total population: 74.35 years

male: 73 years

female: 75.78 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 50/224

3.17 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

61.2% (2012)

Health expenditures 25/191

7.2% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

2.56 physicians/1,000 population (2010)

Hospital bed density

1.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 97.8% of population

rural: 92.3% of population

total: 96.9% of population

unimproved:

urban: 2.2% of population

rural: 7.7% of population

total: 3.1% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 98.6% of population

rural: 98.9% of population

total: 98.6% of population

unimproved:

urban: 1.4% of population

rural: 1.1% of population

total: 1.4% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths

NA

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 28/191

28.1% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight 114/138

3% (2012)

Education expenditures

NA

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 14 years

male: 13 years

female: 14 years (2012)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 27/134

total: 29.3%

male: 25.2%

female: 48.8% (2012 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

conventional short form: Jordan

local long form: Al Mamlakah al Urduniyah al Hashimiyah

local short form: Al Urdun

former: Transjordan

etymology: named after the Jordan River, which makes up part of Jordan's northwest border

Government type

constitutional monarchy

Capital

name: Amman

geographic coordinates: 31.57° N, 35.56° E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Friday in March; ends last Friday in October

Administrative divisions

12 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); 'Ajlun, Al 'Aqabah, Al Balqa', Al Karak, Al Mafraq, Al'Asimah, At Tafilah, Az Zarqa', Irbid, Jarash, Ma'an, Madaba

Independence

25 May 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)

National holiday

Independence Day, 25 May (1946)

Constitution

previous 1928 (preindependence); latest initially adopted 28 November 1947, revised and ratified 1 January 1952; amended several times, last in 2014 (2015)

Legal system

mixed legal system of civil law and Islamic religious law; judicial review of legislative acts in a specially provided High Tribunal

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Jordan

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: King ABDALLAH II (since 7 February 1999); Crown Prince HUSSEIN (born 28 June 1994), eldest son of King ABDALLAH II

head of government: Prime Minister Abdullah NSOUR (since 11 October 2012)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the monarch

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch

description: bicameral National Assembly or Majlis al-'Umma consists of the Senate, or the House of Notables or Majlis al-Ayan (60 seats; members appointed by the monarch to serve 4-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or House of Representatives or Majlis al-Nuwaab (150 seats; 108 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 27 directly elected in a single national constituency by proportional representation vote, and 15 seats reserved for women; members serve 4-year terms); note - the electoral law enacted in July 2012 allocated an additional 10 seats - 6 for women, 2 for Amman, and 1 seat each for the cities of Zarqa and Irbid; unchanged are 9 seats reserved for Christian candidates, 9 for Bedouin candidates, and 3 for Jordanians of Chechen or Circassian descent

elections: Chamber of Deputies - last held on 23 January 2013 (next election 2017); note - the King dissolved the previous Chamber of Deputies in November 2012, midway through the parliamentary term

election results: Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - 27 elected on closed national list including: Islamic Centrist Party 3, Nation 2, National Union 2, Stronger Jordan 2, Ahl al-Himma 1, Al-Bayyan 1, Citizenship 1, Construction 1, Cooperation 1, Dawn 1, Dignity 1, Free Voice 1, Labor and Trade 1, National Accord Youth Block 1, National Action 1, National Current 1 (member resigned in February 2013), National Unity 1, Nobel Jerusalem 1, Salvation 1, The People 1, Unified Front 1, Voice of Nation 1; other 123; note - the IAF boycotted the election

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Court of Cassation or Supreme Court (consists of 7 judges including the chief justice; 7-judge panels for important cases and 5 judge panels for most appeals cases)

judge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the king; other judges nominated by the Higher Judicial Council and approved by the king; judge tenure NA

subordinate courts: courts of appeal; magistrate courts; courts of first instance; religious courts; State Security Court

Political parties and leaders

Ahl al-Himma

Al-Bayyan

Al-Hayah Jordanian Party [Zahier AMR]

Arab Ba'ath Socialist Party [Akram al-HIMSI]

Ba'ath Arab Progressive Party [Fuad DABBOUR]

Citizenship

Construction

Cooperation

Dawn

Democratic People's Party [Ablah ABU ULBAH]

Democratic Popular Unity Party [Sa'id DIAB]

Dignity

Du'a Party [Muhammed ABU BAKR]

Free Voice

Islamic Action Front or IAF [Hamzah MANSOUR]

Islamic Centrist Party [Muhammad al-HAJ]

Jordanian Communist Party [Munir HAMARNAH]

Jordanian National Party [Muna ABU BAKR]

Jordanian United Front [Amjad al-MAJALI]

Labor and Trade

Muslim Center Party [Haitham ALAMAERAH]

Nation

National Accord Youth Block

National Action

National Constitution Party [Ahmad al-SHUNAQ]

National Current Party [Abd al-Hadi al-MAJALI]

National Movement for Direct Democracy [Muhammad al-QAQ]

National Union

National Unity

Nobel Jerusalem

Risalah Party [Hazem QASHOU]

Salvation

Stronger Jordan

The Direct Democratic Nationalists Movement Party [Nash'at KHALIFAH]

The Homeland (Hizb Al-Watan)

The People

Unified Front

United Front

Voice of the Nation; qtgan

Political pressure groups and leaders

15 April Movement [Mohammad SUNEID, chairman]

24 March Movement [Mu'az al-KHAWALIDAH, Abdel Rahman HASANEIN, spokespersons]

1952 Constitution Movement

Anti-Normalization Committee [Hamzah MANSOUR, chairman]

Economic and Social Association of Retired Servicemen and Veterans or ESARSV [Abdulsalam al-HASSANAT, chairman]

Group of 36

Higher Coordination Committee of Opposition Parties [Said DIAB]

Higher National Committee for Military Retirees or HNCMR [Ali al-HABASHNEH, chairman]

Hirak

Jordan Bar Association [Saleh al-ARMUTI, chairman]

Jordanian Campaign for Change or Jayin

Jordanian Muslim Brotherhood [Dr. Hamam SAID, controller general]

Jordanian Press Association [Sayf al-SHARIF, president]

National Front for Reform or NFR [Ahmad OBEIDAT, chairman]

Popular Gathering for Reform

Professional Associations Council [Abd al-Hadi al-FALAHAT, chairman]

Sons of Jordan

International organization participation

ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, CD, CICA, EBRD, FAO, G-11, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MINUSTAH, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of black (top), representing the Abbassid Caliphate, white, representing the Ummayyad Caliphate, and green, representing the Fatimid Caliphate; a red isosceles triangle on the hoist side, representing the Great Arab Revolt of 1916, and bearing a small white seven-pointed star symbolizing the seven verses of the opening Sura (Al-Fatiha) of the Holy Koran; the seven points on the star represent faith in One God, humanity, national spirit, humility, social justice, virtue, and aspirations; design is based on the Arab Revolt flag of World War I

National symbol(s)

eagle; national colors: black, white, green, red

National anthem

name: "As-salam al-malaki al-urdoni" (Long Live the King of Jordan)

lyrics/music: Abdul-Mone'm al-RIFAI'/Abdul-Qader al-TANEER

note: adopted 1946; the shortened version of the anthem is used most commonly, while the full version is reserved for special occasions

Economy

Economy - overview

Jordan's economy is among the smallest in the Middle East, with insufficient supplies of water, oil, and other natural resources underlying the government's heavy reliance on foreign assistance. Other economic challenges for the government include chronic high rates of poverty, unemployment and underemployment, inflation, and chronic budget and current account deficits, and government debt.

King ABDALLAH, during the first decade of the 2000s, implemented significant economic reforms, such as opening up foreign trade and privatizing state-owned companies that attracted foreign investment and contributed to average annual economic growth of 8% for 2004 through 2008. The global economic slowdown and regional turmoil contributed to slower growth from 2010 to 2014 - with growth averaging 2.8% per year - and hurt export-oriented sectors, construction, and tourism. Through 2014, Jordan's finances were strained by a series of natural gas pipeline attacks in Egypt, which led Jordan to rely on more expensive diesel imports, primarily from Saudi Arabia, to generate electricity.

To diversify its energy mix, Jordan is currently exploring nuclear power generation, exploitation of abundant oil shale reserves and renewable technologies, as well as the import of Israeli offshore gas. In August 2015, Jordan completed a $2.1 billion, three year International Monetary Fund (IMF) Stand-By Arrangement, which the Government had entered to help correct budgetary and balance of payments imbalances. Jordan plans to expand on its fiscal reform measures enacted over the previous few years with a follow-on IMF agreement in 2016 to boost government revenues, reduce the budget deficit, and manage its burgeoning debt, brought on in part by an influx of over 630,000 Syrian refugees since 2011, which put additional pressure on expenditures.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 87/230

$82.99 billion (2015 est.)

$80.69 billion (2014 est.)

$78.27 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$38.21 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 105/225

2.9% (2015 est.)

3.1% (2014 est.)

2.8% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 122/230

$12,400 (2015 est.)

$12,100 (2014 est.)

$11,700 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 132/179

13% of GDP (2015 est.)

14.4% of GDP (2014 est.)

10.5% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 78.9%

government consumption: 23.1%

investment in fixed capital: 28%

investment in inventories: 0.2%

exports of goods and services: 36.8%

imports of goods and services: -67%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 3.8%

industry: 29.9%

services: 66.3% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

citrus, tomatoes, cucumbers, olives, strawberries, stone fruits; sheep, poultry, dairy

Industries

tourism, information technology, clothing, fertilizers, potash, phosphate mining, pharmaceuticals, petroleum refining, cement, inorganic chemicals, light manufacturing

Industrial production growth rate 64/202

3.6% (2015 est.)

Labor force 122/233

2.02 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 2%

industry: 20%

services: 78% (2013 est.)

Unemployment rate 141/207

13% (2015 est.)

11.9% (2014 est.)

note: official rate; unofficial rate is approximately 30%

Population below poverty line

14.2% (2002 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.4%

highest 10%: 28.7% (2010 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 64/144

39.7 (2007)

36.4 (1997)

Budget

revenues: $8.707 billion

expenditures: $11.01 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 139/219

22.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 181/220

-6% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 33/176

79.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

80.8% of GDP (2014 est.)

note: data cover central government debt, and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 12/226

-0.7% (2015 est.)

2.9% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 132/156

0.3% (31 December 2010)

4.75% (31 December 2009)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 105/184

8.4% (31 December 2015 est.)

8.84% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 69/192

$13.91 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$13 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 72/193

$43.64 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$41.18 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 66/191

$40.83 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$38.71 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 60/121

$27 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$27.18 billion (31 December 2011)

$30.86 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance 155/197

-$2.82 billion (2015 est.)

-$2.45 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 97/224

$7.882 billion (2015 est.)

$8.385 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

clothing, fertilizers, potash, phosphates, vegetables, pharmaceuticals

Exports - partners

US 15.8%, Iraq 15.3%, Saudi Arabia 12.4%, India 7.8% (2014)

Imports 76/223

$17.76 billion (2015 est.)

$20.18 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

crude oil, refined petroleum products, machinery, transport equipment, iron, cereals

Imports - partners

Saudi Arabia 19.6%, China 10.5%, US 5.8%, India 5.5%, UAE 4.8% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 64/170

$17.22 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$16.04 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 80/206

$25.02 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$23.85 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 71/120

$30.02 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$28.73 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 86/105

$623 million (31 December 2015 est.)

$608 million (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

Jordanian dinars (JOD) per US dollar -

0.71 (2015 est.)

0.71 (2014 est.)

0.71 (2013 est.)

0.71 (2012 est.)

0.71 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 82/220

15.6 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 78/219

14.56 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - exports 83/218

59 million kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 80/219

381 million kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 91/214

3.193 million kW (2013 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 45/214

99.6% of total installed capacity (2013)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 117/214

0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 148/214

0.3% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 122/212

0.1% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Crude oil - production 100/214

22 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 143/214

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports 53/214

59,440 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 98/215

1 million bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 79/214

57,790 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 71/212

134,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 190/214

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 65/213

68,040 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production 80/216

150 million cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 90/215

1.016 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports 124/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports 60/214

865 million cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 88/212

6.031 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 85/212

16.86 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 107/219

total subscriptions: 380,000

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 5 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 81/217

total: 11.1 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 140 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: service has improved recently with increased use of digital switching equipment; microwave radio relay transmission and coaxial and fiber-optic cable are employed on trunk lines; growing mobile-cellular usage in both urban and rural areas is reducing use of fixed-line services

domestic: 1995 telecommunications law opened all non-fixed-line services to private competition; in 2005, monopoly over fixed-line services terminated and the entire telecommunications sector was opened to competition; currently multiple mobile-cellular providers with subscribership reaching 115 per 100 persons in 2011

international: country code - 962; landing point for the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) FEA and FLAG Falcon submarine cable networks; satellite earth stations - 33 (3 Intelsat, 1 Arabsat, and 29 land and maritime Inmarsat terminals); fiber-optic cable to Saudi Arabia and microwave radio relay link with Egypt and Syria; participant in Medarabtel (2011)

Broadcast media

radio and TV dominated by the government-owned Jordan Radio and Television Corporation (JRTV) that operates a main network, a sports network, a film network, and a satellite channel; first independent TV broadcaster aired in 2007; international satellite TV and Israeli and Syrian TV broadcasts are available; roughly 30 radio stations with JRTV operating the main government-owned station; transmissions of multiple international radio broadcasters are available (2007)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 1, FM 28 (2010)

Television broadcast stations

4 (2009)

Internet country code

.jo

Internet hosts 89/232

69,473 (2012)

Internet users 82/217

total: 3.6 million

percent of population: 45.0% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 140/236

18 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 16

over 3,047 m: 8

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 2

under 914 m: 2 (2013)

Heliports

1 (2012)

Pipelines

gas 473 km; oil 49 km (2013)

Railways 112/136

total: 507 km

narrow gauge: 507 km 1.050-m gauge (2008)

Roadways 144/223

total: 7,203 km

paved: 7,203 km (2011)

Merchant marine 106/156

total: 12

by type: cargo 4, passenger/cargo 6, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1

foreign-owned: 2 (UAE 2)

registered in other countries: 16 (Bahamas 2, Egypt 2, Indonesia 1, Panama 11) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Al 'Aqabah

Military and Security

Military branches

Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF): Royal Jordanian Land Force (RJLF), Royal Jordanian Navy, Royal Jordanian Air Force (Al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Malakiya al-Urduniya, RJAF), Special Operations Command (Socom); Public Security Directorate (normally falls under Ministry of Interior, but comes under JAF in wartime or crisis) (2013)

Military service age and obligation

17 years of age for voluntary male military service; initial service term 2 years, with option to reenlist for 18 years; conscription at age 18 suspended in 1999; women not subject to conscription, but can volunteer to serve in noncombat military positions in the Royal Jordanian Arab Army Women's Corps and RJAF (2013)

Military expenditures 7/132

4.65% of GDP (2012)

4.64% of GDP (2011)

4.65% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

2004 Agreement settles border dispute with Syria pending demarcation

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 2,097,338 (Palestinian refugees) (2014); 52,643 (Iraq) (2015); 635,324 (Syria) (2016)