Kenya

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Geography

Location

Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Somalia and Tanzania

Geographic coordinates

1.00° N, 38.00° E

Area 49/257

total: 580,367 sq km

land: 569,140 sq km

water: 11,227 sq km

Area - comparative

five times the size of Ohio; slightly more than twice the size of Nevada

Land boundaries

total: 3,457 km

border countries (5): Ethiopia 867 km, Somalia 684 km, South Sudan 317 km, Tanzania 775 km, Uganda 814 km

Coastline

536 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate

varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior

Terrain

low plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift Valley; fertile plateau in west

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mount Kenya 5,199 m

Natural resources

limestone, soda ash, salt, gemstones, fluorspar, zinc, diatomite, gypsum, wildlife, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 48.1%

arable land 9.8%; permanent crops 0.9%; permanent pasture 37.4%

forest: 6.1%

other: 45.8% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

1,030 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

30.7 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 2.74 cu km/yr (17%/4%/79%)

per capita: 72.96 cu m/yr (2003)

Natural hazards

recurring drought; flooding during rainy seasons

volcanism: limited volcanic activity; the Barrier (elev. 1,032 m) last erupted in 1921; South Island is the only other historically active volcano

Environment - current issues

water pollution from urban and industrial wastes; degradation of water quality from increased use of pesticides and fertilizers; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; poaching

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

the Kenyan Highlands comprise one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa; glaciers are found on Mount Kenya, Africa's second highest peak; unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and economic value

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Kenyan(s)

adjective: Kenyan

Ethnic groups

Kikuyu 22%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 12%, Kamba 11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%, other African 15%, non-African (Asian, European, and Arab) 1%

Languages

English (official), Kiswahili (official), numerous indigenous languages

Religions

Christian 82.5% (Protestant 47.4%, Catholic 23.3%, other 11.8%), Muslim 11.1%, Traditionalists 1.6%, other 1.7%, none 2.4%, unspecified 0.7% (2009 census)

Population 31/238

45,925,301

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 41.56% (male 9,572,641/female 9,512,607)

15-24 years: 18.66% (male 4,280,499/female 4,289,960)

25-54 years: 33.17% (male 7,700,801/female 7,530,526)

55-64 years: 3.76% (male 784,775/female 944,041)

65 years and over: 2.85% (male 568,784/female 740,667) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 80.9%

youth dependency ratio: 75.8%

elderly dependency ratio: 5.1%

potential support ratio: 19.7% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 19.3 years

male: 19.1 years

female: 19.4 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 54/233

1.93% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 46/224

26.4 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 136/225

6.89 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 120/222

-0.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 25.6% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 4.34% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

NAIROBI (capital) 3.915 million; Mombassa 1.104 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.83 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

20.3

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2014 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 30/184

510 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 51/224

total: 39.38 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 43.92 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 34.75 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 185/224

total population: 63.77 years

male: 62.3 years

female: 65.26 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 46/224

3.31 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

45.5% (2008/09)

Health expenditures 148/191

4.5% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

0.2 physicians/1,000 population (2013)

Hospital bed density

1.4 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 81.6% of population

rural: 56.8% of population

total: 63.2% of population

unimproved:

urban: 18.4% of population

rural: 43.2% of population

total: 36.8% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 31.2% of population

rural: 29.7% of population

total: 30.1% of population

unimproved:

urban: 68.8% of population

rural: 70.3% of population

total: 69.9% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

5.3% (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

1,366,900 (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

33,000 (2014 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 171/191

5.9% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight 42/138

16.4% (2009)

Education expenditures 28/173

6.6% of GDP (2010)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 11 years

male: 11 years

female: 11 years (2009)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Kenya

conventional short form: Kenya

local long form: Republic of Kenya/Jamhuri ya Kenya

local short form: Kenya

former: British East Africa

etymolgy: named after Mount Kenya; the meaning of the name is unclear but may derive from the Kikuyu, Embu, and Kamba words "kirinyaga," "kirenyaa," and "kiinyaa" - all of which mean "God's resting place"

Government type

republic

Capital

name: Nairobi

geographic coordinates: 1.17° S, 36.49° E

time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

47 counties; Baringo, Bomet, Bungoma, Busia, Elgeyo/Marakwet, Embu, Garissa, Homa Bay, Isiolo, Kajiado, Kakamega, Kericho, Kiambu, Kilifi, Kirinyaga, Kisii, Kisumu, Kitui, Kwale, Laikipia, Lamu, Machakos, Makueni, Mandera, Marsabit, Meru, Migori, Mombasa, Murang'a, Nairobi City, Nakuru, Nandi, Narok, Nyamira, Nyandarua, Nyeri, Samburu, Siaya, Taita/Taveta, Tana River, Tharaka-Nithi, Trans Nzoia, Turkana, Uasin Gishu, Vihiga, Wajir, West Pokot

Independence

12 December 1963 (from the UK)

National holiday

Independence Day, 12 December (1963); Madaraka Day, 1 June (1963); Mashujaa Day (or Heroes' Day), 20 October (2010)

Constitution

previous 1963, 1969; latest drafted 6 May 2010, passed by referendum 4 August 2010, promulgated 27 August 2010 (2015)

Legal system

mixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law, and customary law; judicial review in a new Supreme Court established pursuant to the new constitution

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kenya

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 4 out of the previous 7 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Uhuru KENYATTA (since 9 April 2013); Deputy President William RUTO (since 9 April 2013); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Uhuru KENYATTA (since 9 April 2013); Deputy President William RUTO (since 9 April 2013); note - position of the prime minister abolished after the March 2013 elections

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president and deputy president directly elected on the same ballot by qualified majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); in addition to receiving an absolute majority popular vote, the presidential candidate must also win at least 25% of the votes cast in each of more than half of the 47 counties to avoid a runoff; election last held on 4 March 2013 (next to be held in 2017 or 2018)

election results: Uhuru KENYATTA elected president in first round; percent of vote - Uhuru KENYATTA (TNA) 50.1%, Raila ODINGA (ODM) 43.7%, Musalia MUDAVADI (UDF) 4.0%, other 2.2%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral parliament consists of the Senate (67 seats; 47 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 20 directly elected by proportional representation vote - 16 women, 2 representing youth, and 2 representing the disabled; members serve 5-year terms) and the National Assembly (349 seats; 290 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 47 women in single-seat constituencies elected by simple majority vote, and 12 members nominated by the National Assembly - 6 representing youth and 6 representing the disabled; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 4 March 2013 (next to be held in 2017 or 2018)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - Jubilee Alliance 30 (TNA 17, URP 12, NARC 1); CORD Coalition 28 (ODM 17, FORD-K 5, WDM-K 5, other 1); Amani Coalition 6 (KANU 3, UDF 3), APK 3; National Assembly - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - Jubilee ALliance 167 (TNA 89, URP 75, NARC 3), CORD Coalition 141 (ODM 96, WDM-K 26, FORD-K 10, other 9), Amani Coalition 24 (UDF 12, KANU 6, NFK 6), Eagle Coalition 2 (KNC 2), APK 5, FORD-P 4, independent 4, other 2

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of chief and deputy chief justices and 5 judges)

judge selection and term of office: chief and deputy chief justices nominated by Judicial Service Commission (JSC) and appointed by president with approval of the National Assembly; other judges nominated by the JSC and appointed by president; chief justice serves nonrenewable 10-year terms or till age 70 whichever comes first; other judges serve till age 70

subordinate courts: High Court; Court of Appeal; courts martial; magistrates' courts; religious courts

Political parties and leaders

Alliance Party of Kenya or APK [Kiraitu MURUNGI]

Amani Coalition (includes UDF, KANU, NFK) [Musalia MUDAVADI]

Coalition for Reforms and Democracy or CORD (includes ODM, WDM-K, FORD-K) [Raila ODINGA]

Federal Party of Kenya or FPK [Cyrus JIRONGA]

Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-Kenya or FORD-K [Moses WETANGULA]

Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-People or FORD-P [Henry OBWOCHA]

Jubilee Alliance (includes TNA, URP, NARC) [Uhuru KENYATTA]

Kenya African National Union or KANU [Gideon MOI]

National Rainbow Coalition or NARC [Charity NGILU]

New Ford Kenya or NFK [Ken LUSAKA]

Orange Democratic Movement Party of Kenya or ODM [Raila ODINGA]

The National Alliance or TNA [Uhuru KENYATTA]

United Democratic Forum Party or UDF

United Republican Party or URP [William RUTO]

Wiper Democratic Movement-K or WDM-K (formerly Orange Democratic Movement-Kenya or ODM-K) [Kalonzo MUSYOKA]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Council of Imams and Preachers of Kenya or CIPK [Sheikh Mohammed DOR]

Federation of Women Lawyers in Kenya

Kenya Association of Manufacturers

Kenya Human Rights Commission or KHRC [Professor Makau MUTUA]

Kenya Private Sector Alliance

Kenyans for Peace with Truth and Justice (umbrella group of more than 30 NGOs)

Muslim Human Rights Forum [Ali-Amin KIMATHI]

National Muslim Leaders Forum or NAMLEF [Abdullahi ABDI]

Protestant National Council of Churches of Kenya or NCCK [Canon Peter Karanja MWANGI]

Roman Catholic church

Supreme Council of Kenya Muslims or SUPKEM [Hassan Ole NAADO, secretary general]

other: labor unions, other Christian churches

International organization participation

ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, COMESA, EAC, EADB, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WMO, WTO

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green; the red band is edged in white; a large Maasai warrior's shield covering crossed spears is superimposed at the center; black symbolizes the majority population, red the blood shed in the struggle for freedom, green stands for natural wealth, and white for peace; the shield and crossed spears symbolize the defense of freedom

National symbol(s)

lion; national colors: black, red, green, white

National anthem

name: "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu" (Oh God of All Creation)

lyrics/music: Graham HYSLOP, Thomas KALUME, Peter KIBUKOSYA, Washington OMONDI, and George W. SENOGA-ZAKE/traditional, adapted by Graham HYSLOP, Thomas KALUME, Peter KIBUKOSYA, Washington OMONDI, and George W. SENOGA-ZAKE

note: adopted 1963; based on a traditional Kenyan folk song

Economy

Economy - overview

Kenya is the economic and transport hub of East Africa. Kenya’s real GDP growth has averaged around 5% for the past several years. Nevertheless, Kenya is among the low middle income countries. While Kenya has a growing entrepreneurial middle class, faster growth and poverty reduction is hampered by corruption and by reliance upon several primary goods. Unemployment is high at around 40%.

Agriculture remains the backbone of the Kenyan economy, contributing 25% of GDP. About 80% of Kenya’s population of roughly 42 million work at least part-time in the agricultural sector, including livestock and pastoral activities. Over 75% of agricultural output is from small-scale, rain-fed farming or livestock production.

Inadequate infrastructure threatens Kenya's long-term position as the largest East African economy, although the KENYATTA administration sought external investment in infrastructure development. International financial lenders and donors remain important to Kenya's economic growth and development, but Kenya has also successfully raised capital in the global bond market. Kenya issued its first sovereign bond offering in mid-2014, generating $2 billion and continues to offer bonds to external investors at increasingly high interest rates. Nairobi has contracted with a Chinese company to begin construction of a new standard gauge railway, but the project allegedly has been beset by corruption and fraud. The country is in the process of devolving some state revenues and responsibilities to the counties. Inflationary pressures and sharp currency depreciation peaked in early 2012 but have since abated following low global food and fuel prices and monetary interventions by the Central Bank. Chronic budget deficits, including a shortage of funds in mid-2015, have plagued the government’s ability to implement proposed development programs.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 75/230

$143.1 billion (2015 est.)

$134.3 billion (2014 est.)

$127.5 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$63.12 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 22/225

6.5% (2015 est.)

5.3% (2014 est.)

4.7% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 185/230

$3,300 (2015 est.)

$3,100 (2014 est.)

$3,000 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 124/179

14.1% of GDP (2015 est.)

11% of GDP (2014 est.)

11.2% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 78.7%

government consumption: 13.7%

investment in fixed capital: 23.6%

investment in inventories: -1%

exports of goods and services: 16.1%

imports of goods and services: -31.1%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 29.9%

industry: 19.5%

services: 50.6% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

tea, coffee, corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruit, vegetables; dairy products, beef, fish, pork, poultry, eggs

Industries

small-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries, textiles, clothing, soap, cigarettes, flour), agricultural products, horticulture, oil refining; aluminum, steel, lead; cement, commercial ship repair, tourism

Industrial production growth rate 21/202

6.1% (2015 est.)

Labor force 35/233

18.21 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 75%

industry and services: 25% (2007 est.)

Unemployment rate 196/207

40% (2013 est.)

40% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line

43.4% (2012 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 1.8%

highest 10%: 37.8% (2005)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 51/144

42.5 (2008 est.)

44.9 (1997)

Budget

revenues: $10.6 billion

expenditures: $14.55 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 182/219

16.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 185/220

-6.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 85/176

48.6% of GDP (2015 est.)

46.3% of GDP (2014 est.)

Fiscal year

1 July - 30 June

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 186/226

6.4% (2015 est.)

6.9% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 45/156

7% (31 December 2010)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 31/184

16% (31 December 2015 est.)

16.5% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 77/192

$10.01 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$10.34 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 83/193

$24.02 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$18.92 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 78/191

$26.61 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$26.37 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 69/121

$14.79 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$10.2 billion (31 December 2011)

$14.46 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance 174/197

-$6.044 billion (2015 est.)

-$6.339 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 105/224

$5.679 billion (2015 est.)

$6.174 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

tea, horticultural products, coffee, petroleum products, fish, cement

Exports - partners

Uganda 11.8%, US 7.7%, Netherlands 7.5%, Tanzania 7.4%, Zambia 5.7%, UK 5.6%, Egypt 4.4%, Pakistan 4.3%, UAE 4.1% (2014)

Imports 81/223

$16.2 billion (2015 est.)

$17.61 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum products, motor vehicles, iron and steel, resins and plastics

Imports - partners

China 23.4%, India 21.3%, US 7.6%, UAE 6%, Japan 4.5% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 84/170

$7.356 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$7.911 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 93/206

$17.16 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$13.47 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 99/120

$4.762 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$3.902 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad

$NA (31 December 2015 est.)

$NA (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

Kenyan shillings (KES) per US dollar -

99.73 (2015 est.)

87.92 (2014 est.)

87.92 (2013 est.)

84.53 (2012 est.)

88.81 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 102/220

8.123 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 107/219

6.627 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 85/218

31 million kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - imports 105/219

42 million kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 111/214

1.851 million kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 165/214

42.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 118/214

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 54/214

43.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 24/212

13.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 151/214

0 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 144/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - imports 70/214

19,830 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 150/215

0 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 93/214

20,510 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 82/212

84,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 111/214

843.8 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 69/213

65,450 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Natural gas - production 205/216

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 158/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports 125/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports 87/214

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 154/212

0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 92/212

13.45 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 129/219

total subscriptions: 180,000

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 35/217

total: 33.6 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 75 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: inadequate; fixed-line telephone system is small and inefficient; trunks are primarily microwave radio relay; business data commonly transferred by a very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system

domestic: sole fixed-line provider, Telkom Kenya, privatized and as of 2013 is 70% owned by France Telecom; multiple providers in the mobile-cellular segment of the market fostering a boom in mobile-cellular telephone usage with teledensity reaching 65 per 100 persons in 2011

international: country code - 254; landing point for the EASSy, TEAMS and SEACOM fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (2011)

Broadcast media

about a half-dozen large-scale privately owned media companies with TV and radio stations, as well as a state-owned TV broadcaster, provide service nationwide; satellite and cable TV subscription services available; state-owned radio broadcaster operates 2 national radio channels and provides regional and local radio services in multiple languages; many private radio stations broadcast on a national level along with over 100 private and non-profit provincial stations broadcasting in local languages; transmissions of several international broadcasters available (2014)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 24, FM 82, shortwave 6 (2008)

Television broadcast stations

8 (2008)

Internet country code

.ke

Internet hosts 88/232

71,018 (2012)

Internet users 33/217

total: 16.5 million

percent of population: 36.7% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 28/236

197 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 16

over 3,047 m: 5

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 6

under 914 m: 1 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 181

1,524 to 2,437 m: 14

914 to 1,523 m: 107

under 914 m: 60 (2013)

Pipelines

oil 4 km; refined products 928 km (2013)

Railways 71/136

total: 3,334 km

narrow gauge: 3,334 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)

Roadways 30/223

total: 160,878 km

paved: 11,189 km

unpaved: 149,689 km

note: includes 99 km of urban and other roads (2013)

Waterways

none specifically; the only significant inland waterway is the part of Lake Victoria within the boundaries of Kenya; Kisumu is the main port and has ferry connections to Uganda and Tanzania (2011)

Merchant marine 125/156

registered in other countries: 5 (Comoros 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, unknown 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Kisumu, Mombasa

LNG terminal(s) (import): Mombasa

Military and Security

Military branches

Kenya Defence Forces: Kenya Army, Kenya Navy, Kenya Air Force (2012)

Military service age and obligation

18-26 years of age for male and female voluntary service (under 18 with parental consent), with a 9-year obligation (7 years for Kenyan Navy); applicants must be Kenyan citizens and provide a national identity card (obtained at age 18) and a school-leaving certificate; women serve under the same terms and conditions as men; mandatory retirement at age 55 (2012)

Military expenditures 41/132

1.96% of GDP (2012)

1.88% of GDP (2011)

1.96% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Kenya served as an important mediator in brokering Sudan's north-south separation in February 2005; Kenya provides shelter to an estimated 580 thousand refugees, including Ugandans who flee across the border periodically to seek protection from Lord's Resistance Army rebels; Kenya works hard to prevent the clan and militia fighting in Somalia from spreading across the border, which has long been open to nomadic pastoralists; the boundary that separates Kenya's and Sudan's sovereignty is unclear in the "Ilemi Triangle," which Kenya has administered since colonial times

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 419,618 (Somalia); 30,660 (Ethiopia - includes registered asylum seekers); 24,609 (Democratic Republic of the Congo - includes registered asylum seekers); 10,189 (Sudan - includes registered asylum seekers); 8,232 (Burundi - includes registered asylum seekers) (2015); 97,259 (South Sudan) (2016)

IDPs: 309,200 (represents people displaced since the 1990s by ethnic and political violence and land disputes and who sought refuge mostly in camps; persons who took refuge in host communities or were evicted in urban areas are not included in the data; data is not available on pastoralists displaced by cattle rustling, violence, natural disasters, and development projects; the largest displacement resulted from 2007-08 post-election violence (2014)

stateless persons: 20,000 (2014); note - the stateless population consists of Nubians, Kenyan Somalis, and coastal Arabs; the Nubians are descendants of Sudanese soldiers recruited by the British to fight for them in East Africa more than a century ago; Nubians did not receive Kenyan citizenship when the country became independent in 1963; only recently have Nubians become a formally recognized tribe and had less trouble obtaining national IDs; Galjeel and other Somalis who have lived in Kenya for decades are included with more recent Somali refugees and denied ID cards

Illicit drugs

widespread harvesting of small plots of marijuana; transit country for South Asian heroin destined for Europe and North America; Indian methaqualone also transits on way to South Africa; significant potential for money-laundering activity given the country's status as a regional financial center; massive corruption, and relatively high levels of narcotics-associated activities