Lithuania

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Lithuanian lands were united under MINDAUGAS in 1236; over the next century, through alliances and conquest, Lithuania extended its territory to include most of present-day Belarus and Ukraine. By the end of the 14th century Lithuania was the largest state in Europe. An alliance with Poland in 1386 led the two countries into a union through the person of a common ruler. In 1569, Lithuania and Poland formally united into a single dual state, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. This entity survived until 1795 when its remnants were partitioned by surrounding countries. Lithuania regained its independence following World War I but was annexed by the USSR in 1940 - an action never recognized by the US and many other countries. On 11 March 1990, Lithuania became the first of the Soviet republics to declare its independence, but Moscow did not recognize this proclamation until September of 1991 (following the abortive coup in Moscow). The last Russian troops withdrew in 1993. Lithuania subsequently restructured its economy for integration into Western European institutions; it joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004. In January 2014, Lithuania assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2014-15 term; in January 2015, Lithuania joined the euro zone.

Geography

Location

Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia, west of Belarus

Geographic coordinates

56.00° N, 24.00° E

Area 123/257

total: 65,300 sq km

land: 62,680 sq km

water: 2,620 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundaries

total: 1,549 km

border countries (4): Belarus 640 km, Latvia 544 km, Poland 104 km, Russia (Kaliningrad) 261 km

Coastline

90 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate

transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers

Terrain

lowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m

highest point: Aukstojas 294 m

Natural resources

peat, arable land, amber

Land use

agricultural land: 44.8%

arable land 34.9%; permanent crops 0.5%; permanent pasture 9.4%

forest: 34.6%

other: 20.6% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

44 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

24.9 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 2.38 cu km/yr (7%/90%/3%)

per capita: 703.8 cu m/yr (2009)

Natural hazards

NA

Environment - current issues

contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products and chemicals at military bases

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

fertile central plains are separated by hilly uplands that are ancient glacial deposits

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Lithuanian(s)

adjective: Lithuanian

Ethnic groups

Lithuanian 84.1%, Polish 6.6%, Russian 5.8%, Belarusian 1.2%, other 1.1%, unspecified 1.2% (2011 est.)

Languages

Lithuanian (official) 82%, Russian 8%, Polish 5.6%, other 0.9%, unspecified 3.5% (2011 est.)

Religions

Roman Catholic 77.2%, Russian Orthodox 4.1%, Old Believer 0.8%, Evangelical Lutheran 0.6%, Evangelical Reformist 0.2%, other (including Sunni Muslim, Jewish, Greek Catholic, and Karaite) 0.8%, none 6.1%, unspecified 10.1% (2011 est.)

Population 140/238

2,884,433

note: Statistics Lithuania (the national statistical agency of Lithuania) estimates the country's total population at the start of 2013 to be 2,971,905, which takes into account the findings of Lithuania's 2011 census and the high rate of net outmigration since the country joined the EU in 2004 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 14.91% (male 220,460/female 209,501)

15-24 years: 11.97% (male 178,332/female 166,985)

25-54 years: 40.71% (male 575,323/female 598,912)

55-64 years: 13.26% (male 168,354/female 214,201)

65 years and over: 19.15% (male 186,458/female 365,907) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 50.1%

youth dependency ratio: 21.8%

elderly dependency ratio: 28.3%

potential support ratio: 3.5% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 43.1 years

male: 39.3 years

female: 46.3 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 230/233

-1.04% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 193/224

10.1 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 7/225

14.27 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 201/222

-6.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 66.5% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: -0.53% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

VILNIUS (capital) 517,000 (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.79 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.51 male(s)/female

total population: 0.85 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

26.7 (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 163/184

10 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 196/224

total: 3.84 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 4.3 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.36 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 113/224

total population: 74.69 years

male: 69.24 years

female: 80.46 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 182/224

1.59 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

62.9%

note: percent of women aged 18-49 (2006)

Health expenditures 90/191

6.2% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

4.12 physicians/1,000 population (2012)

Hospital bed density

7 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 99.7% of population

rural: 90.4% of population

total: 96.6% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0.3% of population

rural: 9.6% of population

total: 3.4% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 97.2% of population

rural: 82.8% of population

total: 92.4% of population

unimproved:

urban: 2.8% of population

rural: 17.2% of population

total: 7.6% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths

NA

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 38/191

27.5% (2014)

Education expenditures 61/173

5.2% of GDP (2011)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 16 years

male: 16 years

female: 17 years (2012)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 35/134

total: 19.3%

male: 19.6%

female: 18.7% (2014 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Lithuania

conventional short form: Lithuania

local long form: Lietuvos Respublika

local short form: Lietuva

former: Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic

etymology: meaning of the name "Lietuva" remains unclear; it may derive from a stream in east central Lithuanian, the Lietava

Government type

parliamentary democracy

Capital

name: Vilnius

geographic coordinates: 54.41° N, 25.19° E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

60 municipalities (savivaldybe, singular - savivaldybe); Akmene, Alytaus Miestas, Alytus, Ank�ciai, Bir�tono, Bir�ai, Druskininkai, Elektr�nai, Ignalina, Jonava, Joni�kis, Jurbarkas, Kai�iadorys, Kalvarijos, Kauno Miestas, Kaunas, Kazlu Rudos, Kedainiai, Kelme, Klaipedos Miestas, Klaipeda, Kretinga, Kupi�kis, Lazdijai, Marijampole, Ma�eikiai, Moletai, Neringa, Pag�giai, Pakruojis, Palangos Miestas, Panevezio Miestas, Paneve�ys, Pasvalys, Plunge, Prienai, Radvili�kis, Raseiniai, Rietavo, Roki�kis, �akiai, �alcininkai, �iauliu Miestas, �iauliai, �ilale, �ilute, �irvintos, Skuodas, �vencionys, Taurage, Tel�iai, Trakai, Ukmerge, Utena, Varena, Vilkavi�kis, Vilniaus Miestas, Vilnius, Visaginas, Zarasai

Independence

11 March 1990 (declared); 6 September 1991 (recognized by the Soviet Union); notable earlier dates: 6 July 1253 (coronation of MINDAUGAS, traditional founding date), 1 July 1569 (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth created), 16 February 1918 (independence from Soviet Russia)

National holiday

Independence Day, 16 February (1918); note - 16 February 1918 was the date Lithuania declared its independence from Soviet Russia and established its statehood; 11 March 1990 was the date it declared its independence from the Soviet Union

Constitution

several previous; latest adopted by referendum 25 October 1992, entered into force 2 November 1992; amended 2003 (2015)

Legal system

civil law system; legislative acts can be appealed to the constitutional court

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Lithuania

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Dalia GRYBAUSKAITE (since 12 July 2009)

head of government: Prime Minister Algirdas BUTKEVICIUS (since 22 November 2012)

cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, appointed by the president, and approved by Parliament

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11 and 25 May 2014 (next to be held in May 2019); prime minister appointed by the president, approved by Parliament

election results: Dalia GRYBAUSKAITE reelected president; percent of vote - Dalia GRYBAUSKAITE (independent) 59%, Zigmantas BALCYTIS (LSDP) 41%; Algirdas BUTKEVICIUS (LSDP) approved as prime minister by Parliament vote - 90 of 130

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament or Seimas (141 seats; 71 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote and 70 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 14 and 28 October 2012 (next to be held in October 2016)

election results: percent of vote by party - DP 19.8%, LSDP 18.4%, TS-LKD 15.1%, LS 8.6%, DK 8%, TT 7.3%, LLRA 5.8%, LVZS 3.9%, other 13.1%; seats by party - LSDP 38, TS-LKD 33, DP 29, TT 11, LS 11, LLRA 8, DK 7, LVZS 1, independent 3

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 37 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Seimas; judges serve 5-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court judges selected by the Seimas from among nominations by the president, by the Seimas chairperson, and Supreme Court chairperson; judges serve 9-year, nonrenewable terms; note - one-third of court judges reconstituted every 3 years

subordinate courts: Court of Appeals; district and local courts

Political parties and leaders

Electoral Action of Lithuanian Poles or LLRA [Valdemar TOMASEVSKI]

Homeland Union-Lithuanian Christian Democrats or TS-LKD [Gabrielius LANDSBERGIS]

Labor Party or DP [Loreta GRAUZINIENE]

Liberal Movement or LS or LRLS [Eligijus MASIULIS]

Lithuanian Green Party or LZP [Linas BALSYS]

Lithuanian Social Democratic Party or LSDP [Algirdas BUTKEVICIUS]

Order and Justice Party or TT [Rolandas PAKSAS]

Peasant and Greens Union or LVZS [Ramunas KARBAUSKIS]

Way of Courage or DK [Jonas VARKALA]

International organization participation

Australia Group, BA, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UN Security Council (non-permanent), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), green, and red; yellow symbolizes golden fields, as well as the sun, light, and goodness; green represents the forests of the countryside, in addition to nature, freedom, and hope; red stands for courage and the blood spilled in defense of the homeland

National symbol(s)

mounted knight known as Vytis (the Chaser), white stork; national colors: yellow, green, red

National anthem

name: "Tautiska giesme" (The National Song)

lyrics/music: Vincas KUDIRKA

note: adopted 1918, restored 1990; written in 1898 while Lithuania was a part of Russia; banned during the Soviet occupation from 1940 to 1990

Economy

Economy - overview

Lithuania gained membership in the World Trade Organization in May 2001 and joined the EU in May 2004. Lithuania's trade with the EU and CIS countries accounts for approximately 87.3% of total trade. Foreign investment and EU funding have aided in the transition from the former planned economy to a market economy. The three former Soviet Baltic republics were severely hit by the 2008-09 financial crisis, but Lithuania has rebounded and become one of the fastest growing economies in the EU. Lithuania’s ongoing recovery hinges on export growth, which is being hampered by economic slowdowns in the EU and Russia. Lithuania joined the euro zone on 1 January 2015.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 89/230

$82.14 billion (2015 est.)

$80.72 billion (2014 est.)

$78.4 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$41.78 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 152/225

1.8% (2015 est.)

3% (2014 est.)

3.3% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 65/230

$28,000 (2015 est.)

$27,500 (2014 est.)

$26,700 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 90/179

18.9% of GDP (2015 est.)

19% of GDP (2014 est.)

20.7% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 64.5%

government consumption: 16.5%

investment in fixed capital: 20.3%

investment in inventories: 3.7%

exports of goods and services: 83.2%

imports of goods and services: -88.2%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 3.5%

industry: 30.7%

services: 65.8% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

grain, potatoes, sugar beets, flax, vegetables; beef, milk, eggs, pork, cheese; fish

Industries

metal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, television sets, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small ships), furniture, textiles, food processing, fertilizers, agricultural machinery, optical equipment, lasers, electronic components, computers, amber jewelry, information technology, video game development, biotechnology

Industrial production growth rate 66/202

3.6% (2015 est.)

Labor force 134/233

1.464 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 7.9%

industry: 19.6%

services: 72.5% (2012 est.)

Unemployment rate 95/207

8.2% (2015 est.)

10.7% (2014 est.)

Population below poverty line

4% (2008 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.6%

highest 10%: 29.1% (2008)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 88/144

35.5 (2009)

34 (1999)

Budget

revenues: $13.31 billion

expenditures: $13.97 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 79/219

31.9% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 60/220

-1.6% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 118/176

38.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

39.3% of GDP (2014 est.)

note: official data; data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities, debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 7/226

-1% (2015 est.)

0.2% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 142/156

0.05% (31 December 2010)

0.3% (31 December 2009)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 168/184

3.2% (31 December 2015 est.)

3.5% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 67/192

$17.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$14.67 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 86/193

$22.25 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$22.41 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 84/191

$21.08 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$22.34 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 91/121

$3.964 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$4.075 billion (31 December 2011)

$5.661 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance 119/197

-$926 million (2015 est.)

$60 million (2014 est.)

Exports 62/224

$30.92 billion (2015 est.)

$31.55 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

refined fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals, textiles, foodstuffs, plastics

Exports - partners

Russia 20.9%, Latvia 9.2%, Poland 8.3%, Germany 7.3%, Belarus 4.7%, Netherlands 4.5%, Estonia 4.3% (2014)

Imports 61/223

$33.97 billion (2015 est.)

$33.54 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

oil, natural gas, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, chemicals, textiles and clothing, metals

Imports - partners

Russia 21.7%, Germany 11%, Poland 9.5%, Latvia 6.9%, Italy 4.9%, Netherlands 4.8%, UK 4.1% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 78/170

$8.728 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$8.072 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Debt - external 74/206

$30.81 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$33.64 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 82/120

$17.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$15.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 70/105

$4.164 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$3.814 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

litai (LTL) per US dollar -

0.91 (2015 est.)

0.75 (2014 est.)

0.75 (2013 est.)

2.69 (2012 est.)

2.48 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 126/220

3.927 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 91/219

9.664 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 53/218

1.127 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 30/219

8.073 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 85/214

3.714 million kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 113/214

68.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 128/214

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 131/214

3.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 50/212

7.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 88/214

2,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 80/214

1,552 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - imports 35/214

181,900 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 90/215

12 million bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 56/214

192,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 94/212

55,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 39/214

160,300 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 105/213

22,620 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Natural gas - production 212/216

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 69/215

3.24 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports 134/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports 40/214

3.24 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 160/212

0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 86/212

16.69 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 93/219

total subscriptions: 590,000

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 20 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 124/217

total: 4.4 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 152 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: adequate; being modernized to provide improved international capability and better residential access

domestic: rapid expansion of mobile-cellular services has resulted in a steady decline in the number of fixed-line connections; mobile-cellular teledensity stands at about 140 per 100 persons

international: country code - 370; major international connections to Denmark, Sweden, and Norway by submarine cable for further transmission by satellite; landline connections to Latvia and Poland (2010)

Broadcast media

public broadcaster operates 3 channels with the third channel - a satellite channel - introduced in 2007; various privately owned commercial TV broadcasters operate national and multiple regional channels; many privately owned local TV stations; multi-channel cable and satellite TV services available; publicly owned broadcaster operates 3 radio networks; many privately owned commercial broadcasters, with repeater stations in various regions throughout the country (2007)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 29, FM 142, shortwave 1 (2001)

Television broadcast stations

44 (may have as many as 100 transmitters, including repeater stations) (2008)

Internet country code

.lt

Internet hosts 43/232

1.205 million (2012)

Internet users 97/217

total: 2 million

percent of population: 70.3% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 79/236

61 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 22

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 9 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 39

over 3,047 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 36 (2013)

Pipelines

gas 1,921 km; refined products 121 km (2013)

Railways 76/136

total: 1,768 km

broad gauge: 1,746 km 1.520-m gauge (122 km electrified)

standard gauge: 22 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)

Roadways 56/223

total: 84,166 km

paved: 72,297 km (includes 312 km of expressways)

unpaved: 11,869 km (2012)

Waterways 86/107

441 km (navigable year round) (2007)

Merchant marine 77/156

total: 38

by type: cargo 20, container 1, passenger/cargo 6, refrigerated cargo 9, roll on/roll off 2

foreign-owned: 8 (Denmark 8)

registered in other countries: 22 (Antigua and Barbuda 3, Belize 1, Comoros 1, Cook Islands 1, Norway 1, Panama 3, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 9, unknown 3) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Klaipeda

oil terminals: Butinge oil terminal

LNG terminal(s) (import): Klaipeda

Military and Security

Military branches

Lithuanian Armed Forces (Lietuvos Ginkluotosios Pajegos): Land Forces (Sausumos Pajegos), Naval Forces (Karines Juru Pajegos), Air Forces (Karines Oro Pajegos), Special Forces (Specialiuju Operaciju Pajegos); Volunteer Forces (Savanoriu Pajegos) (2015)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for voluntary military service; 1-year service obligation; Lithuania converted to a professional military in the fall of 2008, although the decision continues under judicial review; a new law passed passed in March 2015 restored conscription on a limited basis (2015)

Military expenditures 103/132

1.11% of GDP (2015)

0.9% of GDP (2014)

0.8% of GDP (2013)

0.97% of GDP (2012)

0.85% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Lithuania and Russia committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999; Lithuania operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Russia, while still conforming, as a EU member state having an external border with a non-EU member, to strict Schengen border rules; boundary demarcated with Latvia and Lithuania; as of January 2007, ground demarcation of the boundary with Belarus was complete and mapped with final ratification documents in preparation

Refugees and internally displaced persons

stateless persons: 3,645 (2014)

Illicit drugs

transshipment and destination point for cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy, and opiates from Southwest Asia, Latin America, Western Europe, and neighboring Baltic countries; growing production of high-quality amphetamines, but limited production of cannabis, methamphetamines; susceptible to money laundering despite changes to banking legislation