Luxembourg

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Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the Netherlands. It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839 but gained a larger measure of autonomy. Full independence was attained in 1867. Overrun by Germany in both world wars, it ended its neutrality in 1948 when it entered into the Benelux Customs Union and when it joined NATO the following year. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Economic Community (later the European Union), and in 1999 it joined the euro currency area.

Geography

Location

Western Europe, between France and Germany

Geographic coordinates

49.45° N, 6.10° E

Area 179/257

total: 2,586 sq km

land: 2,586 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Rhode Island

Land boundaries

total: 327 km

border countries (3): Belgium 130 km, France 69 km, Germany 128 km

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

modified continental with mild winters, cool summers

Terrain

mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle flood plain in the southeast

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Moselle River 133 m

highest point: Buurgplaatz 559 m

Natural resources

iron ore (no longer exploited), arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 50.7%

arable land 24%; permanent crops 0.6%; permanent pasture 26.1%

forest: 33.5%

other: 15.8% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

0 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

3.1 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 0.06 cu km/yr (65%/33%/1%)

per capita: 135.9 cu m/yr (2010)

Natural hazards

NA

Environment - current issues

air and water pollution in urban areas, soil pollution of farmland

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

Geography - note

landlocked; the only Grand Duchy in the world

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Luxembourger(s)

adjective: Luxembourg

Ethnic groups

Luxembourger 54.1%, Portuguese 16.4%, French 7%, Italian 3.5%, Belgian 3.3%, German 2.3%, British 1.1%, other 12.3%

note: represents population by nationality (2015 est.)

Languages

Luxembourgish (official administrative and judicial language and national language (spoken vernacular)) 88.8%, French (official administrative, judicial, and legislative language) 4.2%, Portuguese 2.3%, German (official administrative and judicial language) 1.1%, other 3.5% (2011 est.)

Religions

Roman Catholic 87%, other (includes Protestant, Jewish, and Muslim) 13% (2000)

Population 173/238

570,252 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 16.93% (male 49,677/female 46,886)

15-24 years: 12.28% (male 35,983/female 34,062)

25-54 years: 44.37% (male 129,660/female 123,355)

55-64 years: 11.51% (male 33,280/female 32,351)

65 years and over: 14.91% (male 37,460/female 47,538) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 43.7%

youth dependency ratio: 23.6%

elderly dependency ratio: 20.1%

potential support ratio: 5% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 39.2 years

male: 38.6 years

female: 39.9 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 44/233

2.13% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 173/224

11.37 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 122/225

7.24 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 3/222

17.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 90.2% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 1.71% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

LUXEMBOURG (capital) 107,000 (2014)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

30.2 (2012 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 141/184

10 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 205/224

total: 3.46 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 3.84 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 12/224

total population: 82.17 years

male: 79.73 years

female: 84.76 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 178/224

1.61 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Health expenditures 82/191

7.1% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

2.9 physicians/1,000 population (2013)

Hospital bed density

5.4 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 97.5% of population

rural: 98.5% of population

total: 97.6% of population

unimproved:

urban: 2.5% of population

rural: 1.5% of population

total: 2.4% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths

NA

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 50/191

24.8% (2014)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 14 years

male: 14 years

female: 14 years (2012)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 59/134

total: 15.5%

male: 18.7%

female: 10.9% (2013 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

conventional short form: Luxembourg

local long form: Grand Duche de Luxembourg

local short form: Luxembourg

etymology: from the Celtic "lucilem" (little) and the German "burg" (castle or fortress) to produce the meaning of the "little castle"

Government type

constitutional monarchy

Capital

name: Luxembourg

geographic coordinates: 49.36° N, 6.07° E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

12 cantons (cantons, singular - canton); Capellen, Clervaux, Diekirch, Echternach, Esch-sur-Alzette, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg, Mersch, Redange, Remich, Vianden, Wiltz

Independence

1839 (from the Netherlands)

National holiday

National Day (birthday of Grand Duke Henri) 23 June; note - this date of birth is not the true date of birth for any of the Royals, but the festivities were shifted to allow observance during a more favorable time of year

Constitution

previous 1842 (heavily amended 1848, 1856); latest effective 17 October 1968; amended many times, last in 2009 (2015)

Legal system

civil law system

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Luxembourg

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch

chief of state: Grand Duke HENRI (since 7 October 2000); Heir Apparent Prince GUILLAUME (son of the monarch, born 11 November 1981)

head of government: Prime Minister Xavier BETTEL (since 4 December 2013); Deputy Prime Minister Etienne SCHNEIDER (since 4 December 2013)

cabinet: Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister, appointed by the monarch

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following elections to the Chamber of Deputies, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; deputy prime minister appointed by the monarch; prime minister and deputy prime minister are responsible to the Chamber of Deputies

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (60 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - a 21-member Council of State appointed by the Grand Duke on the advice of the prime minister serves as an advisory body to the Chamber of Deputies

elections: last held on 20 October 2013 (next to be held by June 2018)

election results: percent of vote by party - CSV 33.7%, LSAP 20.3%, DP 18.3%, Green Party 10.1%, ADR 6.6%, The Left 4.9%, other 6.1%; seats by party - CSV 23, LSAP 13, DP 13, Green Party 6, ADR 3, The Left 2

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Superior Court of Justice includes Court of Appeal and Court of Cassation (consists of 27 judges on 9 benches); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)

judge selection and term of office: judges of both courts appointed by the monarch for life

subordinate courts: district and local tribunals and courts

Political parties and leaders

Alternative Democratic Reform Party or ADR [Jean SCHOOS]

Christian Social People's Party or CSV [Marc SPAUTZ]

Democratic Party or DP [Xavier BETTEL]

Green Party [Francoise FOLMER and Christian KMIOTEK]

Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party or LSAP [Claude HAAGEN]

The Left (dei Lenk/la Gauche) [Central Committee]

other minor parties

Political pressure groups and leaders

Business Federation Luxembourg or FEDIL [Nicolas SOISSON]

Centrale Paysanne [Marc FISCH] (federation of agricultural producers)

Chamber of Artisans (Chambre des Metiers) [Roland KUHN]

Chamber of Commerce (Chambre de Commerce) [Carlo THELEN]

Chambre des Salaries or CSL [Jean-Claude REDING]

General Association of Officials (Confederation Generale de la Fonction Publique or CGFP [Romain WOLFF] (trade union representing civil service)

Greenpeace [Kumi NAIDOO]

LCGP [Patrick DURY] (center-right trade union)

Luxembourg Association of Bankers and Insurance Employees or ALEBA [Roberto SCOLATI]

Luxembourg Bankers Association or ABBL [Yves MAAS]

Mouvement Ecologique [Blanche WEBER] (environment protection)

OGB-L [Andre ROELTGEN] (center-left trade union)

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CD, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands, which uses a darker blue and is shorter; the coloring is derived from the Grand Duke's coat of arms (a red lion on a white and blue striped field)

National symbol(s)

lion; national colors: red, white, light blue

National anthem

name: "Ons Heemecht" (Our Motherland); "De Wilhelmus" (The William)

lyrics/music: Michel LENTZ/Jean-Antoine ZINNEN; Nikolaus WELTER/unknown

note: "Ons Heemecht," adopted 1864, is the national anthem, while "De Wilhelmus," adopted 1919, serves as a royal anthem for use when members of the grand ducal family enter or exit a ceremony in Luxembourg

Economy

Economy - overview

This small, stable, high-income economy has historically featured solid growth, low inflation, and low unemployment. The industrial sector, initially dominated by steel, has become increasingly diversified to include chemicals, machinery and equipment, rubber, automotive components, and other products. The financial sector, which accounts for about 36% of GDP, is the leading sector in the economy. The economy depends on foreign and cross-border workers for about 39% of its labor force. Luxembourg experienced uneven economic growth in the aftermath of the global economic crisis that began in late 2008. Luxembourg's GDP contracted 3.6% in 2009, rebounded in 2010-12, fell again in 2013, but recovered in 2014. Unemployment has remained below the EU average despite having increased from a historically-low rate of 4% in the 2000s to 7% in 2014. The country continues to enjoy an extraordinarily high standard of living - GDP per capita ranks among the highest in the world and is the highest in the euro zone. Luxembourg has one of the highest current account surpluses as a share of GDP in the euro zone, and it maintains a healthy budgetary position and the lowest public debt levels in the region. Luxembourg has lost some of its advantage as a favorable tax location because of OECD and EU pressure. In 2015 the government’s compliance with EU requirements to implement automatic exchange of tax information on savings accounts - thus ending banking secrecy - has depressed banking activity and dampened GDP growth. Likewise, changes to the way EU members collect taxes from e-Commerce has cut Luxembourg’s tax revenues, requiring the government to raise additional levies and to reduce some direct social benefits.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 105/230

$56.58 billion (2015 est.)

$54.2 billion (2014 est.)

$51.33 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$57.93 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 52/225

4.4% (2015 est.)

5.6% (2014 est.)

4.4% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 2/230

$102,900 (2015 est.)

$98,600 (2014 est.)

$93,400 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 56/179

23.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

23.6% of GDP (2014 est.)

23.7% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 28.9%

government consumption: 16.1%

investment in fixed capital: 17.6%

investment in inventories: 0.6%

exports of goods and services: 200.5%

imports of goods and services: -163.7%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 0.3%

industry: 11.3%

services: 88.3% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

grapes, barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits; dairy and livestock products

Industries

banking and financial services, construction, real estate services, iron, metals, and steel, information technology, telecommunications, cargo transportation and logistics, chemicals, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum, tourism, biotechnology

Industrial production growth rate 144/202

1% (2015 est.)

Labor force 165/233

265,800

note: data exclude foreign workers; in addition to the figure for domestic labor force, about 150,000 workers commute daily from France, Belgium, and Germany (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 1.1%

industry: 20%

services: 78.9% (2013 est.)

Unemployment rate 80/207

6.9% (2015 est.)

7.1% (2014 est.)

Population below poverty line

NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.5%

highest 10%: 23.8% (2000)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 117/144

30.4 (2013 est.)

26 (2005 est.)

Budget

revenues: $23.65 billion

expenditures: $23.65 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 38/219

40.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 29/220

0% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 150/176

21.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

22.5% of GDP (2014 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 37/226

0.1% (2015 est.)

0.7% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 144/156

0.05% (31 December 2013)

0.3% (31 December 2010)

note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

Stock of narrow money 20/192

$215.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$211.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

Stock of broad money 36/193

$268.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$275 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 49/191

$114.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$116.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 48/121

$70.34 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$67.63 billion (31 December 2011)

$101.1 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance 29/197

$3.258 billion (2015 est.)

$3.326 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 71/224

$20.9 billion (2015 est.)

$24.22 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

machinery and equipment, steel products, chemicals, rubber products, glass

Exports - partners

Germany 23.5%, France 17%, Belgium 16.2%, Italy 5.6%, Switzerland 4.4% (2014)

Imports 71/223

$21.9 billion (2015 est.)

$24.79 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

commercial aircraft, minerals, chemicals, metals, foodstuffs, luxury consumer goods

Imports - partners

Belgium 30.8%, Germany 24.5%, France 11.9%, US 7.1%, China 5.9%, Netherlands 4.9% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 130/170

$1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$863 million (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 8/206

$3.331 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)

$3.525 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

$NA

$11.21 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad

$NA

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

0.89 (2015 est.)

0.75 (2014 est.)

0.76 (2013 est.)

0.78 (2012 est.)

0.72 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 137/220

2.119 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 109/219

6.108 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 44/218

1.907 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 34/219

6.889 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 112/214

1.79 million kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 185/214

27.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 131/214

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 137/214

1.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 41/212

9.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 160/214

0 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 153/214

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports 88/214

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 159/215

0 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 204/214

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 93/212

56,610 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 121/214

42.36 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 74/213

58,890 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production 93/216

5 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 92/215

983 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - exports 137/215

0 cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - imports 58/214

979 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 163/212

0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 98/212

11.69 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 119/219

total subscriptions: 270,000

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 48 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 162/217

total: 796,400

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 143 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: highly developed, completely automated and efficient system, mainly buried cables

domestic: fixed-line teledensity over 50 per 100 persons; nationwide mobile-cellular telephone system with market for mobile-cellular phones virtually saturated

international: country code - 352 (2010)

Broadcast media

Luxembourg has a long tradition of operating radio and TV services for pan-European audiences and is home to Europe's largest privately owned broadcast media group, the RTL group, which operates 46 TV stations and 29 radio stations in Europe; also home to Europe's largest satellite operator, Societe Europeenne des Satellites (SES); domestically, the RTL group operates TV and radio networks; other domestic private radio and TV operators and French and German stations available; satellite and cable TV services available (2008)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 2 (1999)

Television broadcast stations

5 (1999)

Internet country code

.lu

Internet hosts 68/232

250,900 (2012)

Internet users 130/217

total: 530,400

percent of population: 95.0% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 202/236

2 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 1

over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2013)

Heliports

1 (2013)

Pipelines

gas 142 km; refined products 27 km (2013)

Railways 124/136

total: 275 km

standard gauge: 275 km 1.435-m gauge (275 km electrified) (2014)

Roadways 168/223

total: 2,899 km

paved: 2,899 km (includes 152 km of expressways) (2011)

Waterways 104/107

37 km (on Moselle River) (2010)

Merchant marine 71/156

total: 49

by type: bulk carrier 2, cargo 3, chemical tanker 20, container 10, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 12

foreign-owned: 48 (Belgium 11, Denmark 1, France 15, Germany 9, Japan 3, Netherlands 3, Switzerland 1, UK 5)

registered in other countries: 18 (Italy 14, Malta 3, Panama 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals

river port(s): Mertert (Moselle)

Military and Security

Military branches

Luxembourg Army (Armee Luxembourgeoise) (2015)

Military service age and obligation

18-24 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription; Luxembourg citizen or EU citizen with 3-year residence in Luxembourg (2012)

Military expenditures 123/132

0.6% of GDP (2012)

0.61% of GDP (2011)

0.6% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

stateless persons: 81 (2014)