Macau

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Colonized by the Portuguese in the 16th century, Macau was the first European settlement in the Far East. Pursuant to an agreement signed by China and Portugal on 13 April 1987, Macau became the Macau Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China on 20 December 1999. In this agreement, China promised that, under its "one country, two systems" formula, China's political and economic system would not be imposed on Macau, and that Macau would enjoy a "high degree of autonomy" in all matters except foreign affairs and defense for the subsequent 50 years.

Geography

Location

Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China

Geographic coordinates

22.10° N, 113.33° E

Area 237/257

total: 28.2 sq km

land: 28.2 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative

less than one-sixth the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries

total: 3 km

regional border (1): China 3 km

Coastline

41 km

Maritime claims

not specified

Climate

subtropical; marine with cool winters, warm summers

Terrain

generally flat

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: South China Sea 0 m

highest point: Coloane Alto 172 m

Natural resources

NEGL

Land use

agricultural land: 0%

arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0%

forest: 0%

other: 100% (urban area) (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

0 sq km (2012)

Natural hazards

typhoons

Environment - current issues

NA

Environment - international agreements

party to: Marine Dumping (associate member), Ship Pollution (associate member)

Geography - note

essentially urban; an area of land reclaimed from the sea measuring 5.2 sq km and known as Cotai now connects the islands of Coloane and Taipa; the island area is connected to the mainland peninsula by three bridges

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Chinese

adjective: Chinese

Ethnic groups

Chinese 92.4%, Portuguese 0.6%, mixed 1.1%, other 5.9% (includes Macanese - mixed Portuguese and Asian ancestry) (2011 est.)

Languages

Cantonese 83.3%, Mandarin 5%, Hokkien 3.7%, English 2.3%, other Chinese dialects 2%, Tagalog 1.7%, Portuguese 0.7%, other 1.3%

note: Chinese and Portuguese are official languages (2011 est.)

Religions

Buddhist 50%, Roman Catholic 15%, none or other 35% (1997 est.)

Population 170/238

592,731

note: Macau's statistical agency estimated the total population to be approximately 607,500 as of 31 December 2013 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 14.31% (male 44,335/female 40,481)

15-24 years: 13.02% (male 40,337/female 36,862)

25-54 years: 50.67% (male 133,897/female 166,418)

55-64 years: 12.42% (male 37,118/female 36,527)

65 years and over: 9.58% (male 26,555/female 30,201) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 28.2%

youth dependency ratio: 16.7%

elderly dependency ratio: 11.5%

potential support ratio: 8.7% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 38.2 years

male: 38.7 years

female: 37.9 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 138/233

0.8% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 211/224

8.88 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 205/225

4.22 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 37/222

3.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 100% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 1.78% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.1 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.09 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.81 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female

total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 214/224

total: 3.12 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 3.27 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 2.95 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 4/224

total population: 84.51 years

male: 81.55 years

female: 87.61 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 223/224

0.94 children born/woman (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths

NA

Education expenditures 148/173

3.3% of GDP (2012)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 123/134

total: 4.2%

male: 5.5%

female: 3.2% (2013 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Macau Special Administrative Region

conventional short form: Macau

official long form: Aomen Tebie Xingzhengqu (Chinese); Regiao Administrativa Especial de Macau (Portuguese)

official short form: Aomen (Chinese); Macau (Portuguese)

etymology: name is thought to derive from the A-Ma Temple - built in 1488 and dedicated to Mazu, the goddess of seafarers and fishermen - which is referred to locally as "Maa Gok" and which in Portuguese became "Macau"; the Chinese name Aomen means "inlet gates"

Government type

limited democracy

Administrative divisions

none (special administrative region of the People's Republic of China)

Independence

none (special administrative region of China)

National holiday

National Day (anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China), 1 October (1949); note - 20 December 1999 is celebrated as Macau Special Administrative Region Establishment Day

Constitution

previous 1976 (Organic Statute of Macau, under Portuguese authority); latest adopted 31 March 1993, effective 20 December 1999 (Basic Law of the Macau Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China serves as Macau's constitution) (2015)

Legal system

civil law system based on the Portuguese model

Citizenship

see China

Suffrage

18 years of age in direct elections for some legislative positions, universal for permanent residents living in Macau for the past seven years; note - indirect elections are limited to organizations registered as "corporate voters" (973 were registered in the 2009 legislative elections) and a 400-member Election Committee for the Chief Executive drawn from broad regional groupings, municipal organizations, central government bodies, and elected Macau officials

Executive branch

chief of state: President of China XI Jinping (since 14 March 2013)

head of government: Chief Executive Fernando CHUI Sai On (since 20 December 2009)

cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the chief executive

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by National People's Congress for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); chief executive chosen by a 400-member Election Committee for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 29 August 2014 (next to be held in 2019); note - the Legislative Assembly in August 2012 voted to expand the Election Committee to 400 from 300 seats for the 2014 election

election results: Fernando CHUI Sai On reelected chief executive; Election Committee vote count - 380 of 396

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Legislative Council or Regiao Administrativa Especial de Macau (33 seats; 14 members directly elected by proportional representation vote, 12 indirectly elected by an electoral college of professional and commercial interest groups, and 7 appointed by the chief executive; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 15 September 2013 (next to be held in September 2017)

election results: percent of vote - ACUM 18.0%, UMG 11.1%, UPP 10.8%, NE 9.0%, NUDM 8.9%, UPD 8.2%, APMD 7.5%, ANMD 6.0%, APM 6.0%, other 14.5%; seats by political group - ACUM 3, UMG 2, UPP 2, NE 2, NUDM 1, UPD 1, APMD 1, ANMD 1, APM 1; 12 seats filled by professional and business groups; 7 members appointed by the chief executive

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Court of Final Appeal of Macau Special Administrative Region (consists of the court president and 2 associate justices)

judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the Macau chief executive upon the recommendation of an independent commission of judges, lawyers, and "eminent" persons; judge tenure NA

subordinate courts: Court of Second Instance; Court of First instance; Lower Court; Administrative Court

Political parties and leaders

Alliance for Change or APM [Melinda CHAN Mei-yi]

Macau-Guangdong Union or UMG [MAK Soi-kun]

New Democratic Macau Association or ANMD (an electoral list of the New Macau Association)

New Hope or NE [Jose Maria Pereira COUTINHO]

New Macau Association or ANM [Sulu SOU Ka-hou]

New Union for Macau's Development or NUDM [Angela LEONG On-kei]

Prosperous Democratic Macau Association or APMD (an electoral list of the New Macau Association)

Union for Development or UPD [KWAN Tsui-hang]

Union for Promoting Progress or UPP [HO Ion-sang]

United Citizens Association of Macau or ACUM [CHAN Meng-kam]

note: there is no political party ordinance, so there are no registered political parties; politically active groups register as societies or companies

Political pressure groups and leaders

Bar-Bending Workers' Association [WONG Wai-Man]

Civic Power [Agnes LAM lok-fong]

Democratic Action [LEE Kin-yun]

Macau New Chinese Youth Association [LEONG Sin-man]

Macau Worker's Union [HO Heng-kuok]

New Macau Association [Antonio NG Kuok-cheong]

Workers' Self-Help Union [CHEONG Weng-fat]

International organization participation

ICC (national committees), IHO, IMF, IMO (associate), Interpol (subbureau), ISO (correspondent), UNESCO (associate), UNWTO (associate), UPU, WCO, WMO, WTO

Flag description

green with a lotus flower above a stylized bridge and water in white, beneath an arc of five gold, five-pointed stars: one large in the center of the arc and two smaller on either side; the lotus is the floral emblem of Macau, the three petals represent the peninsula and two islands that make up Macau; the five stars echo those on the flag of China

National symbol(s)

lotus blossom; national colors: green, white, yellow

National anthem

note: as a Special Administrative Region of China, "Yiyongjun Jinxingqu" is the official anthem (see China)

Economy

Economy - overview

Since opening up its locally-controlled casino industry to foreign competition in 2001, Macau has attracted tens of billions of dollars in foreign investment, transforming the territory into one of the world's largest gaming centers. Macau's gaming and tourism businesses were fueled by China's decision to relax travel restrictions on Chinese citizens wishing to visit Macau. In 2014, Macau's gaming-related taxes accounted for more than 83% of total government revenue. Macau's economy slowed dramatically in 2009 as a result of the global economic slowdown, but strong growth resumed in 2010-13, largely on the back of tourism from mainland China and the gaming sectors. In 2014, this city of 636,200 hosted nearly 31.5 million visitors. Almost 67% came from mainland China. Macau's traditional manufacturing industry has slowed greatly since the termination of the Multi-Fiber Agreement in 2005. Services export — primarily gaming — increasingly has driven Macau’s economic performance. Mainland China’s ongoing anti-corruption campaign has brought Macau’s gambling boom to a halt, with spending in casinos contracting 2.6% in 2014. As a result, Macau's inflation-adjusted GDP contracted 0.4% from 2013, down from double-digit expansion rates in 2010-13. Non-inflation adjusted exports of goods and services dropped 0.4% from 2013, reflecting the slowdown in gaming exports. Macau continues to face the challenges of managing its growing casino industry, risks from money-laundering activities, and the need to diversify the economy away from heavy dependence on gaming revenues. Macau's currency, the pataca, is closely tied to the Hong Kong dollar, which is also freely accepted in the territory.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 109/230

$51.68 billion (2013 est.)

$46.19 billion (2012 est.)

$42.34 billion (2011 est.)

note: data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$51.68 billion (2013 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 2/225

11.9% (2013 est.)

9.1% (2012 est.)

21.3% (2011 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 4/230

$88,700 (2013 est.)

$79,900 (2010 est.)

$73,900 (2009 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 26.2%

government consumption: 9.7%

investment in fixed capital: 21.4%

investment in inventories: -0.1%

exports of goods and services: 84.2%

imports of goods and services: -41.4%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 0%

industry: 8.4%

services: 91.6% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

only 2% of land area is cultivated, mainly by vegetable growers; fishing, mostly for crustaceans, is important; some of the catch is exported to Hong Kong

Industries

tourism, gambling, clothing, textiles, electronics, footwear, toys

Industrial production growth rate 54/202

4% (2015 est.)

Labor force 159/233

394,800 (2014 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

manufacturing: 2.5%

construction: 9.8%

transport and communications: 4.4%

wholesale and retail trade: 12.4%

restaurants and hotels: 15%

gambling: 25.9%

public sector: 7.1%

financial services: 2.6%

other services: 20.3% (2013)

Unemployment rate 11/207

1.9% (2013 est.)

1.7% (2014 est.)

Population below poverty line

NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Distribution of family income - Gini index 92/144

35 (2013)

38 (2008)

Budget

revenues: $14.16 billion

expenditures: $6.433 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 99/219

27.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 2/220

14.9% of GDP (2015 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 168/226

4.5% (2015 est.)

6% (2014 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 143/184

5.3% (31 December 2015 est.)

5.25% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 91/192

$6.632 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$7.678 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 63/193

$64.67 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$55.29 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 172/191

$475.6 million (31 December 2015 est.)

$-147.8 million (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 45/121

$85.5 billion (2 March 2012 est.)

$46.1 billion (31 February 2011)

$2.3 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Current account balance 15/197

$22.36 billion (2013 est.)

$17.39 billion (2012 est.)

Exports 156/224

$1.137 billion (2013 est.)

$1.384 billion (2012 est.)

note: includes reexports

Exports - commodities

clothing, textiles, footwear, toys, electronics, machinery and parts

Exports - partners

Hong Kong 58.6%, China 15.7% (2014 est.)

Imports 98/223

$10.13 billion (2013 est.)

$8.866 billion (2012 est.)

Imports - commodities

raw materials and semi-manufactured goods, consumer goods (foodstuffs, beverages, tobacco, garments and footwear, motor vehicles), capital goods, mineral fuels and oils

Imports - partners

China 33.2%, Hong Kong 10.3%, Switzerland 9.1%, France 8.4%, Italy 6.9%, US 6.5%, Japan 5.6% (2014 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 66/170

$16.44 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$16.15 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

note: the Fiscal Reserves Act that came into force on 1 January 2012 requires the fiscal reserves to be separated from the foreign exchange reserves and to be managed separately; the transfer of assets took place in February 2012

Debt - external 205/206

$0 (31 December 2013)

$0 (31 December 2012)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 79/120

$18.91 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

$14.91 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 83/105

$1.166 billion (2012 est.)

$667.8 million (2011 est.)

Exchange rates

patacas (MOP) per US dollar -

7.99 (2015 est.)

7.99 (2014 est.)

7.99 (2013 est.)

7.99 (2012 est.)

8.02 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 166/220

413.7 million kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - consumption 122/219

4.291 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - exports 164/218

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 46/219

3.855 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 142/214

472,000 kW (2013 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 18/214

100% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 134/214

0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 184/214

0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 196/212

0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Crude oil - production 162/214

0 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 155/214

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports 91/214

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 161/215

0 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 206/214

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 153/212

10,680 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 198/214

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 155/213

5,780 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production 216/216

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 113/215

355,000 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports 139/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports 74/214

371,000 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 164/212

0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 154/212

1.694 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 133/219

total: 160,000

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 28 (2012)

Telephones - mobile cellular 154/217

total: 1.6 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 279 (2012)

Telephone system

general assessment: fairly modern communication facilities maintained for domestic and international services

domestic: termination of monopoly over mobile-cellular telephone services in 2001 spurred sharp increase in subscriptions with mobile-cellular teledensity exceeding 200 per 100 persons; fixed-line subscribership appears to have peaked and is now in decline

international: country code - 853; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable network that provides links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; HF radiotelephone communication facility; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2011)

Broadcast media

local government dominates broadcast media; 2 television stations operated by the government with one broadcasting in Portuguese and the other in Cantonese and Mandarin; 1 cable TV and 4 satellite TV services available; 3 radio stations broadcasting, of which 2 are government-operated (2012)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 0 (2009)

Television broadcast stations

1 (2009)

Internet country code

.mo

Internet hosts 189/232

327 (2012)

Internet users 150/217

total: 270,200

percent of population: 48.3% (2009)

Transportation

Airports 224/236

1 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 1

over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)

Heliports

2 (2013)

Roadways 200/223

total: 421 km

paved: 421 km (2013)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Macau

Military and Security

Military branches

no regular indigenous military forces

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

none

Illicit drugs

transshipment point for drugs going into mainland China; consumer of opiates and amphetamines