Mali

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The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, what formerly made up the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 by a military coup that ushered in a period of democratic rule. President Alpha KONARE won Mali's first two democratic presidential elections in 1992 and 1997. In keeping with Mali's two-term constitutional limit, he stepped down in 2002 and was succeeded by Amadou Toumani TOURE, who was elected to a second term in a 2007 election that was widely judged to be free and fair. Malian returnees from Libya in 2011 exacerbated tensions in northern Mali, and Tuareg ethnic militias rebelled in January 2012. Low- and mid-level soldiers, frustrated with the poor handling of the rebellion, overthrew TOURE on 22 March. Intensive mediation efforts led by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) returned power to a civilian administration in April with the appointment of Interim President Dioncounda TRAORE. The post-coup chaos led to rebels expelling the Malian military from the country's three northern regions and allowed Islamic militants to set up strongholds. Hundreds of thousands of northern Malians fled the violence to southern Mali and neighboring countries, exacerbating regional food shortages in host communities. An international military intervention to retake the three northern regions began in January 2013 and within a month most of the north had been retaken. In a democratic presidential election conducted in July and August of 2013, Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA was elected president. The Malian Government and northern armed groups signed an internationally-mediated peace accord in June 2015.

Geography

Location

interior Western Africa, southwest of Algeria, north of Guinea, Cote d'Ivoire, and Burkina Faso, west of Niger

Geographic coordinates

17.00° N, 4.00° W

Area 24/257

total: 1,240,192 sq km

land: 1,220,190 sq km

water: 20,002 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries

total: 7,908 km

border countries (7): Algeria 1,359 km, Burkina Faso 1,325 km, Cote d'Ivoire 599 km, Guinea 1,062 km, Mauritania 2,236 km, Niger 838 km, Senegal 489 km

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

subtropical to arid; hot and dry (February to June); rainy, humid, and mild (June to November); cool and dry (November to February)

Terrain

mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Senegal River 23 m

highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m

Natural resources

gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, gypsum, granite, hydropower

note: bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited

Land use

agricultural land: 34.1%

arable land 5.6%; permanent crops 0.1%; permanent pasture 28.4%

forest: 10.2%

other: 55.7% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

3,780 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

100 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 6.55 cu km/yr (9%/1%/90%)

per capita: 545.4 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards

hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts; occasional Niger River flooding

Environment - current issues

deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

landlocked; divided into three natural zones: the southern, cultivated Sudanese; the central, semiarid Sahelian; and the northern, arid Saharan

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Malian(s)

adjective: Malian

Ethnic groups

Bambara 34.1%, Fulani (Peul) 14.7%, Sarakole 10.8%, Senufo 10.5%, Dogon 8.9%, Malinke 8.7%, Bobo 2.9%, Songhai 1.6%, Tuareg 0.9%, other Malian 6.1%, from member of Economic Community of West African States 0.3%, other 0.4% (2012-13 est.)

Languages

French (official), Bambara 46.3%, Peul/Foulfoulbe 9.4%, Dogon 7.2%, Maraka/Soninke 6.4%, Malinke 5.6%, Sonrhai/Djerma 5.6%, Minianka 4.3%, Tamacheq 3.5%, Senoufo 2.6%, Bobo 2.1%, unspecified 0.7%, other 6.3%

note: Mali has 13 national languages in addition to its official language (2009 est.)

Religions

Muslim 94.8%, Christian 2.4%, Animist 2%, none 0.5%, unspecified 0.3% (2009 est.)

Population 66/238

16,955,536 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 47.44% (male 4,038,801/female 4,005,256)

15-24 years: 19.09% (male 1,543,751/female 1,693,410)

25-54 years: 26.75% (male 2,106,889/female 2,428,643)

55-64 years: 3.75% (male 317,513/female 317,957)

65 years and over: 2.97% (male 251,693/female 251,623) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 100.2%

youth dependency ratio: 95.1%

elderly dependency ratio: 5%

potential support ratio: 19.8% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 16.1 years

male: 15.5 years

female: 16.8 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 8/233

2.98% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 2/224

44.99 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 19/225

12.89 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 172/222

-2.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 39.9% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 5.08% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

BAMAKO (capital) 2.515 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 0.91 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.87 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

18.3

note: median age at first birth among women 20-24 (2012/13 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 18/184

587 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 2/224

total: 102.23 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 108.88 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 95.37 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 208/224

total population: 55.34 years

male: 53.48 years

female: 57.25 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 3/224

6.06 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

10.3% (2012/13)

Health expenditures 119/191

7.1% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

0.08 physicians/1,000 population (2010)

Hospital bed density

0.1 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 96.5% of population

rural: 64.1% of population

total: 77% of population

unimproved:

urban: 3.5% of population

rural: 35.9% of population

total: 23% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 37.5% of population

rural: 16.1% of population

total: 24.7% of population

unimproved:

urban: 62.5% of population

rural: 83.9% of population

total: 75.3% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

1.42% (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

133,400 (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

5,300 (2014 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 166/191

5.7% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight 20/138

27.9% (2006)

Education expenditures 83/173

4.8% of GDP (2011)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 8 years

male: 9 years

female: 7 years (2011)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 10.7%

male: 7.9%

female: 14.1% (2010 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Mali

conventional short form: Mali

local long form: Republique de Mali

local short form: Mali

former: French Sudan and Sudanese Republic

note: name derives from the West African Mali Empire of the 13th to 16th centuries A.D.

Government type

republic

Capital

name: Bamako

geographic coordinates: 12.39° N, 8.00° W

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

8 regions (regions, singular - region), 1 district*; District de Bamako*, Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou (Timbuktu)

Independence

22 September 1960 (from France)

National holiday

Independence Day, 22 September (1960)

Constitution

several previous; latest drafted August 1991, approved by referendum 12 January 1992, effective 25 February 1992; amended 1999, suspended briefly in 2012 (2015)

Legal system

civil law system based on the French civil law model and influenced by customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Mali

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA (since 4 September 2013)

head of government: Prime Minister Modibo KEITA (since 8 January 2015)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 July 2013 with a runoff on 11 August 2013 (election delayed from April 2012 due to a coup in March 2012); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA elected president in runoff; percent of vote - Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA (RPM) 77.6%, Soumaila CISSE (URD) 22.4%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (147 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in two rounds if needed; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held in two rounds on 24 November and 15 December 2013 (next to be held in 2018); note - the scheduled July 2012 election was canceled due to a coup d'etat and the Tuareg Rebellion

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FDR coalition 69 (RPM 66, PARENA 3), ADP coalition 31 (ADEMA-PASG 16, URD 17, CNID 4), FARE 6, CODEM 5, SADI 5, ASMA-CFP 3, PDES 3, MPR 3, independent 4, other 12; note - 13 seats were from voters abroad

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of 19 members organized into 3 civil chambers and a criminal chamber); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court members appointed by the Ministry of Justice to serve 5-year terms; Constitutional Court members selected - 3 each by the president, the National Assembly, and the Supreme Council of the Magistracy; members serve single renewable 7-year terms

subordinate courts: High Court of Justice (jurisdiction limited to cases of high treason or criminal offenses by the president or ministers while in office)

Political parties and leaders

African Solidarity for Democracy and Independence or SADI [Oumar MARIKO]

Alliance for Democracy in Mali-Pan-African Party for Liberty, Solidarity, and Justice or ADEMA-PASJ [Dionconda TRAORE]

Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ADP (coalition including ADEMA and URD formed in December 2006 to support the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE)

Alliance for the Solidarity of Mali-Convergence of Patriotic Forces or ASMA-CFP [Soumeylou Boubeye MAIGA]

Alternative Forces for Renewal and Emergence or FARE [Modibo SIDIBE]

Convergence for the Development of Mali or CODEM [Housseyni Amion GUINDO]

Economic and Social Development Party or PDES [Jamille BITTAR]

Front for Democracy and the Republic or FDR (coalition including RPM and PARENA formed to oppose the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE)

National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL]

Party for National Renewal or PARENA [Tiebile DRAME]

Patriotic Movement for Renewal or MPR [Choguel Kokalla MAIGA]

Rally for Mali or RPM [Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA] (ruling party)

Union for Republic and Democracy or URD [Younoussi TOURE]

Political pressure groups and leaders

other: the army; Islamic authorities; state-run cotton company CMDT

International organization participation

ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Flag description

three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red

note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the same as those of neighboring Senegal (which has an additional green central star) and the reverse of those on the flag of neighboring Guinea

National symbol(s)

Great Mosque of Djenne; national colors: green, yellow, red

National anthem

name: "Le Mali" (Mali)

lyrics/music: Seydou Badian KOUYATE/Banzoumana SISSOKO

note: adopted 1962; also known as "Pour L'Afrique et pour toi, Mali" (For Africa and for You, Mali) and "A ton appel Mali" (At Your Call, Mali)

Economy

Economy - overview

Among the 25 poorest countries in the world, Mali is a landlocked country that depends on gold mining and agricultural exports for revenue. The country's fiscal status fluctuates with gold and agricultural commodity prices and the harvest; cotton and gold exports make up around 80% of export earnings. Mali remains dependent on foreign aid.

Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger River and about 65% of its land area is desert or semidesert. About 10% of the population is nomadic and about 80% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. The government subsidizes the production of cereals to decrease the country’s dependence on imported foodstuffs and to reduce its vulnerability to food price shocks.

Mali is developing its iron ore extraction industry to diversify foreign exchange earnings away from gold, but the pace will largely depend on global price trends. Mali’s economic performance has improved since 2013 although physical insecurity, high population growth, corruption, a weak infrastructure, and low levels of human capital remain hindrances to sustained growth.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 129/230

$29.15 billion (2015 est.)

$27.77 billion (2014 est.)

$25.9 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$10.95 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 41/225

5% (2015 est.)

7.2% (2014 est.)

1.7% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 208/230

$1,800 (2015 est.)

$1,800 (2014 est.)

$1,600 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 34/179

27.1% of GDP (2015 est.)

17.7% of GDP (2014 est.)

15.1% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 83.3%

government consumption: 18.1%

investment in fixed capital: 16.7%

investment in inventories: -0.1%

exports of goods and services: 30.1%

imports of goods and services: -48.1%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 38.5%

industry: 23.3%

services: 38.2% (2013 est.)

Agriculture - products

cotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats

Industries

food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining

Industrial production growth rate 28/202

5.2% (2015 est.)

Labor force 72/233

5.644 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 80%

industry and services: 20% (2005 est.)

Unemployment rate 186/207

30% (2015 est.)

8.2% (2014 est.)

Population below poverty line

36.1% (2005 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.5%

highest 10%: 25.8% (2010 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 62/144

40.1 (2001)

50.5 (1994)

Budget

revenues: $2.409 billion

expenditures: $2.756 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 144/219

22% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 119/220

-3.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 116/176

39% of GDP (2015 est.)

33.8% of GDP (2014 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 89/226

1.5% (2015 est.)

0.9% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 9/156

16% (31 December 2010)

4.25% (31 December 2009)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 89/184

9.3% (31 December 2015 est.)

9.3% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 123/192

$2.213 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$2.612 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 141/193

$3.984 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$3.817 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 136/191

$2.16 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$2.541 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares

$NA

Current account balance 90/197

-$366 million (2015 est.)

-$881 million (2014 est.)

Exports 136/224

$2.191 billion (2015 est.)

$2.253 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

cotton, gold, livestock

Exports - partners

China 18.8%, India 14.4%, Indonesia 11.1%, Bangladesh 9.6%, Thailand 8.3%, Australia 4.3% (2014)

Imports 147/223

$2.919 billion (2015 est.)

$3.14 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

petroleum, machinery and equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs, textiles

Imports - partners

France 11.7%, Senegal 10.6%, Cote d'Ivoire 9%, China 7.7% (2014)

Debt - external 138/206

$3.633 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$3.423 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 104/120

$3.159 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$2.624 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 100/105

$27.26 million (31 December 2015 est.)

$7.28 million (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -

580.5 (2015 est.)

494.42 (2014 est.)

494.42 (2013 est.)

510.53 (2012 est.)

471.87 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 152/220

949 million kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 160/219

882.6 million kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 168/218

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 174/219

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 150/214

304,000 kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 153/214

48.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 141/214

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 47/214

51.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 201/212

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 168/214

0 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 161/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - imports 97/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 168/215

0 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 211/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 173/212

4,700 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 202/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 165/213

4,698 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Natural gas - production 103/216

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 171/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports 146/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports 100/214

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 171/212

0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 170/212

773,900 Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 136/219

total subscriptions: 160,000

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 50/217

total: 23.5 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 143 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: domestic system unreliable but improving; increasing use of local radio loops to extend network coverage to remote areas

domestic: fixed-line subscribership remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has increased sharply to about 70 per 100 persons

international: country code - 223; satellite communications center and fiber-optic links to neighboring countries; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean, 1 Indian Ocean) (2010)

Broadcast media

national public TV broadcaster; 2 privately owned companies provide subscription services to foreign multi-channel TV packages; national public radio broadcaster supplemented by a large number of privately owned and community broadcast stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 1, FM 230 (27 regional and government stations, and 203 private stations), shortwave 1 (2001)

Television broadcast stations

2 (plus repeaters) (2007)

Internet country code

.ml

Internet hosts 186/232

437 (2012)

Internet users 38/217

total: 12.4 million

percent of population: 75.2% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 129/236

25 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 8

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 17

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 9

under 914 m: 5 (2013)

Heliports

2 (2013)

Railways 110/136

total: 593 km

narrow gauge: 593 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)

Roadways 103/223

total: 22,474 km

paved: 5,522 km

unpaved: 16,952 km (2009)

Waterways 43/107

1,800 km (downstream of Koulikoro; low water levels on the River Niger cause problems in dry years; in the months before the rainy season the river is not navigable by commercial vessels) (2011)

Ports and terminals

river port(s): Koulikoro (Niger)

Military and Security

Military branches

Malian Armed Forces: Army (Armee de Terre), Republic of Mali Air Force (Force Aerienne de la Republique du Mali, FARM), National Guard (Garde National du Mali) (2013)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for selective compulsory and voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation (2012)

Military expenditures 68/132

1.44% of GDP (2012)

1.51% of GDP (2011)

1.44% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

demarcation is underway with Burkina Faso

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 12,898 (Mauritania) (2014)

IDPs: 49,883 (Tuareg rebellion since 2012) (2016)