Mexico

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The site of several advanced Amerindian civilizations - including the Olmec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Maya, and Aztec - Mexico was conquered and colonized by Spain in the early 16th century. Administered as the Viceroyalty of New Spain for three centuries, it achieved independence early in the 19th century. Elections held in 2000 marked the first time since the 1910 Mexican Revolution that an opposition candidate - Vicente FOX of the National Action Party (PAN) - defeated the party in government, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). He was succeeded in 2006 by another PAN candidate Felipe CALDERON, but Enrique PENA NIETO regained the presidency for the PRI in 2012. The global financial crisis in late 2008 caused a massive economic downturn in Mexico the following year, although growth returned quickly in 2010. Ongoing economic and social concerns include low real wages, high underemployment, inequitable income distribution, and few advancement opportunities for the largely indigenous population in the impoverished southern states. Since 2007, Mexico's powerful drug-trafficking organizations have engaged in bloody feuding, resulting in tens of thousands of drug-related homicides.

Geography

Location

North America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, between Belize and the United States and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and the United States

Geographic coordinates

23.00° N, 102.00° W

Area 14/257

total: 1,964,375 sq km

land: 1,943,945 sq km

water: 20,430 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries

total: 4,389 km

border countries (3): Belize 276 km, Guatemala 958 km, US 3,155 km

Coastline

9,330 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate

varies from tropical to desert

Terrain

high, rugged mountains; low coastal plains; high plateaus; desert

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Laguna Salada -10 m

highest point: Volcan Pico de Orizaba 5,675 m

Natural resources

petroleum, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber

Land use

agricultural land: 54.9%

arable land 11.8%; permanent crops 1.4%; permanent pasture 41.7%

forest: 33.3%

other: 11.8% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

65,000 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

457.2 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 80.4 cu km/yr (14%/9%/77%)

per capita: 700.4 cu m/yr (2009)

Natural hazards

tsunamis along the Pacific coast, volcanoes and destructive earthquakes in the center and south, and hurricanes on the Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean coasts

volcanism: volcanic activity in the central-southern part of the country; the volcanoes in Baja California are mostly dormant; Colima (elev. 3,850 m), which erupted in 2010, is Mexico's most active volcano and is responsible for causing periodic evacuations of nearby villagers; it has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Popocatepetl (elev. 5,426 m) poses a threat to Mexico City; other historically active volcanoes include Barcena, Ceboruco, El Chichon, Michoacan-Guanajuato, Pico de Orizaba, San Martin, Socorro, and Tacana

Environment - current issues

scarcity of hazardous waste disposal facilities; rural to urban migration; natural freshwater resources scarce and polluted in north, inaccessible and poor quality in center and extreme southeast; raw sewage and industrial effluents polluting rivers in urban areas; deforestation; widespread erosion; desertification; deteriorating agricultural lands; serious air and water pollution in the national capital and urban centers along US-Mexico border; land subsidence in Valley of Mexico caused by groundwater depletion

note: the government considers the lack of clean water and deforestation national security issues

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

strategic location on southern border of US; corn (maize), one of the world's major grain crops, is thought to have originated in Mexico

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Mexican(s)

adjective: Mexican

Ethnic groups

mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 62%, predominantly Amerindian 21%, Amerindian 7%, other 10% (mostly European)

note: Mexico does not collect census data on ethnicity (2012 est.)

Languages

Spanish only 92.7%, Spanish and indigenous languages 5.7%, indigenous only 0.8%, unspecified 0.8%

note: indigenous languages include various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional languages (2005)

Religions

Roman Catholic 82.7%, Pentecostal 1.6%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.4%, other Evangelical Churches 5%, other 1.9%, none 4.7%, unspecified 2.7% (2010 est.)

Population 12/238

121,736,809 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 27.59% (male 17,178,327/female 16,412,337)

15-24 years: 17.9% (male 11,027,564/female 10,759,446)

25-54 years: 40.55% (male 23,785,345/female 25,576,645)

55-64 years: 7.19% (male 4,017,721/female 4,734,391)

65 years and over: 6.77% (male 3,709,873/female 4,535,160) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 51.7%

youth dependency ratio: 41.9%

elderly dependency ratio: 9.8%

potential support ratio: 10.2% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 27.6 years

male: 26.6 years

female: 28.7 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 102/233

1.18% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 92/224

18.78 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 181/225

5.26 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 160/222

-1.68 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 79.2% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 1.57% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

MEXICO CITY (capital) 20.999 million; Guadalajara 4.843 million; Monterrey 4.513 million; Puebla 2.984 million; Toluca de Lerdo 2.164 million; Tijuana 1.987 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

21.3 (2008 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 108/184

38 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 122/224

total: 12.23 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 13.64 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 10.74 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 95/224

total population: 75.65 years

male: 72.88 years

female: 78.55 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 94/224

2.27 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

72.5% (2009)

Health expenditures 108/191

6.2% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

2.1 physicians/1,000 population (2011)

Hospital bed density

1.5 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 97.2% of population

rural: 92.1% of population

total: 96.1% of population

unimproved:

urban: 2.8% of population

rural: 7.9% of population

total: 3.9% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 88% of population

rural: 74.5% of population

total: 85.2% of population

unimproved:

urban: 12% of population

rural: 25.5% of population

total: 14.8% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.23% (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

194,100 (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

6,000 (2014 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 23/191

27.6% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight 117/138

2.8% (2012)

Education expenditures 72/173

5.1% of GDP (2011)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 13 years

male: 13 years

female: 13 years (2012)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 104/134

total: 9.2%

male: 8.5%

female: 10.5% (2013 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: United Mexican States

conventional short form: Mexico

local long form: Estados Unidos Mexicanos

local short form: Mexico

etymology: named after the Mexica branch of the Aztecs; the meaning of the name is uncertain

Government type

federal republic

Capital

name: Mexico City (Distrito Federal)

geographic coordinates: 19.26° N, 99.08° W

time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in April; ends last Sunday in October

note: Mexico has four time zones

Administrative divisions

31 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila de Zaragoza, Colima, Distrito Federal*, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan de Ocampo, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave (Veracruz), Yucatan, Zacatecas

Independence

16 September 1810 (declared); 27 September 1821 (recognized by Spain)

National holiday

Independence Day, 16 September (1810)

Constitution

several previous; latest approved 5 February 1917; amended many times, last in 2014 (2015)

Legal system

civil law system with US constitutional law influence; judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent: yes

dual citizenship recognized: not specified

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch

chief of state: President Enrique PENA NIETO (since 1 December 2012); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Enrique PENA NIETO (since 1 December 2012)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president; note - appointment of attorney general, the head of the Bank of Mexico, and senior treasury officials require consent of the Senate

elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a single 6-year term; election last held on 1 July 2012 (next to be held in July 2018)

election results: Enrique PENA NIETO elected president; percent of vote - Enrique PENA NIETO (PRI) 38.2%, Andres Manuel LOPEZ OBRADOR (PRD) 31.6%, Josefina Eugenia VAZQUEZ Mota (PAN) 25.4%, other 4.8%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral National Congress or Congreso de la Union consists of the Senate or Camara de Senadores (128 seats; 96 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 32 directly elected in a single, nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 6-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (500 seats; 300 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 200 directly elected in a single, nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 3-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held on 1 July 2012 for all of the seats (next to be held 1 July 2018); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 7 June 2015 (next to be held on 1 July 2018)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PRI 52, PAN 38, PRD 22, PVEM 9, PT 4, Movimiento Ciudadano 2, PANAL 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PRI 203, PAN 108, PRD 56, PVEM 47, MORENA 35, MC 26, PNA/PANAL 10, PES 8, PT 6, independent 1

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nacion (consists of the chief justice and 11 justices and organized into civil, criminal, administrative, and labor panels) and the Electoral Tribunal of the Federal Judiciary (organized into the superior court, with 7 judges including the court president and 5 regional courts, each with 3 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices nominated by the president of the republic and approved by two-thirds vote of the members present in the Senate; justices serve for life; Electoral Tribunal superior and regional court judges nominated by the Supreme Court and elected by two-thirds vote of members present in the Senate; superior court president elected from among its members to hold office for a single-renewable 4-year term; other judges of the superior and regional courts serve staggered, single-renewable 9-year terms

subordinate courts: federal level includes circuit, collegiate, and unitary courts; state and district level courts

Political parties and leaders

Citizen's Movement (Movimiento Ciudadano) or MC [Dante DELGADO Rannaoro]

Institutional Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional) or PRI [Cesar CAMACHO Quiroz]

Labor Party (Partido del Trabajo) or PT [Alberto ANAYA Gutierrez]

Mexican Green Ecological Party (Partido Verde Ecologista de Mexico) or PVEM [Jorge Emilio GONZALEZ Torres]

Movement for National Regeneration (Movimiento Regeneracion Nacional) or MORENA [Marti BATRES]

National Action Party (Partido Accion Nacional) or PAN [Gustavo MADERO Munoz]

New Alliance Party (Partido Nueva Alianza) or PNA/PANAL [Luis CASTRO Obregon]

Party of the Democratic Revolution (Partido de la Revolucion Democratica) or PRD [Jesus ZAMBRANO Grijalva]

Social Encounter Party (Partido Encuentro Social) or PES [Hugo Eric FLORES Cervantes]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Businessmen's Coordinating Council or CCE

Confederation of Employers of the Mexican Republic or COPARMEX

Confederation of Industrial Chambers or CONCAMIN

Confederation of Mexican Workers or CTM

Confederation of National Chambers of Commerce or CONCANACO

Coordinator for Foreign Trade Business Organizations or COECE

Federation of Unions Providing Goods and Services or FESEBES

National Chamber of Transformation Industries or CANACINTRA

National Confederation of Popular Organizations or CNOP

National Coordinator for Education Workers or CNTE

National Peasant Confederation or CNC

National Small Business Chamber or CANACOPE

National Syndicate of Education Workers or SNTE

National Union of Workers or UNT

Popular Assembly of the People of Oaxaca or APPO

Roman Catholic Church

International organization participation

APEC, Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN (observer), Caricom (observer), CD, CDB, CE (observer), CELAC, CSN (observer), EBRD, FAO, FATF, G-3, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, MIGA, NAFTA, NAM (observer), NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR (observer), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina (observer), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Flag description

three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; Mexico's coat of arms (an eagle with a snake in its beak perched on a cactus) is centered in the white band; green signifies hope, joy, and love; white represents peace and honesty; red stands for hardiness, bravery, strength, and valor; the coat of arms is derived from a legend that the wandering Aztec people were to settle at a location where they would see an eagle on a cactus eating a snake; the city they founded, Tenochtitlan, is now Mexico City

note: similar to the flag of Italy, which is shorter, uses lighter shades of red and green, and does not display anything in its white band

National symbol(s)

golden eagle; national colors: green, white, red

National anthem

name: "Himno Nacional Mexicano" (National Anthem of Mexico)

lyrics/music: Francisco Gonzalez BOCANEGRA/Jaime Nuno ROCA

note: adopted 1943, in use since 1854; also known as "Mexicanos, al grito de Guerra" (Mexicans, to the War Cry); according to tradition, Francisco Gonzalez BOCANEGRA, an accomplished poet, was uninterested in submitting lyrics to a national anthem contest; his fiancee locked him in a room and refused to release him until the lyrics were completed

Economy

Economy - overview

Mexico's $2.2 trillion economy has become increasingly oriented toward manufacturing in the 22 years since the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) entered into force. Per capita income is roughly one-third that of the US; income distribution remains highly unequal.

Mexico has become the United States' second-largest export market and third-largest source of imports. In 2014, two-way trade in goods and services exceeded $590 billion. Mexico has free trade agreements with 46 countries, putting more than 90% of trade under free trade agreements. In 2012, Mexico formally joined the Trans-Pacific Partnership negotiations and formed the Pacific Alliance with Peru, Colombia and Chile.

Mexico's current government, led by President Enrique PENA NIETO, emphasized economic reforms during its first two years in office, passing and implementing sweeping education, energy, financial, fiscal and telecommunications reform legislation, among others, with the long-term aim to improve competitiveness and economic growth across the Mexican economy. Mexico began holding public auctions of exploration and development rights to select oil and gas resources in 2015 as a part of reforms that allow for private investment in the oil, gas, and electricity sectors. The second and third auctions demonstrated the capacity for the Mexican Government to adapt and improve the terms of the contracts to garner sufficient interest from investors amid low oil prices.

Although the economy experienced stronger growth in 2014-15 as a result of increased investment and stronger demand for Mexican exports, growth is predicted to remain below potential given falling oil production, weak oil prices, structural issues such as low productivity, high inequality, a large informal sector employing over half of the workforce, weak rule of law, and corruption. Over the medium-term, the economy is vulnerable to global economic pressures, such as lower external demand, rising interest rates, and low oil prices - approximately 20% of government revenue comes from the state-owned oil company, PEMEX. The increasing integration of supply chains, development of energy sectors, and government-to-government focus on trade facilitation will continue to make the North American region increasingly competitive and contribute to Mexican economic development and strength.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 12/230

$2.22 trillion (2015 est.)

$2.17 trillion (2014 est.)

$2.124 trillion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$1.161 trillion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 131/225

2.3% (2015 est.)

2.1% (2014 est.)

1.4% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 92/230

$18,500 (2015 est.)

$18,100 (2014 est.)

$17,700 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 85/179

19.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

19.9% of GDP (2014 est.)

19.3% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 67.3%

government consumption: 12.1%

investment in fixed capital: 21.2%

investment in inventories: -0.7%

exports of goods and services: 38.4%

imports of goods and services: -38.3%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 3.5%

industry: 34.1%

services: 62.4% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

corn, wheat, soybeans, rice, beans, cotton, coffee, fruit, tomatoes; beef, poultry, dairy products; wood products

Industries

food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, tourism

Industrial production growth rate 77/202

3.3% (2015 est.)

Labor force 13/233

52.81 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 13.4%

industry: 24.1%

services: 61.9% (2011)

Unemployment rate 45/207

4.5% (2015 est.)

4.8% (2014 est.)

note: underemployment may be as high as 25%

Population below poverty line

52.3%

note: based on food-based definition of poverty; asset-based poverty amounted to more than 47% (2012 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2%

highest 10%: 37.5% (2010)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 26/144

48.3 (2008)

53.1 (1998)

Budget

revenues: $259.6 billion

expenditures: $300.5 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 141/219

22.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 131/220

-3.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 98/176

45.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

42.1% of GDP (2014 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 131/226

2.7% (2015 est.)

4% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 84/156

4.5% (31 December 2012)

4.5% (31 December 2011)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 159/184

3.7% (31 December 2015 est.)

3.55% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 23/192

$180.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$195.6 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 20/193

$826.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$727 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 30/191

$389 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$412.5 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 22/121

$525.1 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$408.7 billion (31 December 2011)

$454.3 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance 189/197

-$27.9 billion (2015 est.)

-$24.98 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 12/224

$430.9 billion (2015 est.)

$398.3 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

manufactured goods, oil and oil products, silver, fruits, vegetables, coffee, cotton

Exports - partners

US 80.2% (2014)

Imports 10/223

$434.8 billion (2015 est.)

$400.4 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

metalworking machines, steel mill products, agricultural machinery, electrical equipment, automobile parts for assembly and repair, aircraft, aircraft parts

Imports - partners

US 48.8%, China 16.6%, Japan 4.4% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 13/170

$204.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$195.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 29/206

$424.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$397.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 19/120

$361 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$338 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 30/105

$142.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$131.2 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

Mexican pesos (MXN) per US dollar -

15.88 (2015 est.)

13.29 (2014 est.)

13.29 (2013 est.)

13.17 (2012 est.)

12.42 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 15/220

278.7 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 15/219

234 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 51/218

1.288 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 71/219

607 million kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 17/214

62.29 million kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 100/214

74.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 28/214

2.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 97/214

18.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 60/212

4.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 11/214

2.459 million bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 13/214

1.22 million bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports 76/214

9,884 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 17/215

9.812 billion bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 14/214

1.438 million bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 12/212

1.966 million bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 37/214

171,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 13/213

563,300 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production 19/216

45.4 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 10/215

73.26 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - exports 44/215

172 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - imports 13/214

27.39 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 30/212

483.5 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 16/212

453.8 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 14/219

total subscriptions: 21.1 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 18 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 14/217

total: 102.2 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 85 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: adequate telephone service for business and government; improving quality and increasing mobile cellular availability, with mobile subscribers far outnumbering fixed-line subscribers; domestic satellite system with 120 earth stations; extensive microwave radio relay network; considerable use of fiber-optic cable and coaxial cable

domestic: despite the opening to competition in January 1997, Telmex remains dominant; fixed-line teledensity is less than 20 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is about 80 per 100 persons

international: country code - 52; Columbus-2 fiber-optic submarine cable with access to the US, Virgin Islands, Canary Islands, Spain, and Italy; the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the MAYA-1 submarine cable system together provide access to Central America, parts of South America and the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations - 120 (32 Intelsat, 2 Solidaridad (giving Mexico improved access to South America, Central America, and much of the US as well as enhancing domestic communications), 1 Panamsat, numerous Inmarsat mobile earth stations); linked to Central American Microwave System of trunk connections (2011)

Broadcast media

many TV stations and more than 1,400 radio stations with most privately owned; the Televisa group once had a virtual monopoly in TV broadcasting, but new broadcasting groups and foreign satellite and cable operators are now available (2012)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 851, FM 726, shortwave 15 (2009)

Television broadcast stations

729 (2009)

Internet country code

.mx

Internet hosts 9/232

16.233 million (2012)

Internet users 12/217

total: 49.5 million

percent of population: 41.1% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 3/236

1,714 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 243

over 3,047 m: 12

2,438 to 3,047 m: 32

1,524 to 2,437 m: 80

914 to 1,523 m: 86

under 914 m: 33 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 1,471

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 42

914 to 1,523 m: 281

under 914 m: 1,146 (2013)

Heliports

1 (2013)

Pipelines

gas 18,074 km; liquid petroleum 2,102 km; oil 8,775 km; oil/gas/water 369 km; refined products 7,565 km; water 123 km (2013)

Railways 16/136

total: 15,389 km

standard gauge: 15,389 km 1.435-m gauge (27 km electrified) (2014)

Roadways 19/223

total: 377,660 km

paved: 137,544 km (includes 7,176 km of expressways)

unpaved: 240,116 km (2012)

Waterways 33/107

2,900 km (navigable rivers and coastal canals mostly connected with ports on the country's east coast) (2012)

Merchant marine 70/156

total: 52

by type: bulk carrier 5, cargo 3, chemical tanker 11, liquefied gas 3, passenger/cargo 10, petroleum tanker 17, roll on/roll off 3

foreign-owned: 5 (France 1, Greece 2, South Africa 1, UAE 1)

registered in other countries: 12 (Antigua and Barbuda 1, Marshall Islands 2, Panama 5, Portugal 1, Spain 1, Venezuela 1, unknown 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Altamira, Coatzacoalcos, Lazaro Cardenas, Manzanillo, Veracruz

container port(s) (TEUs): Manzanillo (1,992,176), Lazaro Cardenas (1,242,777) (2012)

oil terminals: Cayo Arcas terminal, Dos Bocas terminal

LNG terminal(s) (import): Altamira, Ensenada

cruise port(s): Cancun, Cozumel, Ensenada

Military and Security

Military branches

Secretariat of National Defense (Secretaria de Defensa Nacional, Sedena): Army (Ejercito), Mexican Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Mexicana, FAM); Secretariat of the Navy (Secretaria de Marina, Semar): Mexican Navy (Armada de Mexico (ARM); includes Naval Air Force (FAN), Mexican Naval Infantry Corps (Cuerpo de Infanteria de Marina, Mexmar or CIM)) (2013)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for compulsory military service, conscript service obligation is 12 months; 16 years of age with consent for voluntary enlistment; conscripts serve only in the Army; Navy and Air Force service is all voluntary; women are eligible for voluntary military service; cadets enrolled in military schools from the age of 15 are considered members of the armed forces (2012)

Military expenditures 124/132

0.59% of GDP (2012)

0.56% of GDP (2011)

0.59% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

abundant rainfall in recent years along much of the Mexico-US border region has ameliorated periodically strained water-sharing arrangements; the US has intensified security measures to monitor and control legal and illegal personnel, transport, and commodities across its border with Mexico; Mexico must deal with thousands of impoverished Guatemalans and other Central Americans who cross the porous border looking for work in Mexico and the United States; Belize and Mexico are working to solve minor border demarcation discrepancies arising from inaccuracies in the 1898 border treaty

Refugees and internally displaced persons

IDPs: 281,400 (government's quashing of Zapatista uprising in 1994 in eastern Chiapas Region; drug cartel violence and government's military response since 2007; violence between and within indigenous groups) (2014)

stateless persons: 13 (2014)

Illicit drugs

major drug-producing and transit nation; world's second largest opium poppy cultivator; opium poppy cultivation in 2009 rose 31% over 2008 to 19,500 hectares yielding a potential production of 50 metric tons of pure heroin, or 125 metric tons of "black tar" heroin, the dominant form of Mexican heroin in the western United States; marijuana cultivation increased 45% to 17,500 hectares in 2009; government conducts the largest independent illicit-crop eradication program in the world; continues as the primary transshipment country for US-bound cocaine from South America, with an estimated 95% of annual cocaine movements toward the US stopping in Mexico; major drug syndicates control the majority of drug trafficking throughout the country; producer and distributor of ecstasy; significant money-laundering center; major supplier of heroin and largest foreign supplier of marijuana and methamphetamine to the US market (2007)