Moldova

WorldABC.xyz: facts on every entity in the world

Part of Romania during the interwar period, Moldova was incorporated into the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although the country has been independent from the USSR since 1991, Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Nistru River supporting the separatist region of Transnistria, composed of a Slavic majority population (mostly Ukrainians and Russians), but with a sizable ethnic Moldovan minority. Europe's poorest economy, Moldova became the first former Soviet state to elect a communist, Vladimir VORONIN, as its president in 2001. VORONIN served as Moldova's president until he resigned in September 2009. Four Moldovan opposition parties then formed a new coalition, the Alliance for European Integration (AEI), iterations of which acted as Moldova's governing coalitions over the next several years. In May 2013, two of the original AEI parties and a splinter group from a third re-formed a ruling coalition called the Pro-European Coalition. The Moldovan Government in summer 2014 signed and ratified an Association Agreement with the EU, advancing the Coalition's policy priority of EU integration. Following the country's most recent legislative election in November 2014, the three pro-European parties that entered Parliament won a total of 55 of the body's 101 seats, enough for a majority coalition. Since then, infighting among coalition members has led to prolonged legislative gridlock and political instability, as well as the collapse of two governments, all ruled by pro-European coalitions centered around the Liberal Democratic Party (PLDM) and the Democratic Party (PD).

Geography

Location

Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania

Geographic coordinates

47.00° N, 29.00° E

Area 140/257

total: 33,851 sq km

land: 32,891 sq km

water: 960 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries

total: 1,885 km

border countries (2): Romania 683 km, Ukraine 1,202 km

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

moderate winters, warm summers

Terrain

rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Dniester (Nistru) 2 m

highest point: Dealul Balanesti 430 m

Natural resources

lignite, phosphorites, gypsum, limestone, arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 74.9%

arable land 55.1%; permanent crops 9.1%; permanent pasture 10.7%

forest: 11.9%

other: 13.2% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

2,283 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

11.65 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 1.07 cu km/yr (14%/83%/4%)

per capita: 290 cu m/yr (2010)

Natural hazards

landslides

Environment - current issues

heavy use of agricultural chemicals, including banned pesticides such as DDT, has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

landlocked; well endowed with various sedimentary rocks and minerals including sand, gravel, gypsum, and limestone

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Moldovan(s)

adjective: Moldovan

Ethnic groups

Moldovan 75.8%, Ukrainian 8.4%, Russian 5.9%, Gagauz 4.4%, Romanian 2.2%, Bulgarian 1.9%, other 1%, unspecified 0.4%

note: internal disputes with ethnic Slavs in the Transnistrian region (2004 est.)

Languages

Moldovan 58.8% (official; virtually the same as the Romanian language), Romanian 16.4%, Russian 16%, Ukrainian 3.8%, Gagauz 3.1% (a Turkish language), Bulgarian 1.1%, other 0.3%, unspecified 0.4%

note: percentages represent lanugage usually spoken (2004 est.)

Religions

Orthodox 93.3%, Baptist 1%, other Christian 1.2%, other 0.9%, atheist 0.4%, none 1%, unspecified 2.2% (2004 est.)

Population 133/238

3,546,847 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 17.86% (male 326,681/female 306,763)

15-24 years: 13.49% (male 247,183/female 231,389)

25-54 years: 43.73% (male 777,648/female 773,401)

55-64 years: 13.24% (male 214,846/female 254,818)

65 years and over: 11.68% (male 159,145/female 254,973) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 34.6%

youth dependency ratio: 21.2%

elderly dependency ratio: 13.4%

potential support ratio: 7.5% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 36 years

male: 34.2 years

female: 38 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 229/233

-1.03% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 165/224

12 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 22/225

12.59 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 214/222

-9.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 45% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: -0.73% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

CHISINAU (capital) 725,000 (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

23.7 (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 114/184

23 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 120/224

total: 12.59 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 14.44 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 10.62 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 154/224

total population: 70.42 years

male: 66.55 years

female: 74.54 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 187/224

1.56 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

67.8% (2005)

Health expenditures 8/191

11.8% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

2.98 physicians/1,000 population (2013)

Hospital bed density

6.2 beds/1,000 population (2012)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 96.9% of population

rural: 81.4% of population

total: 88.4% of population

unimproved:

urban: 3.1% of population

rural: 18.6% of population

total: 11.6% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 87.8% of population

rural: 67.1% of population

total: 76.4% of population

unimproved:

urban: 12.2% of population

rural: 32.9% of population

total: 23.6% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.63% (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

17,600 (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

800 (2014 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 91/191

15.7% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight 111/138

2.2% (2012)

Education expenditures 10/173

8.3% of GDP (2012)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 12 years

male: 12 years

female: 12 years (2013)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 87/134

total: 12.2%

male: 11.9%

female: 12.7% (2013 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Moldova

conventional short form: Moldova

local long form: Republica Moldova

local short form: Moldova

former: Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic

etymology: named after the Moldova River in neighboring eastern Romania

Government type

republic

Capital

name: Chisinau in Romanian (Kishinev in Russian)

note: pronounced KEE-shee-now (KIH-shi-nyov)

geographic coordinates: 47.00° N, 28.51° E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

32 raions (raioane, singular - raion), 3 municipalities (municipii, singular - municipiul), 1 autonomous territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala autonoma), and 1 territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala)

raions: Anenii Noi, Basarabeasca, Briceni, Cahul, Cantemir, Calarasi, Causeni, Cimislia, Criuleni, Donduseni, Drochia, Dubasari, Edinet, Falesti, Floresti, Glodeni, Hincesti, Ialoveni, Leova, Nisporeni, Ocnita, Orhei, Rezina, Riscani, Singerei, Soldanesti, Soroca, Stefan-Voda, Straseni, Taraclia, Telenesti, Ungheni

municipalities: Balti, Bender, Chisinau

autonomous territorial unit: Gagauzia

territorial unit: Stinga Nistrului (Transnistria)

Independence

27 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday

Independence Day, 27 August (1991)

Constitution

previous 1978; latest adopted 29 July 1994, effective 27 August 1994; amended 2006, 2010 (2015)

Legal system

civil law system with Germanic law influences; Constitutional Court review of legislative acts

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Moldova

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Nicolae TIMOFTI (since 23 March 2012)

head of government: Prime Minister Pavel FILIP (since 20 January 2016); Deputy Prime Minister Gheorghe BALAN (since 20 January 2016)

cabinet: Cabinet proposed by the prime minister-designate, nominated by the president, approved through a vote of confidence in Parliament

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by Parliament by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 16 March 2012 (next to be held in March 2016); prime minister designated by the president upon consultation with Parliament; within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate must request a vote of confidence for his/her proposed work program from the Parliament

election results: Nicolae TIMOFTI (independent) elected president; Parliament vote - 62 of 101; Pavel FILIP (Democratic party) designated prime minister; Parliament vote - 57 of 101

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament or Parlament (101 seats; members directly elected in a single, nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 30 November 2014 (next to be held in November 2018)

election results: percent of vote by party - PSRM 20.5%, PLDM 20.2%, PCRM 17.5%, PD 15.8%, PL 9.7%, other 16.3%; seats by party - PSRM 25, PLDM 23, PCRM 21, PD 19, PL 13

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice (consists of a chief judges, 3 deputy-chief judges, 45 judges, and 7 assistant judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president and 6 judges); note - the Constitutional Court is autonomous to the other branches of government; the Court interprets the Constitution and reviews the constitutionality of parliamentary laws and decisions, decrees of the president, and acts of the government

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court of Justice judges appointed by Parliament upon the recommendation of the Supreme Council of the Magistracy; all judges serve 4-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court judges appointed 2 each by Parliament, the Moldovan president, and the Higher Council of Magistracy; court president elected by other court judges for a 3-year term; other judges appointed for 6-year terms

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Court of Business Audit; municipal courts

Political parties and leaders

represented in Parliament:

Communist Party of the Republic of Moldova or PCRM [Vladimir VORONIN]

Democratic Party or PD [Marian LUPU]

Liberal Democratic Party or PLDM [Valeriu STRELET, acting]

Liberal Party or PL [Mihai GHIMPU]

Party of Socialists or PSRM [Igor DODON]

not represented in Parliament:

Anti-Fascist Movement or Antifa [Grigore PETRENCO]

Anti-Mafia Movement [Sergiu MOCANU]

Christian Democratic People's Party or PPCD [Victor CIOBANU]

Conservative Party or PC [Natalia NIRCA]

Dignity and Truth Party [Andrei NASTASE]

Ecological Party of Moldova "Green Alliance" or PEMAVE [Vladimir BRAGA]

European People’s Party of Moldova (EPPM) [Iurie LEANCA]

Humanist Party of Moldova or PUM [Valeriu PASAT]

Labor Party or PM [Gheorghe SIMA]

Liberal Reformers Party or PLR [Ion HADARCA]

National Liberal Party or PNL [Vitalia PAVLICENKO]

Our Party [Renato USATII]

Patriots of Moldova Party or PPM [Mihail GARBUZ]

Republican Party of Moldova or PRM [Andrei STRATAN]

Revival Party [Vadim MISIN]

Roma Social Political Movement of the Republic of Moldova or MRRM [Ion BUCUR]

Social Democratic Party or PSD [Victor SELIN]

Social Political Movement "Equality" or MR [Valeriy KLIMENCO]

United Moldova Party or PMUEM [Vladimir TURCAN]

Political pressure groups and leaders

NA

International organization participation

BSEC, CD, CE, CEI, CIS, EAEC (observer), EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Flag description

three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; emblem in center of flag is of a Roman eagle of gold outlined in black with a red beak and talons carrying a yellow cross in its beak and a green olive branch in its right talons and a yellow scepter in its left talons; on its breast is a shield divided horizontally red over blue with a stylized aurochs head, star, rose, and crescent all in black-outlined yellow; based on the color scheme of the flag of Romania - with which Moldova shares a history and culture - but Moldova's blue band is lighter; the reverse of the flag does not display any coat of arms

note: one of only three national flags that differ on their obverse and reverse sides - the others are Paraguay and Saudi Arabia

National symbol(s)

aurochs (a type of wild cattle); national colors: blue, yellow, red

National anthem

name: "Limba noastra" (Our Language)

lyrics/music: Alexei MATEEVICI/Alexandru CRISTEA

note: adopted 1994

Economy

Economy - overview

Despite recent progress, Moldova remains one of the poorest countries in Europe. With a moderate climate and productive farmland, Moldova's economy relies heavily on its agriculture sector, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, and tobacco. Moldova also depends on annual remittances of about $1.6 billion from the roughly one million Moldovans working in Europe, Russia, and other former Soviet Bloc countries.

With few natural energy resources, Moldova imports almost all of its energy supplies from Russia and Ukraine. Moldova's dependence on Russian energy is underscored by a more than $5 billion debt to Russian natural gas supplier Gazprom, largely the result of unreimbursed natural gas consumption in the separatist Transnistria region. In August 2013, work began on a new pipeline between Moldova and Romania that may eventually break Russia's direct monopoly on Moldova's gas supplies.

The government's stated goal of EU integration has resulted in some market-oriented progress. Moldova experienced better than expected economic growth in 2014 due to increased agriculture production, to economic policies adopted by the Moldovan government since 2009, and to the receipt of EU trade preferences. Moldova signed an Association Agreement and a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement with the EU during fall 2014, connecting Moldovan products to the world’s largest market. Still, a $1 billion asset-stripping heist of Moldovan banks in late 2014 hampered Moldova’s potential growth considerably and reduced the currency’s value. Growth has also been hampered by the country’s failure to obtain an IMF program to stabilize the economy, a Russian import ban on Moldovan wine, increased foreign scrutiny of Moldovan agricultural products, and by Moldova’s large external debt.

Over the longer term, Moldova's economy remains vulnerable to political uncertainty, weak administrative capacity, vested bureaucratic interests, corruption, higher fuel prices, Russian pressure, and unresolved separatism in Moldova's Transnistria region.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 149/230

$17.77 billion (2015 est.)

$17.95 billion (2014 est.)

$17.16 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$6.188 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 204/225

-1% (2015 est.)

4.6% (2014 est.)

9.4% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 170/230

$5,000 (2015 est.)

$5,000 (2014 est.)

$4,800 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 111/179

15.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

20.9% of GDP (2014 est.)

19.6% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 86.6%

government consumption: 17.5%

investment in fixed capital: 22.9%

investment in inventories: 1.1%

exports of goods and services: 41.7%

imports of goods and services: -69.8%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 16.2%

industry: 20.7%

services: 63.2% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

vegetables, fruits, grapes, grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, tobacco; beef, milk; wine

Industries

sugar, vegetable oil, food processing, agricultural machinery; foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines; hosiery, shoes, textiles

Industrial production growth rate 102/202

2.5% (2015 est.)

Labor force 137/233

1.239 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 26.4%

industry: 13.2%

services: 60.4% (2012 est.)

Unemployment rate 68/207

6.1% (2015 est.)

6.2% (2014 est.)

Population below poverty line

21.9% (2010 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.3%

highest 10%: 26% (2010 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 103/144

33 (2010)

33.2 (2003)

Budget

revenues: $2.562 billion

expenditures: $2.767 billion

note: National Public Budget (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 34/219

41.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 124/220

-3.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 158/176

16.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

17.2% of GDP (2014 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 204/226

9.1% (2015 est.)

5.1% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 101/156

3.5% (31 December 2013)

4.5% (31 December 2012)

note: this is the basic rate on short-term operations

Commercial bank prime lending rate 41/184

15% (31 December 2015 est.)

11.01% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 146/192

$1.194 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$1.718 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 134/193

$4.685 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$4.797 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 140/191

$1.94 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$2.674 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 120/121

$65.28 million (31 December 2012 est.)

$51.46 million (31 December 2012)

$20.71 million (31 December 2011)

Current account balance 92/197

-$383 million (2015 est.)

-$294 million (2014 est.)

Exports 137/224

$2.05 billion (2015 est.)

$2.352 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

foodstuffs, textiles, machinery

Exports - partners

Romania 18.9%, Russia 18.4%, Italy 10.6%, Germany 6%, Belarus 5.9%, Ukraine 4.7%, UK 4.7%, Turkey 4.5% (2014)

Imports 131/223

$4.12 billion (2015 est.)

$5.264 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

mineral products and fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals, textiles

Imports - partners

Romania 15.2%, Russia 13.5%, Ukraine 10.3%, China 9.1%, Germany 8.1%, Italy 6.7%, Turkey 5.7% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 123/170

$1.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$2.157 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 124/206

$6.495 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$6.673 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 103/120

$3.448 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$3.262 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 95/105

$108.2 million (31 December 2012)

$88.42 million (31 December 2011)

Exchange rates

Moldovan lei (MDL) per US dollar -

18.84 (2015 est.)

14.04 (2014 est.)

14.04 (2013 est.)

12.11 (2012 est.)

11.74 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 118/220

5.467 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 115/219

5.056 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 165/218

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 67/219

846 million kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 143/214

439,900 kW

note: excludes Transnistria (2013 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 62/214

96.4% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 135/214

0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 129/214

3.6% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 197/212

0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Crude oil - production 163/214

0 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 156/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - imports 92/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 162/215

0 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 112/214

354 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 140/212

16,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 114/214

579.3 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 121/213

16,320 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Natural gas - production 97/216

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 68/215

3.28 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports 140/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports 38/214

3.28 billion cu m

note: excludes Transnistria (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 165/212

0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 102/212

9.415 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 69/219

total subscriptions: 1.22 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 34 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 127/217

total: 3.7 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 104 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: poor service outside Chisinau; some modernization is under way

domestic: multiple private operators of GSM mobile-cellular telephone service are operating; GPRS system is being introduced; a CDMA mobile telephone network began operations in 2007; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity 100 per 100 persons

international: country code - 373; service through Romania and Russia via landline; satellite earth stations - at least 3 (Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik) (2011)

Broadcast media

state-owned national radio-TV broadcaster operates 2 TV and 2 radio stations; a total of nearly 40 terrestrial TV channels and some 50 radio stations are in operation; Russian and Romanian channels also are available (2007)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 2, FM 29, shortwave NA (2006)

Television broadcast stations

40 (2006)

Internet country code

.md

Internet hosts 51/232

711,564 (2012)

Internet users 106/217

total: 1.6 million

percent of population: 44.8% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 169/236

7 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 5

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2013)

Pipelines

gas 1,906 km (2013)

Railways 86/136

total: 1,171 km

broad gauge: 1,157 km 1.520-m gauge

standard gauge: 14 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)

Roadways 137/223

total: 9,352 km

paved: 8,835 km

unpaved: 517 km (2012)

Waterways 82/107

558 km (in public use on Danube, Dniester and Prut rivers) (2011)

Merchant marine 45/156

total: 121

by type: bulk carrier 7, cargo 88, carrier 1, chemical tanker 3, passenger/cargo 7, petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 11, specialized tanker 1

foreign-owned: 63 (Bulgaria 1, Denmark 1, Egypt 5, Greece 1, Israel 2, Lebanon 1, Pakistan 1, Romania 2, Russia 5, Syria 5, Turkey 18, UK 3, Ukraine 14, Yemen 4) (2010)

Military and Security

Military branches

National Army: Land Forces Command, Air Forces Command (includes air defense unit) (2014)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; male registration required at age 16; 1-year service obligation (2012)

Military expenditures 128/132

0.3% of GDP (2015 projected)

0.3% of GDP (2014)

0.3% of GDP (2012)

0.3% of GDP (2011)

0.3% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Moldova and Ukraine operate joint customs posts to monitor the transit of people and commodities through Moldova's break-away Transnistria region, which remains under the auspices of an Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe-mandated peacekeeping mission comprised of Moldovan, Transnistrian, Russian, and Ukrainian troops

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 6,779 applicants for forms of legal stay other than asylum (Ukraine) (2015)

stateless persons: 2,036 (2014)

Illicit drugs

limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for CIS consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia via Central Asia to Russia, Western Europe, and possibly the US; widespread crime and underground economic activity