Mongolia

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The Mongols gained fame in the 13th century when under Chinggis KHAAN they established a huge Eurasian empire through conquest. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart in the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and in the late 17th century came under Chinese rule. Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing and a communist regime was installed in 1924. The modern country of Mongolia, however, represents only part of the Mongols' historical homeland; more ethnic Mongolians live in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China than in Mongolia. Following a peaceful democratic revolution in 1990, the ex-communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) won most parliamentary elections and stayed in power either governing alone or in coalition. In 2009, current President ELBEGDORJ of the DP was elected to office and was re-elected for his second term in June 2013. In 2010, the MPRP voted to retake the name of the Mongolian People's Party (MPP), a name it used in the early 1920s. Shortly thereafter, a new party was formed by former president ENKHBAYAR, which confusingly adopted for itself the MPRP name. Following the 2012 parliamentary elections, a coalition of four political parties was formed but then dissolved in November 2014 when Prime Minister ALTANKHUYAG was voted out of office. A new five-party grand coalition was formed in December 2014 under the leadership of Prime Minister SAIKHANBILEG. The coalition had been expected to last until the next parliamentary elections in the summer of 2016. However, in August 2015, the grand coalition also dissolved.

Geography

Location

Northern Asia, between China and Russia

Geographic coordinates

46.00° N, 105.00° E

Area 19/257

total: 1,564,116 sq km

land: 1,553,556 sq km

water: 10,560 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Alaska; more than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries

total: 8,082 km

border countries (2): China 4,630 km, Russia 3,452 km

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)

Terrain

vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Hoh Nuur 560 m

highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil (Huyten Orgil) 4,374 m

Natural resources

oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron

Land use

agricultural land: 73%

arable land 0.4%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 72.6%

forest: 7%

other: 20% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

840 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

34.8 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 0.55 cu km/yr (13%/43%/44%)

per capita: 196.8 cu m/yr (2009)

Natural hazards

dust storms; grassland and forest fires; drought; "zud," which is harsh winter conditions

Environment - current issues

limited natural freshwater resources in some areas; the policies of former Communist regimes promoted rapid urbanization and industrial growth that had negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal in power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws severely polluted the air in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, and the converting of virgin land to agricultural production increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities had a deleterious effect on the environment

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Mongolian(s)

adjective: Mongolian

Ethnic groups

Khalkh 81.9%, Kazak 3.8%, Dorvod 2.7%, Bayad 2.1%, Buryat-Bouriates 1.7%, Zakhchin 1.2%, Dariganga 1%, Uriankhai 1%, other 4.6% (2010 est.)

Languages

Khalkha Mongol 90% (official), Turkic, Russian (1999)

Religions

Buddhist 53%, Muslim 3%, Christian 2.2%, Shamanist 2.9%, other 0.4%, none 38.6% (2010 est.)

Population 138/238

2,992,908 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 26.87% (male 409,994/female 394,195)

15-24 years: 17.69% (male 267,507/female 261,869)

25-54 years: 45.04% (male 653,195/female 694,688)

55-64 years: 6.29% (male 86,401/female 101,714)

65 years and over: 4.12% (male 50,372/female 72,973) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 47.6%

youth dependency ratio: 41.7%

elderly dependency ratio: 6%

potential support ratio: 16.7% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 27.5 years

male: 26.7 years

female: 28.3 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 92/233

1.31% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 83/224

20.25 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 152/225

6.35 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 146/222

-0.84 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 72% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 2.78% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

ULAANBAATAR (capital) 1.377 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

20.5

note: median age at first birth among women 20-24 (2008 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 96/184

44 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 78/224

total: 22.44 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 25.64 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 19.09 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 159/224

total population: 69.29 years

male: 65.04 years

female: 73.76 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 100/224

2.17 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

54.9% (2010)

Health expenditures 105/191

6% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

2.84 physicians/1,000 population (2011)

Hospital bed density

6.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 66.4% of population

rural: 59.2% of population

total: 64.4% of population

unimproved:

urban: 33.6% of population

rural: 40.8% of population

total: 35.6% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 66.4% of population

rural: 42.6% of population

total: 59.7% of population

unimproved:

urban: 33.6% of population

rural: 57.4% of population

total: 40.3% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.04% (2013 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

600 (2013 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

fewer than 100 (2013 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 122/191

15.7% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight 92/138

1.6% (2013)

Education expenditures 58/173

5.5% of GDP (2011)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 15 years

male: 14 years

female: 15 years (2010)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 92/134

total: 16.6%

male: 14.7%

female: 19.1% (2013 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Mongolia

local long form: none

local short form: Mongol Uls

former: Outer Mongolia

etymology: the name means "Land of the Mongols" in Latin; the Mongolian name Mongol Uls translates as "Mongol State"

Government type

parliamentary

Capital

name: Ulaanbaatar

geographic coordinates: 47.55° N, 106.55° E

time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Saturday in March; ends last Saturday in September

note: Mongolia has two time zones - Ulaanbaatar Time (8 hours in advance of UTC), and Hovd Time (7 hours in advance of UTC)

Administrative divisions

21 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 1 municipality* (singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan-Uul, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan (Zavkhan), Govi-Altay, Govisumber, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Orhon, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs

Independence

11 July 1921 (from China)

National holiday

Independence Day/Revolution Day, 11 July (1921)

Constitution

several previous; latest adopted 13 January 1992, effective 12 February 1992; amended 1999, 2001 (2015)

Legal system

civil law system influenced by Soviet and Romano-Germanic legal systems; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: both parents must be citizens of Mongolia; one parent if born within Mongolia

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Tsakhia ELBEGDORJ (since 18 June 2009)

head of government: Prime Minister Chimed SAIKHANBILEG (since 21 November 2014); Deputy Prime Minister Tserendash OYUNBAATAR (since 8 September 2015)

cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister in consultation with the president, confirmed by the State Great Hural (parliament)

elections/appointments: presidential candidates nominated by political parties represented in the State Great Hural and directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 26 June 2013 (next to be held in June 2017); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually elected prime minister by the State Great Hural

election results: Tsakhia ELBEGDORJ reelected president; percent of vote - Tsakhia ELBEGDORJ (DP) 50.2%, Badmaanyambuu BAT-ERDENE (MPP) 42%, Natsag UDVAL (MPRP) 6.5%, other 1.3%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral State Great Hural or Ulsyn Ikh Khural (76 seats; 48 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 28 directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 28 June 2012 (next to be held in June 2016)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - DP 33, MPP 27, Justice Coalition 11, CWGP 2, independent 3

note: 4 seats were determined after the election; 2 DP candidates gained seats when winning MPP candidates were determined to have broken electoral law; candidates in 2 other constituencies did not receive the necessary 28% of the vote to be elected, and MPP candidates won both seats in repolling; seats by party as of May 2015 - DP 35, MPP 26, Justice Coalition 10, CWGP 2, independent 3

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the Chief Justice and 24 judges organized into civil, criminal, and administrative chambers); Constitutional Court or Tsets (consists of a chairman and 8 members)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice and judges appointed by the president upon recommendation to the State Great Hural by the General Council of Courts, a 14-member body of judges and judicial officials; term of appointment is for life; chairman of the Constitutional Court elected from among its members; members appointed by the State Great Hural upon nominations - 3 each by the president, the State Great Hural, and the Supreme Court; term of appointment is 6 years; chairmanship limited to a single renewable 3-year term

subordinate courts: aimag (provincial) and capital city appellate courts; soum, inter-soum, and district courts; Administrative Cases Courts (established in 2004)

Political parties and leaders

Civil Will-Green Party or CWGP [Sanjaasuren OYUN, Sambuu DEMBEREL, Tserendorj GANKHUYAG]

Democratic Party or DP [Zandaakhuu ENKHBOLD]

Justice Coalition (includes MPRP and MNDP)

Mongolian National Democratic Party or MNDP [Mendsaikhan ENKHSAIKHAN]

Mongolian People's Party or MPP [Miyegombo ENKHBOLD]

Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP [Nambar ENKHBAYAR]

Political pressure groups and leaders

other: human rights groups; women's groups; disability rights groups

International organization participation

ADB, ARF, CD, CICA, CP, EBRD, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, OSCE, SCO (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Flag description

three, equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol); blue represents the sky, red symbolizes progress and prosperity

National symbol(s)

soyombo emblem; national colors: red, blue, yellow

National anthem

name: "Mongol ulsyn toriin duulal" (National Anthem of Mongolia)

lyrics/music: Tsendiin DAMDINSUREN/Bilegiin DAMDINSUREN and Luvsanjamts MURJORJ

note: music adopted 1950, lyrics adopted 2006; lyrics altered on numerous occasions

Economy

Economy - overview

Foreign direct investment in Mongolia's extractive industries – which are based on extensive deposits of copper, gold, coal, molybdenum, fluorspar, uranium, tin, and tungsten - has transformed Mongolia's landlocked economy from its traditional dependence on herding and agriculture. Exports now account for more than half of GDP. Mongolia depends on China for more than 60% of it's external trade - China receives some 90% of Mongolia's exports and supplies Mongolia with more than one-third of its imports. Mongolia also relies on Russia for 90% of its energy supplies, leaving it vulnerable to price increases. Remittances from Mongolians working abroad, particularly in South Korea, are significant.

Soviet assistance, at its height one-third of GDP, disappeared almost overnight in 1990 and 1991 at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. The following decade saw Mongolia endure both deep recession, because of political inaction and natural disasters, as well as strong economic growth, because of market reforms and extensive privatization of the formerly state-run economy. The country opened a fledgling stock exchange in 1991. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic and trade regimes.

Growth averaged nearly 9% per year in 2004-08 largely because of high copper prices globally and new gold production. By late 2008, Mongolia was hit by the global financial crisis and Mongolia's real economy contracted 1.3% in 2009. In early 2009, the International Monetary Fund reached a $236 million Stand-by Arrangement with Mongolia and it emerged from the crisis with a stronger banking sector and better fiscal management. In October 2009, Mongolia passed long-awaited legislation on an investment agreement to develop the Oyu Tolgoi (OT) mine, among the world's largest untapped copper-gold deposits. However, a dispute with foreign investors developing Oyu Tolgoi called into question the attractiveness of Mongolia as a destination for foreign investment. This caused a severe drop in FDI, and a slowing economy, leading to the dismissal of Prime Minister ALTANKHUYAG in November 2014. The economy had grown more than 10% per year between 2010 and 2013 - largely on the strength of commodity exports and high government spending - before slowing to 7.8% in 2014 and 3.5% in 2015.

The new government has made restoring investor trust and reviving the economy its top priority, but it will be challenged to unwind the monetary and fiscal stimulus programs in use since 2013 to counteract the fall in foreign investment. In December 2014 the government awarded a deal to develop the massive Tavan Tolgoi (TT) coal field to a consortium comprising Energy Resources/MCS (Mongolia), Shenhua (China), and Sumitomo (Japan); talks continue to hammer out the financing and the operating details. Mongolia's economy faces near-term economic risks from the government's loose fiscal and monetary policies, which are contributing to high inflation, and from uncertainties in foreign demand for Mongolian exports, which have put pressure on Mongolia's external finances.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 118/230

$36.43 billion (2015 est.)

$35.21 billion (2014 est.)

$32.67 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$12.41 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 75/225

3.5% (2015 est.)

7.8% (2014 est.)

11.6% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 121/230

$12,500 (2015 est.)

$12,000 (2014 est.)

$11,200 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 61/179

23.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

24.9% of GDP (2014 est.)

27.1% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 53.7%

government consumption: 11.3%

investment in fixed capital: 30%

investment in inventories: 5%

exports of goods and services: 51.9%

imports of goods and services: -51.9%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 16.6%

industry: 33.1%

services: 50.3% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

wheat, barley, vegetables, forage crops; sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses

Industries

construction and construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, tin, tungsten, gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products, cashmere and natural fiber manufacturing

Industrial production growth rate 90/202

2.9% (2015 est.)

Labor force 142/233

1.128 million (2014 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 28.6%

industry: 21%

services: 50.4% (2014)

Unemployment rate 90/207

7.7% (2014 est.)

4.9% (2013 est.)

Population below poverty line

29.8% (2011 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3%

highest 10%: 28.4% (2008)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 82/144

36.5 (2008)

32.8 (2002)

Budget

revenues: $3.393 billion

expenditures: $3.727 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 101/219

27.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 100/220

-2.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 200/226

8.3% (2015 est.)

13% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 14/156

13% (15 January 2015)

12% (31 July 2014)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 19/184

18% (31 December 2015 est.)

19.54% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 157/192

$807.6 million (31 December 2015 est.)

$963.5 million (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 123/193

$6.178 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$5.72 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 113/191

$7.241 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$7.786 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 105/121

$1.293 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$1.579 billion (31 December 2011)

$1.093 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance 121/197

-$1.04 billion (2015 est.)

-$982 million (2014 est.)

Exports 109/224

$5.272 billion (2015 est.)

$5.825 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

copper, apparel, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals, coal, crude oil

Exports - partners

China 95.3% (2014)

Imports 134/223

$3.923 billion (2015 est.)

$4.738 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery and equipment, fuel, cars, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, cigarettes and tobacco, appliances, soap and detergent

Imports - partners

China 41.5%, Russia 27.4%, South Korea 6.5%, Japan 6.1% (2014)

Debt - external 94/206

$16.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$18.92 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 81/120

$17.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$16.25 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 82/105

$1.241 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

$1.191 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Exchange rates

togrog/tugriks (MNT) per US dollar -

1,970.4 (2015 est.)

1,817.9 (2014 est.)

1,817.9 (2013 est.)

1,357.6 (2012 est.)

1,265.5 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 122/220

4.534 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 124/219

4.204 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 86/218

21 million kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - imports 83/219

366 million kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 128/214

833,300 kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 42/214

99.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 136/214

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 185/214

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 108/212

0.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 68/214

20,850 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 66/214

9,780 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - imports 93/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 163/215

NA bbl 0 bbl

Refined petroleum products - production 207/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 123/212

24,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 199/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 102/213

24,600 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Natural gas - production 98/216

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 167/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports 141/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports 96/214

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 166/212

0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 99/212

11.36 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 125/219

total subscriptions: 230,000

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 8 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 139/217

total: 3 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 103 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: network is improving with international direct dialing available in many areas; a fiber-optic network has been installed that is improving broadband and communication services between major urban centers with multiple companies providing inter-city fiber-optic cable services

domestic: very low fixed-line teledensity; there are multiple mobile-cellular providers and subscribership is increasing

international: country code - 976; satellite earth stations - 7 (2011)

Broadcast media

following a law passed in 2005, Mongolia's state-run radio and TV provider converted to a public service provider; also available are private radio and TV broadcasters, as well as multi-channel satellite and cable TV providers; more than 100 radio stations, including some 20 via repeaters for the public broadcaster; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2008)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 7, FM 108 (includes 20 national radio broadcaster repeaters), shortwave 4 (2009)

Television broadcast stations

99 (2009)

Internet country code

.mn

Internet hosts 118/232

20,084 (2012)

Internet users 131/217

total: 527,100

percent of population: 17.9% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 98/236

44 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 15

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 10

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 29

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 24

under 914 m: 1 (2013)

Heliports

1 (2013)

Railways 73/136

total: 1,815 km

broad gauge: 1,815 km 1.520-m gauge

note: national operator Ulannbaator Railway is jointly owned by the Mongolian Government and by the Russian State Railway (2014)

Roadways 77/223

total: 49,249 km

paved: 4,800 km

unpaved: 44,449 km (2013)

Waterways 81/107

580 km (the only waterway in operation is Lake Hovsgol) (135 km); Selenge River (270 km) and Orhon River (175 km) are navigable but carry little traffic; lakes and rivers ice free from May to September) (2010)

Merchant marine 68/156

total: 57

by type: bulk carrier 21, cargo 25, chemical tanker 1, container 2, liquefied gas 2, passenger/cargo 2, roll on/roll off 3, vehicle carrier 1

foreign-owned: 44 (Indonesia 2, Japan 2, North Korea 1, Russia 2, Singapore 3, Ukraine 1, Vietnam 33) (2010)

Military and Security

Military branches

Mongolian Armed Forces (Mongol ulsyn zevsegt huchin): Mongolian Army, Mongolian Air and Air Defense (2015)

Military service age and obligation

18-25 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; 1-year conscript service obligation in land or air defense forces or police; a small portion of Mongolian land forces is comprised of contract soldiers; women cannot be deployed overseas for military operations (2015)

Military expenditures 90/132

1.12% of GDP (2012)

0.99% of GDP (2011)

1.12% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

stateless persons: 16 (2014)