Montenegro

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The use of the name Crna Gora or Black Mountain (Montenegro) began in the 13th century in reference to a highland region in the Serbian province of Zeta. The later medieval state of Zeta maintained its existence until 1496 when Montenegro finally fell under Ottoman rule. Over subsequent centuries, Montenegro managed to maintain a level of autonomy within the Ottoman Empire. From the 16th to 19th centuries, Montenegro was a theocracy ruled by a series of bishop princes; in 1852, it transformed into a secular principality. Montenegro was recognized as an independent sovereign principality at the Congress of Berlin in 1878. After World War I, during which Montenegro fought on the side of the Allies, Montenegro was absorbed by the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, which became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929; at the conclusion of World War II, it became a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. When the latter dissolved in 1992, Montenegro federated with Serbia, creating the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and, after 2003, shifting to a looser State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. In May 2006, Montenegro invoked its right under the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro to hold a referendum on independence from the state union. The vote for severing ties with Serbia barely exceeded 55% - the threshold set by the EU - allowing Montenegro to formally restore its independence on 3 June 2006.

Geography

Location

Southeastern Europe, between the Adriatic Sea and Serbia

Geographic coordinates

42.30° N, 19.18° E

Area 162/257

total: 13,812 sq km

land: 13,452 sq km

water: 360 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries

total: 680 km

border countries (5): Albania 186 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 242 km, Croatia 19 km, Kosovo 76 km, Serbia 157 km

Coastline

293.5 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

continental shelf: defined by treaty

Climate

Mediterranean climate, hot dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfalls inland

Terrain

highly indented coastline with narrow coastal plain backed by rugged high limestone mountains and plateaus

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m

highest point: Bobotov Kuk 2,522 m

Natural resources

bauxite, hydroelectricity

Land use

agricultural land: 38.2%

arable land 12.9%; permanent crops 1.2%; permanent pasture 24.1%

forest: 40.4%

other: 21.4% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

24 sq km (2012)

Natural hazards

destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues

pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

strategic location along the Adriatic coast

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Montenegrin(s)

adjective: Montenegrin

Ethnic groups

Montenegrin 45%, Serbian 28.7%, Bosniak 8.7%, Albanian 4.9%, Muslim 3.3%, Roma 1%, Croat 1%, other 2.6%, unspecified 4.9% (2011 est.)

Languages

Serbian 42.9%, Montenegrin (official) 37%, Bosnian 5.3%, Albanian 5.3%, Serbo-Croat 2%, other 3.5%, unspecified 4% (2011 est.)

Religions

Orthodox 72.1%, Muslim 19.1%, Catholic 3.4%, atheist 1.2%, other 1.5%, unspecified 2.6% (2011 est.)

Population 168/238

647,073 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 15.18% (male 48,138/female 50,095)

15-24 years: 10.27% (male 30,681/female 35,776)

25-54 years: 47.02% (male 164,104/female 140,142)

55-64 years: 13.12% (male 42,354/female 42,542)

65 years and over: 14.41% (male 37,040/female 56,201) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 47.7%

youth dependency ratio: 27.6%

elderly dependency ratio: 20.2%

potential support ratio: 5% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 39.7 years

male: 38.7 years

female: 40.9 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 221/233

-0.42% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 188/224

10.42 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 57/225

9.43 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 64% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 0.34% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

PODGORICA (capital) 165,000 (2014)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 0.86 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.17 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

26.3 (2010 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 160/184

7 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

39.4% (2005/06)

Health expenditures 65/191

6.5% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

2.11 physicians/1,000 population (2013)

Hospital bed density

4 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 100% of population

rural: 99.2% of population

total: 99.7% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0% of population

rural: 0.8% of population

total: 0.3% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 90.8% of population

rural: 92.2% of population

total: 95.9% of population

unimproved:

urban: 2% of population

rural: 7.8% of population

total: 4.1% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths

NA

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 79/191

21.4% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight 133/138

1% (2013)

Education expenditures

NA

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 15 years

male: 15 years

female: 15 years (2010)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 11/134

total: 41.1%

male: 42.3%

female: 39.7% (2012 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Montenegro

local long form: none

local short form: Crna Gora

former: People's Republic of Montenegro, Socialist Republic of Montenegro, Republic of Montenegro

etymology: the country's name locally as well as in most Western European languages means "black mountain" and refers to the dark coniferous forests on Mount Lovcen and the surrounding area

Government type

republic

Capital

name: Podgorica; note - Cetinje retains the status of "Old Royal Capital"

geographic coordinates: 42.26° N, 19.16° E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1 hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

23 municipalities (opstine, singular - opstina); Andrijevica, Bar, Berane, Bijelo Polje, Budva, Cetinje, Danilovgrad, Gusinje, Herceg Novi, Kolasin, Kotor, Mojkovac, Niksic, Petnijica, Plav, Pljevlja, Pluzine, Podgorica, Rozaje, Savnik, Tivat, Ulcinj, Zabljak

Independence

3 June 2006 (from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro)

National holiday

National Day, 13 July (1878, the day the Berlin Congress recognized Montenegro as the 27th independent state in the world, and 1941, the day the Montenegrins staged an uprising against Nazi occupiers and sided with the partisan Communist movement)

Constitution

several previous; latest adopted 22 October 2007; amended 2013, 2014 (2015)

Legal system

civil law

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICC jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Montenegro

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Filip VUJANOVIC (since 6 April 2008)

head of government: Prime Minister Milo DJUKANOVIC (since 4 December 2012)

cabinet: Ministers act as cabinet

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 April 2013 (next to be held in 2018); prime minister nominated by the president, approved by the Assembly

election results: Filip VUJANOVIC reelected president; Filip VUJANOVIC (DPS) 51.2%, Miodrag LEKIC (independent) 48.8%%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Assembly or Skupstina (81 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 14 October 2012 (next to be held by October 2016)

election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - Coalition for European Montenegro (including DPS, LP, SDP) 45.6%, Democratic Front 22.8%, SNP 11.1%, Positive Montenegro 8.2%, Bosniak Party 4.2%, other (including Albanian and Croatian minority parties) 8.1%; seats by party/coalition - Coalition for European Montenegro (including DPS, LP, SDP) 39, Democratic Front 20, SNP 9, Positive Montenegro 7, Bosniak Party 3, Albanian and Croatian minority parties 3

note: seats by party/coalition as of December 2015 - DPS 31, DF 16, SDP 6, SNP 6, Positive Montenegro 4, DEMOS 4, DCG 3, Bosniak Party 3, Albanian and Croatian minority parties 3, SD 2, URA 1, Movement of Pljevlja 1, independent 2

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Vrhovni Sud (consists of the court president, deputy president and 15 judges); Constitutional Court or Ustavni Sud (consists of the court president and 7 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president proposed by general session of the Supreme Court and elected by the Judicial Council, a 9-member body consisting of judges, lawyers designated by the Assembly, and the minister of judicial affairs; Supreme Court president elected for a single renewable, 5-year term; other judges elected by the Judicial Council for life; Constitutional Court judges - 2 proposed by the president of Montenegro and 5 by the Assembly, and elected by the Assembly; court president elected from among the court members; court president elected for 3 years, other judges 9 years

subordinate courts: Administrative Courts; Appellate Court; Commercial Courts; High Courts; basic courts

Political parties and leaders

Albanian parties (include New Democratic Power or FORCA [Nazif CUNGU] and Democratic Party [Fatmir GJEKA])

Bosniak Party or BS [Rafet HUSOVIC]

Croatian Civic Initiative or HGI [Marija VUCINOVIC]

Democratic Alliance or DEMOS [Miodrag LEKIC]

Democratic Front or DF (includes New Serb Democracy or NOVA [Andrija MANDIC] and Movement for Change or PZP [Nebojsa MEDOJEVIC])

Democratic Montenegro or DCG [Aleksa BECIC]

Democratic Party of Socialists or DPS [Milo DJUKANOVIC]

Liberal Party of Montenegro or LP [Andrija POPOVIC]

Positive Montenegro [Darko PAJOVIC]

Social Democratic Party or SDP [Ranko KRIVOKAPIC]

Social Democrats or SD [Ivan BRAJOVIC]

Socialist People's Party or SNP [Srdjan MILIC]

United Reform Action or URA [Zarko RAKCEVIC]

Political pressure groups and leaders

NA

International organization participation

CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Flag description

a red field bordered by a narrow golden-yellow stripe with the Montenegrin coat of arms centered; the arms consist of a double-headed golden eagle - symbolizing the unity of church and state - surmounted by a crown; the eagle holds a golden scepter in its right claw and a blue orb in its left; the breast shield over the eagle shows a golden lion passant on a green field in front of a blue sky; the lion is symbol of episcopal authority and harkens back to the three and a half centuries that Montenegro was ruled as a theocracy

National symbol(s)

double-headed eagle; national colors: red, gold

National anthem

name: "Oj, svijetla majska zoro" (Oh, Bright Dawn of May)

lyrics/music: Sekula DRLJEVIC/unknown, arranged by Zarko MIKOVIC

note: adopted 2004; music based on a Montenegrin folk song

Economy

Economy - overview

Montenegro's economy is transitioning to a market system. From the beginning of the privatization process in 1999 through to 2015, around 85% of Montenegrin state-owned companies have been privatized, including 100% of banking, telecommunications, and oil distribution. The government recognizes the need to remove impediments in order to remain competitive and open the economy to foreign investors. The biggest foreign investors in Montenegro are Italy, Norway, Austria, Russia, Hungary and Great Britain. Net foreign direct investment in 2014 reached $483 million and investment per capita is one of the highest in Europe. Montenegro uses the Euro as its domestic currency, though it is not an official member of the Euro-zone. In January 2007, Montenegro joined the World Bank and IMF, and in December 2011, the World Trade Organization. Montenegro began negotiations to join the EC in June, 2012, having met the conditions set down by the European Council, which called on Montenegro to take steps to fight corruption and organized crime. Tourism brings in twice as many visitors as Montenegro’s total population every year. Several new luxury tourism complexes are in various states of development along the coast, and a number are being offered in connection with nearby boating and yachting facilities. Montenegro is currently planning major overhauls of its road, rail networks, and possible expansions of its air transportation system. In 2014, the Government of Montenegro selected two Chinese companies to construct a 41 km-long section of the country’s highway system. Construction will cost around $1.1 billion. Montenegro first instituted value added tax (VAT) in April 2003, and introduced differentiated VAT rates of 17% and 7% (for tourism) in January 2006. In May 2013, the Montenegrin Government raised the higher level VAT rate to 19%.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 159/230

$9.829 billion (2015 est.)

$9.52 billion (2014 est.)

$9.38 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$3.985 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 93/225

3.2% (2015 est.)

1.5% (2014 est.)

3.3% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 102/230

$15,700 (2015 est.)

$15,300 (2014 est.)

$15,000 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 152/179

9.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

3.6% of GDP (2014 est.)

4.3% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 81.8%

government consumption: 21.2%

investment in fixed capital: 19.5%

investment in inventories: -0.1%

exports of goods and services: 42.1%

imports of goods and services: -64.5%

(2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 8.3%

industry: 21.2%

services: 70.5% (2013 est.)

Agriculture - products

tobacco, potatoes, citrus fruits, olives, grapes; sheep

Industries

steelmaking, aluminum, agricultural processing, consumer goods, tourism

Industrial production growth rate 38/202

4.5% (2013 est.)

Labor force 166/233

263,200 (2014 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 5.3%

industry: 17.9%

services: 76.8% (2014 est.)

Unemployment rate 164/207

18.5% (2014 est.)

19.1% (2013 est.)

Population below poverty line

8.6% (2013 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 136/144

26.2 (2013 est.)

24.3 (2010)

Budget

revenues: $1.56 billion

expenditures: $1.63 billion (2014 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 44/219

39.1% of GDP (2014 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 65/220

-1.8% of GDP (2014 est.)

Public debt 63/176

59.5% of GDP (31 December 2014 est.)

57.9% of GDP (2013 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 96/226

1.7% (2015 est.)

-0.7% (2014 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 91/184

9.22% (31 December 2014 est.)

9.36% (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of narrow money 158/192

$749 million (31 December 2011 est.)

$783.3 million (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of broad money 156/193

$1.982 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

$2.01 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 133/191

$2.63 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$2.682 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 79/121

$7.532 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$3.827 billion (31 December 2012)

$3.322 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Current account balance 108/197

-$676 million (2015 est.)

-$699 million (2014 est.)

Exports 180/224

$370.2 million (2014 est.)

$489.2 million (2012 est.)

Exports - partners

Croatia 22.7%, Serbia 22.7%, Slovenia 7.8% (2012 est.)

Imports 162/223

$1.982 billion (2014 est.)

$2.4 billion (2012 est.)

Imports - partners

Serbia 29.3%, Greece 8.7%, China 7.1% (2012 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 145/170

$599.6 million (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 154/206

$1.576 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$1.433 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 114/120

$483 million (31 December 2014 est.)

$446.5 million (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 94/105

$133 million (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

0.89 (2015 est.)

0.75 (2014 est.)

0.76 (2013 est.)

0.78 (2012 est.)

0.72 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 127/220

3.809 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - consumption 129/219

3.465 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - exports 60/218

696 million kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 77/219

410 million kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 126/214

885,500 kW (2013 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 189/214

24.6% of total installed capacity (20113 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 139/214

0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 19/214

75.3% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 200/212

0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Crude oil - production 166/214

0 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 159/214

0 bbl/day (2013)

Crude oil - imports 96/214

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 166/215

0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 210/214

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 164/212

6,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 113/214

622 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 131/213

12,270 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production 101/216

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 170/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports 144/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports 99/214

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 169/212

0 cu m (1 January 2014)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 83/212

19.72 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 135/219

total subscriptions: 160,000

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 25 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 158/217

total: 1 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 156 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: modern telecommunications system with access to European satellites

domestic: GSM mobile-cellular service, available through multiple providers with national coverage, is growing

international: country code - 382; 2 international switches connect the national system (2011)

Broadcast media

state-funded national radio-TV broadcaster operates 2 terrestrial TV networks, 1 satellite TV channel, and 2 radio networks; 4 public TV stations and some 20 private TV stations; 14 local public radio stations and more than 40 private radio stations (2007)

Radio broadcast stations

31 (station frequency types NA) (2004)

Television broadcast stations

13 (2004)

Internet country code

.me

Internet hosts 135/232

10,088 (2012)

Internet users 136/217

total: 381,700

percent of population: 58.7% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 181/236

5 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 5

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2013)

Heliports

1 (2012)

Railways 125/136

total: 250 km

standard gauge: 250 km 1.435-m gauge (169 km electrified) (2014)

Roadways 142/223

total: 7,762 km

paved: 7,141 km

unpaved: 621 km (2010)

Merchant marine 146/156

total: 2

by type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 1

registered in other countries: 4 (Bahamas 2, Honduras 1, Slovakia 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Bar

Military and Security

Military branches

Armed Forces of the Republic of Montenegro: Army of Montenegro (includes Montenegrin Navy (Mornarica Crne Gore, MCG)), Air Force (2011)

Military service age and obligation

18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)

Military expenditures 46/132

1.74% of GDP (2014)

1.59% of GDP (2013)

1.69% of GDP (2012)

1.75% of GDP (2011)

1.81% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 5,633 (Serbia and Kosovo) (2014)

stateless persons: 3,296 (2014)