Morocco

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In 788, about a century after the Arab conquest of North Africa, a series of Moroccan Muslim dynasties began to rule in Morocco. In the 16th century, the Sa'adi monarchy, particularly under Ahmad al-MANSUR (1578-1603), repelled foreign invaders and inaugurated a golden age. The Alaouite Dynasty, to which the current Moroccan royal family belongs, dates from the 17th century. In 1860, Spain occupied northern Morocco and ushered in a half century of trade rivalry among European powers that saw Morocco's sovereignty steadily erode; in 1912, the French imposed a protectorate over the country. A protracted independence struggle with France ended successfully in 1956. The internationalized city of Tangier and most Spanish possessions were turned over to the new country that same year. Sultan MOHAMMED V, the current monarch's grandfather, organized the new state as a constitutional monarchy and in 1957 assumed the title of king. Since Spain's 1976 withdrawal from what is today called Western Sahara, Morocco has extended its de facto administrative control to roughly 80% of this territory; however, the UN does not recognize Morocco as the administering power for Western Sahara. The UN since 1991 has monitored a cease-fire between Morocco and the Polisario Front - Western Sahara's liberation movement - and leads ongoing negotiations over the status of the territory. King MOHAMMED VI in early 2011 responded to the spread of pro-democracy protests in the region by implementing a reform program that included a new constitution, passed by popular referendum in July 2011, under which some new powers were extended to parliament and the prime minister but ultimate authority remains in the hands of the monarch. In November 2011, the Justice and Development Party - a moderate Islamist party - won the largest number of seats in parliamentary elections, becoming the first Islamist party to lead the Moroccan Government.

Geography

Location

Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Western Sahara

Geographic coordinates

32.00° N, 5.00° W

Area 58/257

total: 446,550 sq km

land: 446,300 sq km

water: 250 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly more than three times the size of New York; slightly larger than California

Land boundaries

total: 2,362.5 km

border countries (3): Algeria 1,900 km, Western Sahara 444 km, Spain (Ceuta) 8 km, Spain (Melilla) 10.5 km

note: an additional 75-meter border segment exists between Morocco and the Spanish exclave of Penon de Velez de la Gomera

Coastline

1,835 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate

Mediterranean, becoming more extreme in the interior

Terrain

mountainous northern coast and interior bordered by large plateaus with intermontane valleys, and fertile coastal plains

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Sebkha Tah -55 m

highest point: Jebel Toubkal 4,165 m

Natural resources

phosphates, iron ore, manganese, lead, zinc, fish, salt

Land use

agricultural land: 67.5%

arable land 17.5%; permanent crops 2.9%; permanent pasture 47.1%

forest: 11.5%

other: 21% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

14,850 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

29 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 12.61 cu km/yr (12%/4%/84%)

per capita: 428.1 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards

northern mountains geologically unstable and subject to earthquakes; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues

land degradation/desertification (soil erosion resulting from farming of marginal areas, overgrazing, destruction of vegetation); water supplies contaminated by raw sewage; siltation of reservoirs; oil pollution of coastal waters

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

Geography - note

strategic location along Strait of Gibraltar

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Moroccan(s)

adjective: Moroccan

Ethnic groups

Arab-Berber 99%, other 1%

Languages

Arabic (official), Berber languages (Tamazight (official), Tachelhit, Tarifit), French (often the language of business, government, and diplomacy)

Religions

Muslim 99% (official; virtually all Sunni,

Population 40/238

33,322,699 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 26.41% (male 4,469,461/female 4,330,904)

15-24 years: 17.42% (male 2,886,637/female 2,919,324)

25-54 years: 42.13% (male 6,788,601/female 7,249,887)

55-64 years: 7.6% (male 1,262,634/female 1,271,492)

65 years and over: 6.43% (male 964,900/female 1,178,859) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 50.1%

youth dependency ratio: 40.9%

elderly dependency ratio: 9.3%

potential support ratio: 10.8% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 28.5 years

male: 27.9 years

female: 29.1 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 117/233

1% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 101/224

18.2 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 194/225

4.81 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 185/222

-3.36 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 60.2% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 2.26% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

Casablanca 3.515 million; RABAT (capital) 1.967 million; Fes 1.172 million; Marrakech 1.134 million; Tangier 982,000 (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 70/184

121 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 75/224

total: 23.6 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 27.92 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 19.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 79/224

total population: 76.71 years

male: 73.64 years

female: 79.94 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 104/224

2.13 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

67.4% (2010/11)

Health expenditures 101/191

6% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

0.62 physicians/1,000 population (2009)

Hospital bed density

0.9 beds/1,000 population (2012)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 98.7% of population

rural: 65.3% of population

total: 85.4% of population

unimproved:

urban: 1.3% of population

rural: 34.7% of population

total: 14.6% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 84.1% of population

rural: 65.5% of population

total: 76.7% of population

unimproved:

urban: 15.9% of population

rural: 34.5% of population

total: 23.3% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.14% (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

28,700 (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

1,100 (2014 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 114/191

21.7% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight 113/138

3.1% (2011)

Education expenditures 59/173

6.6% of GDP (2013)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 11 years

male: 12 years

female: 11 years (2010)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 60/134

total: 19.1%

male: 19.4%

female: 18.2% (2013 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Kingdom of Morocco

conventional short form: Morocco

local long form: Al Mamlakah al Maghribiyah

local short form: Al Maghrib

note: the English name "Morocco" derives from, respectively, the Spanish and Portuguese names "Marruecos" and "Marrocos," which stem from "Marrakesh" the Latin name for the former capital of ancient Morocco; the Arabic name "Al Maghrib" translates as "The West"

Government type

constitutional monarchy

Capital

name: Rabat

geographic coordinates: 34.01° N, 6.49° W

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1 hr, begins last Sunday in April; ends last Sunday in September

Administrative divisions

15 regions; Grand Casablanca, Chaouia-Ouardigha, Doukkala-Abda, Fes-Boulemane, Gharb-Chrarda-Beni Hssen, Guelmim-Es Smara, Laayoune-Boujdour-Sakia El Hamra, Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz, Meknes-Tafilalet, Oriental, Rabat-Sale-Zemmour-Zaer, Souss-Massa-Draa, Tadla-Azilal, Tanger-Tetouan, Taza-Al Hoceima-Taounate

note: Morocco claims the territory of Western Sahara, the political status of which is considered undetermined by the US Government; portions of the regions Guelmim-Es Smara and Laayoune-Boujdour-Sakia El Hamra as claimed by Morocco lie within Western Sahara; Morocco also claims Oued Eddahab-Lagouira, another region that falls entirely within Western Sahara; as of April 2015, Morocco’s parliament was examining legislation to reduce the number of regions from 16 to 12 under its “advanced regionalization” plan

Independence

2 March 1956 (from France)

National holiday

Throne Day (accession of King MOHAMMED VI to the throne), 30 July (1999)

Constitution

several previous; latest drafted 17 June 2011, approved by referendum 1 July 2011; note - sources disagree on whether the 2011 referendum was for a new constitution or for reforms to the previous constitution (2015)

Legal system

mixed legal system of civil law based on French law and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts by Constitutional Court

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Morocco; if the father is unknown or stateless, the mother must be a citizen

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: King MOHAMMED VI (since 30 July 1999)

head of government: Prime Minister Abdelillah BENKIRANE (since 29 November 2011)

cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the prime minister in consultation with Parliament and appointed by the monarch

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch from the majority party following legislative elections

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament consists of the Chamber of Advisors (90-120 seats; members indirectly elected by an electoral college of local councils, professional organizations, and labor unions; members serve 6-year terms) and the Chamber of Representatives (395 seats; 305 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 90 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - in the national constituency, 60 seats are reserved for women and 30 reserved for young people

elections: Chamber of Advisors- last held on 3 October 2009 (next scheduled for fall 2015); Chamber of Representatives - last held on 25 November 2011 (next to be held in 2016)

election results: Chamber of Advisors- percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Chamber of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PJD 107, PI 60, RNI 52, PAM 47, USFP 39, MP 32, UC 23, PPS 18, other 17

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Court of Cassation (consists of 5-judge panels organized into civil, family matters, commercial, administrative, social, and criminal sections); Constitutional Court (consists of 12 members)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the Superior Council of Judicial Power, a 20-member body presided by the monarch and including the Supreme Court president, the prosecutor general, representatives of the appeals and first instance courts - among them 1 woman magistrate, the president of the National Council of the Rights of Man, and 5 "notable persons" appointed by the monarch; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Court members - 6 designated by the monarch and 6 elected by Parliament; court president appointed by the monarch from among the court members; members serve 9-year non-renewable terms

subordinate courts: courts of appeal; High Court of Justice; administrative and commercial courts; regional and sadad courts (for religious, civil and administrative, and penal adjudication); first instance courts

Political parties and leaders

Action Party or PA [Mohammed EL IDRISSI]

Al Ahd (The Covenant) Party [Najib EL OUAZZANI]

An-Nahj Ad-Dimocrati or An-Nahj [Abdellah EL HARIF]

Authenticity and Modernity Party or PAM [Mustapha BAKKOURY]

Choura et Istiqlal (Consultation and Independence) Party or PCI [Abdelwahed MAACH]

Constitutional Union Party or UC [Mohamed SAJID]

Democratic and Social Movement or MDS [Mahmoud ARCHANE]

Democratic Forces Front or FFD [Mustapha BENALI]

Democratic Oath Party or SD

Democratic Socialist Vanguard Party or PADS [Ahmed BENJELLOUN]

Democratic Union or UD [Bouazza IKKEN]

Environment and Development Party or PED [Ahmed EL ALAMI]

Green Left Party

Istiqlal (Independence) Party or PI [Hamid CHABAT]

Labor Party or PT [Abdelkrim BENATIK]

National Popular Movement or MNP [Mahjoubi AHERDANE]

National Rally of Independents or RNI [Salaheddine MEZOUAR]

Neo-Democrats Party [Mohamed DARIF]

Party of Justice and Development or PJD [Abdelillah BENKIRANE]

Party of Liberty and Social Justice

Popular Movement or MP [Mohand LAENSER]

Progress and Socialism Party or PPS [Nabil BENABDELLAH]

Renewal and Equity Party or PRE [Chakir ACHABAR]

Socialist Union of Popular Forces or USFP [Driss LACHGAR]

Unified Socialist Party or GSU [Nabila MOUNIB]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Democratic Confederation of Labor or CDT [Noubir EL AMAOUI]

General Union of Moroccan Workers or UGTM [Mohamed KAFI CHERRAT]

Justice and Charity Organization or JCO [Mohammed ben Abdesslam ABBADI]

Moroccan Employers Association or CGEM [Miriem BENSALAH-CHAQROUN]

National Labor Union of Morocco or UNMT [Mohamed YATIM]

Union of Moroccan Workers or UMT [Miloudi EL MOUKHARIK]

International organization participation

ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, CAEU, CD, EBRD, FAO, G-11, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, OSCE (partner), Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNSC (temporary), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Flag description

red with a green pentacle (five-pointed, linear star) known as Sulayman's (Solomon's) seal in the center of the flag; red and green are traditional colors in Arab flags, although the use of red is more commonly associated with the Arab states of the Persian Gulf; the pentacle represents the five pillars of Islam and signifies the association between God and the nation; design dates to 1912

National symbol(s)

pentacle symbol, lion; national colors: red, green

National anthem

name: "Hymne Cherifien" (Hymn of the Sharif)

lyrics/music: Ali Squalli HOUSSAINI/Leo MORGAN

note: music adopted 1956, lyrics adopted 1970

Economy

Economy - overview

Morocco has capitalized on its proximity to Europe and relatively low labor costs to build a diverse, open, market-oriented economy. Key sectors of the economy include agriculture, tourism, aerospace, phosphates, textiles, apparel, and subcomponents. Morocco has increased investment in its port, transportation, and industrial infrastructure to position itself as a center and broker for business throughout Africa. Industrial development strategies and infrastructure improvements - most visibly illustrated by a new port and free trade zone near Tangier - are improving Morocco's competitiveness.

In the 1980s Morocco was a heavily indebted country before pursuing austerity measures and pro-market reforms, overseen by the IMF. Since taking the throne in 1999, King MOHAMMED VI has presided over a stable economy marked by steady growth, low inflation, and gradually falling unemployment, although poor harvests and economic difficulties in Europe contributed to an economic slowdown. To boost exports, Morocco entered into a bilateral Free Trade Agreement with the United States in 2006 and an Advanced Status agreement with the European Union in 2008. In late 2013, Morocco launched market indexation of its fuel prices, effectively diminishing the expensive subsidies for fuel and reducing its budget deficit by 1%. Morocco also seeks to expand its renewable energy capacity with a goal of making renewable more than 40% of electricity output by 2020.

Despite Morocco's economic progress, the country suffers from high unemployment, poverty, and illiteracy, particularly in rural areas. Key economic challenges for Morocco include reforming the education system and the judiciary.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 57/230

$274.5 billion (2015 est.)

$261.8 billion (2014 est.)

$255.6 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$103.1 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 43/225

4.9% (2015 est.)

2.4% (2014 est.)

4.7% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 146/230

$8,300 (2015 est.)

$7,900 (2014 est.)

$7,700 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 14/179

31.1% of GDP (2015 est.)

28.2% of GDP (2014 est.)

26.8% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 60.2%

government consumption: 19.1%

investment in fixed capital: 28.5%

investment in inventories: 2.6%

exports of goods and services: 34.4%

imports of goods and services: -44.8%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 13.8%

industry: 29%

services: 57.2% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

barley, wheat, citrus fruits, grapes, vegetables, olives; livestock; wine

Industries

automotive parts, phosphate mining and processing, aerospace, food processing, leather goods, textiles, construction, energy, tourism

Industrial production growth rate 48/202

4.3% (2015 est.)

Labor force 46/233

12.27 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 39.1%

industry: 20.3%

services: 40.5% (2014 est.)

Unemployment rate 106/207

9.4% (2015 est.)

9.7% (2014 est.)

Population below poverty line

15% (2007 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.7%

highest 10%: 33.2% (2007)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 57/144

40.9 (2007 est.)

39.5 (1999 est.)

Budget

revenues: $24.49 billion

expenditures: $29.04 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 133/219

23.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 159/220

-4.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 40/176

73.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

73.8% of GDP (2014 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 99/226

1.7% (2015 est.)

0.4% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 57/156

6.5% (31 December 2010)

3.31% (31 December 2009)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 133/184

5.9% (31 December 2015 est.)

6% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 42/192

$70.65 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$73.27 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 56/193

$92.72 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$92.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 52/191

$108.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$115.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 52/121

$52.63 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$60.09 billion (31 December 2011)

$69.15 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance 149/197

-$2.421 billion (2015 est.)

-$6.023 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 69/224

$21.15 billion (2015 est.)

$23.72 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

clothing and textiles, automobiles, electric components, inorganic chemicals, transistors, crude minerals, fertilizers (including phosphates), petroleum products, citrus fruits, vegetables, fish

Exports - partners

Spain 22%, France 20.7%, Brazil 4.6%, Italy 4.3% (2014)

Imports 57/223

$37.32 billion (2015 est.)

$46.16 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

crude petroleum, textile fabric, telecommunications equipment, wheat, gas and electricity, transistors, plastics

Imports - partners

Spain 13.4%, France 13.3%, China 7.6%, US 7%, Saudi Arabia 5.4%, Germany 5.2%, Italy 5%, Russia 4.3% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 58/170

$21.35 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$20.41 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 67/206

$43.99 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$39.85 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 57/120

$59.11 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$55.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 81/105

$1.518 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$2.083 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

Moroccan dirhams (MAD) per US dollar -

9.59 (2015 est.)

8.38 (2014 est.)

8.38 (2013 est.)

8.6 (2012 est.)

8.09 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 70/220

25.35 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 66/219

26.7 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 57/218

818 million kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - imports 39/219

5.66 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 69/214

6.763 million kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 110/214

69% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 142/214

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 95/214

19.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 58/212

4.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 95/214

500 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 162/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - imports 38/214

148,500 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 99/215

680,000 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 62/214

155,200 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 43/212

293,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 80/214

13,380 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 34/213

161,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Natural gas - production 83/216

79 million cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 87/215

1.181 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports 147/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports 56/214

1.102 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 101/212

1.444 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 69/212

39.35 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 54/219

total subscriptions: 2.49 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 8 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 32/217

total: 44.1 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 134 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: good system composed of open-wire lines, cables, and microwave radio relay links; principal switching centers are Casablanca and Rabat; national network nearly 100% digital using fiber-optic links; improved rural service employs microwave radio relay; Internet available but expensive

domestic: fixed-line teledensity is roughly 10 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership exceeds 100 per 100 persons

international: country code - 212; landing point for the Atlas Offshore, Estepona-Tetouan, Euroafrica, Spain-Morocco, and SEA-ME-WE-3 fiber-optic telecommunications undersea cables that provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Gibraltar, Spain, and Western Sahara; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria; participant in Medarabtel; fiber-optic cable link from Agadir to Algeria and Tunisia (2011)

Broadcast media

2 TV broadcast networks with state-run Radio-Television Marocaine (RTM) operating one network and the state partially owning the other; foreign TV broadcasts are available via satellite dish; 3 radio broadcast networks with RTM operating one; the government-owned network includes 10 regional radio channels in addition to its national service (2007)

Radio broadcast stations

AM NA, FM 15, shortwave NA (2009)

Television broadcast stations

8 (2009)

Internet country code

.ma

Internet hosts 66/232

277,338 (2012)

Internet users 29/217

total: 19.9 million

percent of population: 60.3% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 86/236

55 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 31

over 3,047 m: 11

2,438 to 3,047 m: 9

1,524 to 2,437 m: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 24

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 11

under 914 m: 5 (2013)

Heliports

1 (2013)

Pipelines

gas 944 km; oil 270 km; refined products 175 km (2013)

Railways 70/136

total: 2,067 km

standard gauge: 2,067 km 1.435-m gauge (1,022 km electrified) (2014)

Roadways 73/223

total: 58,395 km

paved: 41,116 km (includes 1,080 km of expressways)

unpaved: 17,279 km (2010)

Merchant marine 88/156

total: 26

by type: cargo 1, chemical tanker 3, container 6, passenger/cargo 14, roll on/roll off 2

foreign-owned: 14 (France 3, Germany 1, Italy 1, Spain 9)

registered in other countries: 4 (Gibraltar 4) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Casablanca, Jorf Lasfar, Mohammedia, Safi, Tangier

container port(s) (TEUs): Tangier (2,093,408)

LNG terminal(s) (import): Jorf Lasfar

Military and Security

Military branches

Royal Armed Forces (Forces Armees Royales, FAR): Royal Moroccan Army (includes Air Defense), Royal Moroccan Navy (includes Coast Guard, Marines), Royal Moroccan Air Force (Al Quwwat al Jawyiya al Malakiya Marakishiya; Force Aerienne Royale Marocaine) (2010)

Military service age and obligation

20 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; service obligation - 18 months (2012)

Military expenditures 14/132

3.55% of GDP (2012)

3.37% of GDP (2011)

3.55% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

claims and administers Western Sahara whose sovereignty remains unresolved; Morocco protests Spain's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera, the islands of Penon de Alhucemas and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; both countries claim Isla Perejil (Leila Island); discussions have not progressed on a comprehensive maritime delimitation, setting limits on resource exploration and refugee interdiction, since Morocco's 2002 rejection of Spain's unilateral designation of a median line from the Canary Islands; Morocco serves as one of the primary launching areas of illegal migration into Spain from North Africa; Algeria's border with Morocco remains an irritant to bilateral relations, each nation accusing the other of harboring militants and arms smuggling; the National Liberation Front's assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures in southeastern Morocco is a dormant dispute

Illicit drugs

one of the world's largest producers of illicit hashish; shipments of hashish mostly directed to Western Europe; transit point for cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe; significant consumer of cannabis