Netherlands facts on every entity in the world

The Dutch United Provinces declared their independence from Spain in 1579; during the 17th century, they became a leading seafaring and commercial power, with settlements and colonies around the world. After a 20-year French occupation, a Kingdom of the Netherlands was formed in 1815. In 1830, Belgium seceded and formed a separate kingdom. The Netherlands remained neutral in World War I, but suffered German invasion and occupation in World War II. A modern, industrialized nation, the Netherlands is also a large exporter of agricultural products. The country was a founding member of NATO and the EEC (now the EU) and participated in the introduction of the euro in 1999. In October 2010, the former Netherlands Antilles was dissolved and the three smallest islands - Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, and Saba - became special municipalities in the Netherlands administrative structure. The larger islands of Sint Maarten and Curacao joined the Netherlands and Aruba as constituent countries forming the Kingdom of the Netherlands.



Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between Belgium and Germany

Geographic coordinates

52.30° N, 5.45° E

Area 135/257

total: 41,543 sq km

land: 33,893 sq km

water: 7,650 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly less than twice the size of New Jersey

Land boundaries

total: 1,053 km

border countries (2): Belgium 478 km, Germany 575 km


451 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm


temperate; marine; cool summers and mild winters


mostly coastal lowland and reclaimed land (polders); some hills in southeast


mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Zuidplaspolder -7 m

highest point: Mount Scenery 862 m (on the island of Saba in the Caribbean, now considered an integral part of the Netherlands following the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles)

note: the highest point on continental Netherlands is Vaalserberg at 322 m

Natural resources

natural gas, petroleum, peat, limestone, salt, sand and gravel, arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 55.1%

arable land 29.8%; permanent crops 1.1%; permanent pasture 24.2%

forest: 10.8%

other: 34.1% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

4,860 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

91 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 10.61 cu km/yr (12%/88%/1%)

per capita: 636.7 cu m/yr (2008)

Natural hazards


Environment - current issues

water pollution in the form of heavy metals, organic compounds, and nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates; air pollution from vehicles and refining activities; acid rain

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

located at mouths of three major European rivers (Rhine, Maas or Meuse, and Schelde)

People and Society


noun: Dutchman(men), Dutchwoman(women)

adjective: Dutch

Ethnic groups

Dutch 95%, EU 2.5%, Turkish 0.5%, Moroccan 0.3%, Chinese 0.2%, other 1.5%

note: represents population by nationality (2015 est.)


Dutch (official)

note: Frisian is an official language in Fryslan province; Frisian, Low Saxon, Limburgish, Romani, and Yiddish have protected status under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages; Dutch is the official language of the three special municipalities of the Caribbean Netherlands, while English is a recognized regional language on Sint Eustatius and Saba and Papiamento is a recognized regional language on Bonaire


Roman Catholic 28%, Protestant 19% (includes Dutch Reformed 9%, Protestant Church of The Netherlands, 7%, Calvinist 3%), other 11% (includes about 5% Muslim and lesser numbers of Hindu, Buddhist, Jehovah's Witness, and Orthodox), none 42% (2009 est.)

Population 67/238

16,947,904 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 16.73% (male 1,450,957/female 1,384,576)

15-24 years: 12.15% (male 1,049,802/female 1,009,250)

25-54 years: 40.12% (male 3,412,016/female 3,388,119)

55-64 years: 13.02% (male 1,099,594/female 1,107,401)

65 years and over: 17.97% (male 1,373,111/female 1,673,078) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 53.3%

youth dependency ratio: 25.3%

elderly dependency ratio: 27.9%

potential support ratio: 3.6% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 42.3 years

male: 41.3 years

female: 43.2 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 164/233

0.41% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 181/224

10.83 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 74/225

8.66 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 52/222

1.95 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)


urban population: 90.5% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 1.05% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

AMSTERDAM (capital) 1.091 million; Rotterdam 993,000; The Hague (seat of government) 650,000 (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

29.4 (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 171/184

7 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 201/224

total: 3.62 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 3.91 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.32 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 24/224

total population: 81.23 years

male: 79.11 years

female: 83.47 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 155/224

1.78 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate


note: percent of women aged 18-45 (2008)

Health expenditures 7/191

12.9% of GDP (2013)

Hospital bed density

4.7 beds/1,000 population (2009)

Drinking water source


urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population


urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access


urban: 97.5% of population

rural: 99.9% of population

total: 97.7% of population


urban: 2.5% of population

rural: 0.1% of population

total: 2.3% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate


HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS


HIV/AIDS - deaths


Obesity - adult prevalence rate 103/191

21.9% (2014)

Education expenditures 45/173

5.9% of GDP (2011)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 18 years

male: 18 years

female: 18 years (2012)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 102/134

total: 11%

male: 10.8%

female: 11.2% (2013 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Kingdom of the Netherlands

conventional short form: Netherlands

local long form: Koninkrijk der Nederlanden

local short form: Nederland

etymology: the country name literally means "the lowlands" and refers to the geographic features of the land being both flat and down river from higher areas (i.e., at the estuaries of the Scheldt, Meuse, and Rhine Rivers; only about half of the Netherlands is more than one meter above sea level)

Government type

constitutional monarchy


name: Amsterdam; note - The Hague is the seat of government

geographic coordinates: 52.21° N, 4.55° E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

note: time descriptions apply to the continental Netherlands only, not to the Caribbean components

Administrative divisions

12 provinces (provincies, singular - provincie); Drenthe, Flevoland, Fryslan (Friesland), Gelderland, Groningen, Limburg, Noord-Brabant (North Brabant), Noord-Holland (North Holland), Overijssel, Utrecht, Zeeland (Zealand), Zuid-Holland (South Holland)

Dependent areas

Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten


23 January 1579 (the northern provinces of the Low Countries conclude the Union of Utrecht breaking with Spain; on 26 July 1581 they formally declared their independence with an Act of Abjuration; however, it was not until 30 January 1648 and the Peace of Westphalia that Spain recognized this independence)

National holiday

King's Day (the King's birthday of 27 April (1967); celebrated on 26 April if 27 April is a Sunday)


previous 1597, 1798; latest adopted 24 August 1815 (substantially revised in 1848); amended many times, last in 2010

Legal system

civil law system based on the French system; constitution does not permit judicial review of acts of the States General

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Netherlands

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: King WILLEM-ALEXANDER (since 30 April 2013); Heir Apparent Princess Catharina-Amalia (since 30 April 2013)

head of government: Prime Minister Mark RUTTE (since 14 October 2010); Deputy Prime Minister Lodewijk ASSCHER (since 5 November 2012); note - Mark RUTTE heads his second cabinet since 5 November 2012

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch; note -there is also a Council of State composed of the monarch, heir apparent, and councilors that provides advice to the cabinet on legislative and administrative policy

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following Second Chamber elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; deputy prime ministers appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch

description: bicameral States General or Staten Generaal consists of the First Chamber or Eerste Kamer (75 seats; members indirectly elected by the country's 12 provincial council members by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms) and the Second Chamber or Tweede Kamer (150 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve up to 4-year terms)

elections: First Chamber - last held on 26 May 2015 (next to be held in May 2019); Second Chamber - last held on 12 September 2012 (next to be held no later than 15 March 2017)

election results: First Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - VVD 13, CDA 12, D66 10, PVV 9, SP 9, PvdA 8, GL 4, CU 3, other 7; Second Chamber - percent of vote by party - VVD 26.6%, PvdA 24.8%, PVV, 10.1%, SP 9.7%, CDA 8.5%, D66 8.0%, CU 3.1%, GL 2.3%, other 6.9%; seats by party - VVD 41, PvdA 38, PVV 15, SP 15, CDA 13, D66 12, CU 5, GL 4, other 7

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Hoge Raad (consists of 41 judges: the president, 6 vice-presidents, 31 justices or raadsheren, and 3 justices in exceptional service, referred to as buitengewone dienst); the court is divided into criminal, civil, tax, and ombuds chambers

judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the monarch from a list provided by the Second Chamber of the States General; justices appointed for life or until mandatory retirement at age 70

subordinate courts: courts of appeal; district courts, each with up to 5 subdistrict courts

Political parties and leaders

Christian Democratic Appeal or CDA [Sybrand VAN HAERSMA BUMA]

Christian Union or CU [Arie SLOB]

Democrats 66 or D66 [Jesse KLAVER]

50 Plus [Jan NAGEL]

Green Left or GL [Bram VAN OJIK]

Labor Party or PvdA [Diederik SAMSOM]

Party for Freedom or PVV [Geert WILDERS]

Party for the Animals or PvdD [Marianne THIEME]

People's Party for Freedom and Democracy or VVD [Mark RUTTE]

Reformed Political Party or SGP [Kees VAN DER STAAIJ]

Socialist Party or SP [Emile ROEMER]

plus a few minor parties

Political pressure groups and leaders

Christian Trade Union Federation or CNV [Maurice LIMMEN]

Confederation of Netherlands Industry and Employers or VNO-NCW [Hans DE BOER]

Federation for Small and Medium-sized Businesses or MKB [Michael VAN STRAALAN]

Netherlands Trade Union Federation or FNV [Ton HEERTS]

Social Economic Council or SER [Mariette HAMER]

Trade Union Federation of Middle and High Personnel or CMHP [Reginald VISSER]

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue; similar to the flag of Luxembourg, which uses a lighter blue and is longer; the colors were those of WILLIAM I, Prince of Orange, who led the Dutch Revolt against Spanish sovereignty in the latter half of the 16th century; originally the upper band was orange, but because it tended to fade to red over time, the red shade was eventually made the permanent color; the banner is perhaps the oldest tricolor in continuous use

National symbol(s)

lion, tulip; national color: orange

National anthem

name: "Het Wilhelmus" (The William)

lyrics/music: Philips VAN MARNIX van Sint Aldegonde (presumed)/unknown

note: adopted 1932, in use since the 17th century, making it the oldest national anthem in the world; also known as "Wilhelmus van Nassouwe" (William of Nassau), it is in the form of an acrostic, where the first letter of each stanza spells the name of the leader of the Dutch Revolt


Economy - overview

The Netherlands, the sixth-largest economy in the European Union, plays an important role as a European transportation hub, with a persistently high trade surplus, stable industrial relations, and moderate unemployment. Industry focuses on food processing, chemicals, petroleum refining, and electrical machinery. A highly mechanized agricultural sector employs only 2% of the labor force but provides large surpluses for food-processing and underpins the country’s status as the world’s second largest agricultural exporter.

The Netherlands is part of the Eurozone, and as such, its monetary policy is controlled by the European Central Bank. The Dutch financial sector is highly concentrated, with four commercial banks possessing over 90% of banking assets. The sector suffered as a result of the global financial crisis and required billions of dollars of government support, but the European Banking Authority completed stringent reviews in 2014 and deemed Dutch banks to be well-capitalized. To address the 2009 and 2010 economic downturns, the government sought to stimulate the domestic economy by accelerating infrastructure programs, offering corporate tax breaks for employers to retain workers, and expanding export credits. The stimulus programs and bank bailouts, however, resulted in a government budget deficit of 5.3% of GDP in 2010 that contrasted sharply with a surplus of 0.7% in 2008.

The government of Prime Minister Mark RUTTE has since implemented significant austerity measures to improve public finances and has instituted broad structural reforms in key policy areas, including the labor market, the housing sector, the energy market, and the pension system. As a result, the government budget deficit at the end of 2015 dropped to 2% of GDP. Following a protracted recession during which unemployment doubled to 7.4% and household consumption contracted for nearly three consecutive years, the year 2014 saw fragile GDP growth of 1% and a rise in most economic indicators. Growth picked up in 2015 as households boosted purchases through reduced saving. Drivers of growth included increased exports and business investments, as well as newly invigorated household consumption.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 28/230

$831.4 billion (2015 est.)

$816.7 billion (2014 est.)

$808.5 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$750.8 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 153/225

1.8% (2015 est.)

1% (2014 est.)

-0.5% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 25/230

$49,300 (2015 est.)

$48,400 (2014 est.)

$47,900 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars

Gross national saving 32/179

27.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

28.7% of GDP (2014 est.)

29% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 45%

government consumption: 25.3%

investment in fixed capital: 19%

investment in inventories: -0.1%

exports of goods and services: 83.6%

imports of goods and services: -72.8%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 1.6%

industry: 18.8%

services: 79.6% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

grains, potatoes, sugar beets, fruits, vegetables; livestock


agroindustries, metal and engineering products, electrical machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum, construction, microelectronics, fishing

Industrial production growth rate 145/202

1% (2015 est.)

Labor force 62/233

7.884 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 1.8%

industry: 17%

services: 81.2% (2013 est.)

Unemployment rate 79/207

6.9% (2015 est.)

7.4% (2014 est.)

Population below poverty line

9.1% (2013 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.1%

highest 10%: 24.5% (2012 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 139/144

25.1 (2013 est.)

32.6 (1994 est.)


revenues: $336.5 billion

expenditures: $351.8 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 26/219

44.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 72/220

-2% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 46/176

68.9% of GDP (2015 est.)

68.8% of GDP (2014 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment, debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 48/226

0.3% (2015 est.)

0.3% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 146/156

0.05% (31 December 2013)

0.3% (31 December 2010)

note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

Commercial bank prime lending rate 179/184

2% (31 December 2015 est.)

2.27% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 15/192

$357.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$388.6 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

Stock of broad money 17/193

$1.119 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)

$1.158 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 13/191

$1.712 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)

$1.853 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 20/121

$671.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$698.6 billion (31 December 2013)

$578.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Current account balance 6/197

$72.21 billion (2015 est.)

$90.16 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 9/224

$488.3 billion (2015 est.)

$571.8 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels; foodstuffs

Exports - partners

Germany 25.3%, Belgium 12.9%, UK 8.9%, France 8.6%, Italy 4.3% (2014)

Imports 13/223

$404.6 billion (2015 est.)

$469 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs, clothing

Imports - partners

Germany 14.5%, China 13%, Belgium 8.4%, US 6.5%, UK 6.1%, Russia 5.7%, Norway 4.1% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 43/170

$42.92 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$46.25 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Debt - external 7/206

$4.154 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)

$4.524 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 16/120

$561.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$540.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 12/105

$1.029 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)

$930.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

0.89 (2015 est.)

0.75 (2014 est.)

0.76 (2013 est.)

0.78 (2012 est.)

0.72 (2011 est.)


Electricity - production 34/220

98.57 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - consumption 31/219

116.8 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - exports 13/218

15.02 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 6/219

33.25 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 29/214

29.85 million kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 91/214

83.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 30/214

1.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 152/214

0.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 22/212

14.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 65/214

28,120 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 46/214

48,820 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports 11/214

1.204 million bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 67/215

144.7 million bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 20/214

1.186 million bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 23/212

960,600 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 4/214

2.089 million bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 3/213

1.838 million bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production 13/216

70.25 billion cu m

note: the Netherlands has curbed gas production due to seismic activity in the province of Groningen, largest source of gas reserves (2014 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 23/215

39.98 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - exports 7/215

59.3 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - imports 12/214

29.1 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 25/212

1.044 trillion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 26/212

239.6 million Mt (2012 est.)


Telephones - fixed lines 25/219

total subscriptions: 7.13 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 42 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 58/217

total: 19.6 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 116 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: highly developed and well maintained

domestic: extensive fixed-line fiber-optic network; large cellular telephone system with 5 major operators utilizing the third generation of the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) technology; one in five households now use Voice over the Internet Protocol (VoIP) services

international: country code - 31; submarine cables provide links to the US and Europe; satellite earth stations - 5 (3 Intelsat - 1 Indian Ocean and 2 Atlantic Ocean, 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (2011)

Broadcast media

more than 90% of households are connected to cable or satellite TV systems that provide a wide range of domestic and foreign channels; public service broadcast system includes multiple broadcasters, 3 with a national reach and the remainder operating in regional and local markets; 2 major nationwide commercial television companies, each with 3 or more stations, and many commercial TV stations in regional and local markets; nearly 600 radio stations with a mix of public and private stations providing national or regional coverage (2008)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 4, FM 567, shortwave 1 (2009)

Television broadcast stations

342 (2009)

Internet country code


Internet hosts 11/232

13.699 million (2012)

Internet users 34/217

total: 16.2 million

percent of population: 96.1% (2014 est.)


Airports 120/236

29 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 23

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 11

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 6

under 914 m: 2 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 6

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 2 (2013)


1 (2013)


condensate 81 km; gas 8,531 km; oil 578 km; refined products 716 km (2013)

Railways 56/136

total: 3,223 km

standard gauge: 3,223 km 1.435-m gauge (2,321 km electrified) (2014)

Roadways 36/223

total: 138,641 km (includes 3,530 km of expressways) (2014)

Waterways 21/107

6,237 km (navigable by ships up to 50 tons) (2012)

Merchant marine 15/156

total: 744

by type: bulk carrier 4, cargo 514, carrier 15, chemical tanker 56, container 67, liquefied gas 21, passenger 17, passenger/cargo 14, petroleum tanker 4, refrigerated cargo 10, roll on/roll off 19, specialized tanker 3

foreign-owned: 196 (Australia 1, Bermuda 1, Denmark 27, Finland 13, France 2, Germany 86, Ireland 8, Italy 6, Japan 1, Norway 19, Sweden 12, UAE 4, US 16)

registered in other countries: 233 (Antigua and Barbuda 17, Bahamas 23, Belize 1, Canada 1, Curacao 43, Cyprus 23, Germany 1, Gibraltar 34, Italy 2, Liberia 31, Luxembourg 3, Malta 3, Marshall Islands 21, Panama 6, Paraguay 1, Philippines 17, Russia 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Singapore 1, UK 1, unknown 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): IJmuiden, Vlissingen

river port(s): Amsterdam (Nordsee Kanaal); Moerdijk (Hollands Diep River); Rotterdam (Rhine River); Terneuzen (Western Scheldt River)

container port(s) (TEUs): Rotterdam (11,876,920)

LNG terminal(s) (import): Rotterdam

Military and Security

Military branches

Royal Netherlands Army, Royal Netherlands Navy (includes Naval Air Service and Marine Corps), Royal Netherlands Air Force (Koninklijke Luchtmacht, KLu), Royal Marechaussee (Military Police) (2015)

Military service age and obligation

17 years of age for an all-volunteer force (2014)

Military expenditures 79/132

1.2% of GDP (2013)

1.27% of GDP (2012)

1.35% of GDP (2011)

1.27% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international


Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 18,687 (Somalia); 14,396 (Iraq); 8,692 (Syria); 6,294 (Eritrea); 6,244 (Afghanistan) (2014)

stateless persons: 1,951 (2014)

Illicit drugs

major European producer of synthetic drugs, including ecstasy, and cannabis cultivator; important gateway for cocaine, heroin, and hashish entering Europe; major source of US-bound ecstasy; large financial sector vulnerable to money laundering; significant consumer of ecstasy