Nigeria

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British influence and control over what would become Nigeria and Africa's most populous country grew through the 19th century. A series of constitutions after World War II granted Nigeria greater autonomy. After independence in 1960, politics were marked by coups and mostly military rule, until the death of a military head of state in 1998 allowed for a political transition. In 1999, a new constitution was adopted and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed. The government continues to face the daunting task of institutionalizing democracy and reforming a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement. In addition, Nigeria continues to experience longstanding ethnic and religious tensions. Although both the 2003 and 2007 presidential elections were marred by significant irregularities and violence, Nigeria is currently experiencing its longest period of civilian rule since independence. The general elections of April 2007 marked the first civilian-to-civilian transfer of power in the country's history and the elections of 2011 were generally regarded as credible. The 2015 election is considered the most well run in Nigeria since the return to civilian rule, with the umbrella opposition party, the All Progressives Congress, defeating the long-ruling Peoples Democratic Party that had governed since 1999.

Geography

Location

Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon

Geographic coordinates

10.00° N, 8.00° E

Area 32/257

total: 923,768 sq km

land: 910,768 sq km

water: 13,000 sq km

Area - comparative

about six times the size of Georgia; slightly more than twice the size of California

Land boundaries

total: 4,477 km

border countries (4): Benin 809 km, Cameroon 1,975 km, Chad 85 km, Niger 1,608 km

Coastline

853 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate

varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north

Terrain

southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in north

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Chappal Waddi 2,419 m

Natural resources

natural gas, petroleum, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc, arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 78%

arable land 37.3%; permanent crops 7.4%; permanent pasture 33.3%

forest: 9.5%

other: 12.5% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

2,930 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

286.2 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 13.11 cu km/yr (31%/15%/54%)

per capita: 89.21 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards

periodic droughts; flooding

Environment - current issues

soil degradation; rapid deforestation; urban air and water pollution; desertification; oil pollution - water, air, and soil; has suffered serious damage from oil spills; loss of arable land; rapid urbanization

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

the Niger River enters the country in the northwest and flows southward through tropical rain forests and swamps to its delta in the Gulf of Guinea

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Nigerian(s)

adjective: Nigerian

Ethnic groups

Nigeria, Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the most populous and politically influential are: Hausa and the Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%

Languages

English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani, over 500 additional indigenous languages

Religions

Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%

Population 8/238

181,562,056

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 43.01% (male 39,960,275/female 38,123,266)

15-24 years: 19.38% (male 17,978,154/female 17,210,308)

25-54 years: 30.56% (male 28,470,583/female 27,018,101)

55-64 years: 3.94% (male 3,491,784/female 3,669,348)

65 years and over: 3.11% (male 2,687,373/female 2,952,864) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 87.7%

youth dependency ratio: 82.6%

elderly dependency ratio: 5.1%

potential support ratio: 19.5% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 18.2 years

male: 18.2 years

female: 18.3 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 27/233

2.45% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 12/224

37.64 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 18/225

12.9 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 121/222

-0.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 47.8% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 4.66% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

Lagos 13.123 million; Kano 3.587 million; Ibadan 3.16 million; ABUJA (capital) 2.44 million; Port Harcourt 2.343 million; Benin City 1.496 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female

total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

20.3

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 11/184

814 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 10/224

total: 72.7 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 77.55 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 67.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 213/224

total population: 53.02 years

male: 52 years

female: 54.1 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 13/224

5.19 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

15.1% (2013)

Health expenditures 109/191

3.9% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

0.41 physicians/1,000 population (2009)

Hospital bed density

0.53 beds/1,000 population (2004)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 80.8% of population

rural: 57.3% of population

total: 68.5% of population

unimproved:

urban: 19.2% of population

rural: 42.7% of population

total: 31.5% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 32.8% of population

rural: 25.4% of population

total: 29% of population

unimproved:

urban: 67.2% of population

rural: 74.6% of population

total: 71% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

3.17% (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

3,391,600 (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

174,300 (2014 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 146/191

9.7% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight 12/138

31% (2013)

Education expenditures

NA

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 9 years

male: 10 years

female: 8 years (2005)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Federal Republic of Nigeria

conventional short form: Nigeria

etymology: named after the Niger River that flows through the west of the country to the Atlantic Ocean; from a native term "Ni Gir" meaning "River Gir"

Government type

federal republic

Capital

name: Abuja

geographic coordinates: 9.05° N, 7.32° E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

36 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Federal Capital Territory*, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nasarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara

Independence

1 October 1960 (from the UK)

National holiday

Independence Day (National Day), 1 October (1960)

Constitution

several previous; latest adopted 5 May 1999, effective 29 May 1999; amended several times, last in 2012 (2015)

Legal system

mixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law (in 12 northern states), and traditional law

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Nigeria

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Maj. Gen. (ret.) Muhammadu BUHARI (since 29 May 2015); Vice President Oluyemi "Yemi" OSINBAJO (since 29 May 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Maj.Gen. (ret.) Muhammadu BUHARI (since 29 May 2015); Vice President Oluyemi "Yemi" OSINBAJO (since 29 May 2015)

cabinet: Federal Executive Council appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by 'qualified' majority popular vote and at least 25% of the votes cast in 24 of Nigeria's 36 states; president elected for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28-29 March 2015 (next to be held in February 2019)

election results: Muhammadu BUHARI elected president; percent of vote - Muhammadu BUHARI (CPC) 53%, Goodluck JONATHAN (PDP) 46%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate (109 seats - 3 each for the 36 states and 1 for Abuja; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms) and the House of Representatives (360 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held on 28-29 March 2015 (next to be held in February 2019); House of Representatives - last held on 28-29 March 2015 (next to be held in 2019)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - APC 60, PDP 49; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - APC 225, PDP 125, other 10

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 15 justices)

judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president on the recommendation of the National Judicial Council, a 23-member independent body of federal and state judicial officials; judge appointments confirmed by the Senate; judges serve until age 65

subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; Federal High Court; High Court of the Federal Capital Territory; Sharia Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory; Customary Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory; state court system similar in structure to federal system

Political parties and leaders

Accord Party or ACC [Mohammad Lawal MALADO]

All Progressives Congress or APC [John Odigie OYEGUN]

All Progressives Grand Alliance or APGA [Victor C. UMEH]

Democratic Peoples Party or DPP [Biodun OGUNBIYI]

Labor Party or LP [Alhai Abdulkadir ABDULSALAM]

Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Uche SECONDUS, acting]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Academic Staff Union for Universities or ASUU

Campaign for Democracy or CD

Civil Liberties Organization or CLO

Committee for the Defense of Human Rights or CDHR

Constitutional Right Project or CRP

Human Right Africa

National Association of Democratic Lawyers or NADL

National Association of Nigerian Students or NANS

Nigerian Bar Association or NBA

Nigerian Labor Congress or NLC

Nigerian Medical Association or NMA

Universal Defenders of Democracy or UDD

other: the press

International organization participation

ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, D-8, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Flag description

three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green; the color green represents the forests and abundant natural wealth of the country, white stands for peace and unity

National symbol(s)

eagle; national colors: green, white

National anthem

name: "Arise Oh Compatriots, Nigeria's Call Obey"

lyrics/music: John A. ILECHUKWU, Eme Etim AKPAN, B. A. OGUNNAIKE, Sotu OMOIGUI and P. O. ADERIBIGBE/Benedict Elide ODIASE

note: adopted 1978; lyrics are a mixture of the five top entries in a national contest

Economy

Economy - overview

Following an April 2014 statistical "rebasing" exercise, Nigeria has emerged as Africa's largest economy, with 2015 GDP estimated at US$1.1 trillion. Oil has been a dominant source of income and government revenues since the 1970s. Following the 2008-9 global financial crises, the banking sector was effectively recapitalized and regulation enhanced. Nigeria’s economic growth over the last five years has been driven by growth in agriculture, telecommunications, and services. Economic diversification and strong growth have not translated into a significant decline in poverty levels, however - over 62% of Nigeria's 170 million people still live in extreme poverty.

Despite its strong fundamentals, oil-rich Nigeria has been hobbled by inadequate power supply, lack of infrastructure, delays in the passage of legislative reforms, an inefficient property registration system, restrictive trade policies, an inconsistent regulatory environment, a slow and ineffective judicial system, unreliable dispute resolution mechanisms, insecurity, and pervasive corruption. Regulatory constraints and security risks have limited new investment in oil and natural gas, and Nigeria's oil production has contracted every year since 2012.

Because of lower oil prices, GDP growth in 2015 fell to around 3%, and government revenues declined, while the nonoil sector also contracted due to economic policy uncertainty. President BUHARI, elected in March 2015, has established a cabinet of economic ministers that includes several technocrats, and he has announced plans to increase transparency, diversify the economy away from oil, and improve fiscal management. The government is working to develop stronger public-private partnerships for roads, agriculture, and power. The medium-term outlook for Nigeria is positive, assuming oil output stabilizes and oil prices recover

GDP (purchasing power parity) 23/230

$1.105 trillion (2015 est.)

$1.063 trillion (2014 est.)

$1 trillion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$493 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 63/225

4% (2015 est.)

6.3% (2014 est.)

5.4% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 157/230

$6,400 (2015 est.)

$6,100 (2014 est.)

$5,800 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 113/179

15.6% of GDP (2015 est.)

16% of GDP (2014 est.)

18.5% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 74.1%

government consumption: 7.7%

investment in fixed capital: 16.8%

investment in inventories: 0%

exports of goods and services: 13%

imports of goods and services: -11.6%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 20.3%

industry: 23.6%

services: 56.1% (2013 est.)

Agriculture - products

cocoa, peanuts, cotton, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (manioc, tapioca), yams, rubber; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; timber; fish

Industries

crude oil, coal, tin, columbite; rubber products, wood; hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel

Industrial production growth rate 181/202

-2.6% (2015 est.)

Labor force 11/233

57.46 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 70%

industry: 10%

services: 20% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate 176/207

23.9% (2011 est.)

4.9% (2011 est.)

Population below poverty line

70% (2010 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 1.8%

highest 10%: 38.2% (2010 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 47/144

43.7 (2003)

50.6 (1997)

Budget

revenues: $14.37 billion

expenditures: $21.29 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 218/219

2.9% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 59/220

-1.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 163/176

11.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

10.8% of GDP (2014 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 206/226

9.5% (2015 est.)

8.1% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 94/156

4.25% (31 December 2010)

6% (31 December 2009)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 24/184

17.3% (31 December 2015 est.)

16.55% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 62/192

$29.91 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$40.69 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 58/193

$89.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$111.5 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 55/191

$95.79 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$115 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 50/121

$56.39 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$39.27 billion (31 December 2011)

$50.88 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance 179/197

-$8.855 billion (2015 est.)

$1.2 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 51/224

$50.74 billion (2015 est.)

$82.59 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

petroleum and petroleum products 95%, cocoa, rubber (2012 est.)

Exports - partners

India 15.4%, Brazil 10.2%, Netherlands 8.5%, Spain 8.5%, South Africa 5.5%, France 5.4%, Germany 5.1%, Japan 4.4% (2014)

Imports 51/223

$48.41 billion (2015 est.)

$61.59 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals

Imports - partners

China 25.3%, US 9.7%, India 4.7% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 51/170

$28.76 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$36.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 85/206

$20.93 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$18.67 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 46/120

$95.57 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$92.75 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 57/105

$12.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$10.98 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

nairas (NGN) per US dollar -

196.9 (2015 est.)

158.55 (2014 est.)

158.55 (2013 est.)

156.81 (2012 est.)

154.7 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 68/220

27.27 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 68/219

24.78 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 178/218

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 183/219

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 71/214

6.09 million kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 121/214

65% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 154/214

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 66/214

33.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 88/212

1.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 12/214

2.423 million bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 5/214

2.411 million bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - imports 108/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 10/215

37.07 billion bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 73/214

101,900 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 45/212

280,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 76/214

16,120 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 31/213

180,900 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Natural gas - production 24/216

38.41 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 44/215

15.69 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports 13/215

22.12 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports 110/214

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 8/212

5.118 trillion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 44/212

86.4 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 130/219

total subscriptions: 180,000

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 10% (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 9/217

total: 139 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 78 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: further expansion and modernization of the fixed-line telephone network is needed; network quality remains a problem

domestic: the addition of a second fixed-line provider in 2002 resulted in faster growth, but subscribership remains only about 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular services growing rapidly, in part responding to the shortcomings of the fixed-line network; multiple cellular providers operate nationally with subscribership base approaching 60 per 100 persons

international: country code - 234; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2010)

Broadcast media

nearly 70 federal government-controlled national and regional TV stations; all 36 states operate TV stations; several private TV stations operational; cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; network of federal government-controlled national, regional, and state radio stations; roughly 40 state government-owned radio stations typically carry their own programs except for news broadcasts; about 20 private radio stations; transmissions of international broadcasters are available (2007)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 83, FM 36, shortwave 11 (2001)

Television broadcast stations

3 (the government controls 2 of the broadcasting stations and 15 repeater stations) (2001)

Internet country code

.ng

Internet hosts 169/232

1,234 (2012)

Internet users 9/217

total: 97 million

percent of population: 53.4% (2015 est.)

Transportation

Airports 88/236

54 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 40

over 3,047 m: 10

2,438 to 3,047 m: 12

1,524 to 2,437 m: 9

914 to 1,523 m: 6

under 914 m: 3 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 14

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 9

under 914 m: 3 (2013)

Heliports

5 (2013)

Pipelines

condensate 124 km; gas 4,045 km; liquid petroleum gas 164 km; oil 4,441 km; refined products 3,940 km (2013)

Railways 50/136

total: 3,798 km

standard gauge: 293 km 1.435-m gauge

narrow gauge: 3,505 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)

Roadways 27/223

total: 193,200 km

paved: 28,980 km

unpaved: 164,220 km (2004)

Waterways 15/107

8,600 km (Niger and Benue Rivers and smaller rivers and creeks) (2011)

Merchant marine 54/156

total: 89

by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 28, liquefied gas 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 56, specialized tanker 1

foreign-owned: 3 (India 1, UK 2)

registered in other countries: 33 (Bahamas 2, Bermuda 11, Comoros 1, Italy 1, Liberia 4, North Korea 1, Panama 6, Seychelles 1, unknown 6) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Bonny Inshore Terminal, Calabar, Lagos

LNG terminal(s) (export): Bonny Island

Military and Security

Military branches

Nigerian Armed Forces: Army, Navy, Air Force (2013)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)

Military expenditures 108/132

0.89% of GDP (2012)

0.98% of GDP (2011)

0.89% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Joint Border Commission with Cameroon reviewed 2002 ICJ ruling on the entire boundary and bilaterally resolved differences, including June 2006 Greentree Agreement that immediately cedes sovereignty of the Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon with a phaseout of Nigerian control within two years while resolving patriation issues; the ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but imprecisely defined coordinates in the ICJ decision and a sovereignty dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River all contribute to the delay in implementation; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries; location of Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint is unresolved

Refugees and internally displaced persons

IDPs: 2,151,979 (Boko Haram attacks and counterinsurgency efforts in northern Nigeria; communal violence between Christians and Muslims in the middle belt region, political violence; flooding; forced evictions; cattle rustling; competition for resources) (2015)

Illicit drugs

a transit point for heroin and cocaine intended for European, East Asian, and North American markets; consumer of amphetamines; safe haven for Nigerian narcotraffickers operating worldwide; major money-laundering center; massive corruption and criminal activity; Nigeria has improved some anti-money-laundering controls, resulting in its removal from the Financial Action Task Force's (FATF's) Noncooperative Countries and Territories List in June 2006; Nigeria's anti-money-laundering regime continues to be monitored by FATF