Norway

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Two centuries of Viking raids into Europe tapered off following the adoption of Christianity by King Olav TRYGGVASON in 994; conversion of the Norwegian kingdom occurred over the next several decades. In 1397, Norway was absorbed into a union with Denmark that lasted more than four centuries. In 1814, Norwegians resisted the cession of their country to Sweden and adopted a new constitution. Sweden then invaded Norway but agreed to let Norway keep its constitution in return for accepting the union under a Swedish king. Rising nationalism throughout the 19th century led to a 1905 referendum granting Norway independence. Although Norway remained neutral in World War I, it suffered heavy losses to its shipping. Norway proclaimed its neutrality at the outset of World War II, but was nonetheless occupied for five years by Nazi Germany (1940-45). In 1949, Norway abandoned neutrality and became a member of NATO. Discovery of oil and gas in adjacent waters in the late 1960s boosted Norway's economic fortunes. In referenda held in 1972 and 1994, Norway rejected joining the EU. Key domestic issues include immigration and integration of ethnic minorities, maintaining the country's extensive social safety net with an aging population, and preserving economic competitiveness.

Geography

Location

Northern Europe, bordering the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Sweden

Geographic coordinates

62.00° N, 10.00° E

Area 68/257

total: 323,802 sq km

land: 304,282 sq km

water: 19,520 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly larger than twice the size of Georgia; slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries

total: 2,566 km

border countries (3): Finland 709 km, Sweden 1,666 km, Russia 191 km

Coastline

25,148 km (includes mainland 2,650 km, as well as long fjords, numerous small islands, and minor indentations 22,498 km; length of island coastlines 58,133 km)

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 10 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm

Climate

temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior with increased precipitation and colder summers; rainy year-round on west coast

Terrain

glaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken by fertile valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented by fjords; arctic tundra in north

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Norwegian Sea 0 m

highest point: Galdhopiggen 2,469 m

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, titanium, pyrites, nickel, fish, timber, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 2.7%

arable land 2.2%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0.5%

forest: 27.8%

other: 69.5% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

900 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

382 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 2.94 cu km/yr (28%/43%/29%)

per capita: 622.4 cu m/yr (2006)

Natural hazards

rockslides, avalanches

volcanism: Beerenberg (elev. 2,227 m) on Jan Mayen Island in the Norwegian Sea is the country's only active volcano

Environment - current issues

water pollution; acid rain damaging forests and adversely affecting lakes, threatening fish stocks; air pollution from vehicle emissions

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

about two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off its much-indented coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes in North Atlantic; one of the most rugged and longest coastlines in the world

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Norwegian(s)

adjective: Norwegian

Ethnic groups

Norwegian 94.4% (includes Sami, about 60,000), other European 3.6%, other 2% (2007 est.)

Languages

Bokmal Norwegian (official), Nynorsk Norwegian (official), small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities

note: Sami is an official language in nine municipalities

Religions

Church of Norway (Evangelical Lutheran - official) 82.1%, other Christian 3.9%, Muslim 2.3%, Roman Catholic 1.8%, other 2.4%, unspecified 7.5% (2011 est.)

Population 121/238

5,207,689 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 18.08% (male 482,945/female 458,735)

15-24 years: 12.99% (male 347,535/female 329,113)

25-54 years: 40.91% (male 1,096,539/female 1,033,879)

55-64 years: 11.69% (male 308,142/female 300,895)

65 years and over: 16.32% (male 387,333/female 462,573) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 52.2%

youth dependency ratio: 27.3%

elderly dependency ratio: 24.9%

potential support ratio: 4% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 39.1 years

male: 38.3 years

female: 39.9 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 108/233

1.13% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 163/224

12.14 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 95/225

8.12 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 16/222

7.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 80.5% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 1.35% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

OSLO (capital) 986,000 (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

28.5

note: data is calculated based on actual age at first births (2012 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 167/184

5 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 220/224

total: 2.48 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 2.79 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 2.16 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 20/224

total population: 81.7 years

male: 79.7 years

female: 83.81 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 145/224

1.86 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

88.4%

note: percent of women aged 20-44 (2005)

Health expenditures 40/191

9.6% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

4.28 physicians/1,000 population (2012)

Hospital bed density

3.3 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 98% of population

rural: 98.3% of population

total: 98.1% of population

unimproved:

urban: 2% of population

rural: 1.7% of population

total: 1.9% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.15% (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

5,800 (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

less than 100 (2014 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 84/191

24.8% (2014)

Education expenditures 21/173

6.6% of GDP (2011)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 17 years

male: 17 years

female: 18 years (2012)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 109/134

total: 9.2%

male: 10.6%

female: 7.7% (2013 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Kingdom of Norway

conventional short form: Norway

local long form: Kongeriket Norge

local short form: Norge

etymology: derives from the Old Norse words "nordr" and "vegr" meaning "northern way" and referring to the long coastline of western Norway

Government type

constitutional monarchy

Capital

name: Oslo

geographic coordinates: 59.55° N, 10.45° E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

19 counties (fylker, singular - fylke); Akershus, Aust-Agder, Buskerud, Finnmark, Hedmark, Hordaland, More og Romsdal, Nordland, Nord-Trondelag, Oppland, Oslo, Ostfold, Rogaland, Sogn og Fjordane, Sor-Trondelag, Telemark, Troms, Vest-Agder, Vestfold

Dependent areas

Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard

Independence

7 June 1905 (Norway declared the union with Sweden dissolved); 26 October 1905 (Sweden agreed to the repeal of the union)

National holiday

Constitution Day, 17 May (1814)

Constitution

drafted spring 1814, adopted 16 May 1814, signed by Constituent Assembly 17 May 1814; amended over 400 times, last in 2014 (2015)

Legal system

mixed legal system of civil, common, and customary law; Supreme Court can advise on legislative acts

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Norway

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS, son of the monarch (born 20 July 1973)

head of government: Prime Minister Erna SOLBERG (since 16 October 2013)

cabinet: State Council appointed by the monarch, approved by Parliament

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following parliamentary elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch with the approval of the parliament

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament or Storting (169 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 9 September 2013 (next to be held in September 2017)

election results: percent of vote by party - Center-Right Coalition 54.0% (H 26.3%, FrP 16.3%, KrF 5.6%, V 5.2%), Red-Green Coalition 40.6% (Ap 30.8%, SP 5.5%, SV 4.1%), MDG 2.8, other 2.7%; seats by party - Center-Right Coalition 96 (H 48, FrP 29, KrF 10, V 9), Red-Green Coalition 72 (Ap 55, Sp 10, SV 7), MDG 1

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Hoyesterett (consists of the chief justice and 18 associate justices)

judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the monarch (King in Council) upon the recommendation of the Judicial Appointments Board; justice retirement mandatory at age 70

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal or Lagmensrett; regional and district courts; Conciliation Boards; ordinary and special courts; note - in addition to professionally trained judges, elected lay judges sit on the bench with professional judges in the Courts of Appeal and district courts

Political parties and leaders

Center Party or Sp [Trygve Slagsvold VEDUM]

Center-Right Coalition (includes FrP, H, KrF, V)

Christian Democratic Party or KrF [Knut Arild HAREIDE]

Conservative Party or H [Erna SOLBERG]

Green Party or MDG [Rasmus HANSSON and Hilde OPOKU]

Labor Party or Ap [Jonas Gahr STOHRE]

Liberal Party or V [Trine SKEI-GRANDE]

Progress Party or FrP [Siv JENSEN]

Red-Green Coalition (includes Ap, Sp, SV) [Jens STOLTENBERG]

Socialist Left Party or SV [Audun LYSBAKKEN]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Confederation of Norwegian Enterprise (Naeringslivets Hovedorganisasjon) or NHO [President Tore ULSTEIN; CEO Kristin SKOGEN LUND]

Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions (Landsorganisasjonen i Norge) or LO [Gerd KRISTIANSEN]

other: environmental groups; media; digital privacy movements

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EFTA, EITI (implementing country), ESA, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Flag description

red with a blue cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the colors recall Norway's past political unions with Denmark (red and white) and Sweden (blue)

National symbol(s)

lion; national colors: red, white, blue

National anthem

name: "Ja, vi elsker dette landet" (Yes, We Love This Country)

lyrics/music: lyrics/music: Bjornstjerne BJORNSON/Rikard NORDRAAK

note: adopted 1864; in addition to the national anthem, "Kongesangen" (Song of the King), which uses the tune of "God Save the Queen," serves as the royal anthem

Economy

Economy - overview

The Norwegian economy is a prosperous economy with a vibrant private sector, a large state sector, and an extensive social safety net. Norway opted to stay out of the EU during a referendum in November 1994; nonetheless, as a member of the European Economic Area, it contributes sizably to the EU budget.

The country is richly endowed with natural resources in addition to oil and gas, including hydropower, fish, forests, and minerals. The government manages the country’s petroleum resources through extensive regulation. The petroleum sector provides about 9% of jobs, 18.6% of GDP, and 46% of exports, according to official national estimates. Norway is one of the world's leading petroleum exporters, though oil production in 2014 was nearly 52% below its peak in 2000; annual gas production, conversely, more than doubled over the same time period.

In anticipation of eventual declines in oil and gas production, Norway saves state revenue from petroleum sector activities in the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, valued at over $800 billion as of mid-2015. The government allows itself to use up to 4% of the fund’s value, it’s annual expected real rate of return, to help balance the federal budget each year. After solid GDP growth in 2004-07, the economy slowed in 2008, and contracted in 2009, before returning to modest, positive growth from 2010-15. Lower oil prices in 2015 caused growth to slow; higher extraction costs, particularly in the Barents Sea, is also expected to deter investment.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 49/230

$352.8 billion (2015 est.)

$349.7 billion (2014 est.)

$342.2 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$397.6 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 183/225

0.9% (2015 est.)

2.2% (2014 est.)

0.7% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 11/230

$68,400 (2015 est.)

$67,800 (2014 est.)

$66,400 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 6/179

35.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

37.9% of GDP (2014 est.)

38.3% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 42.8%

government consumption: 22.8%

investment in fixed capital: 22.9%

investment in inventories: 5%

exports of goods and services: 36.4%

imports of goods and services: -29.9%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 1.7%

industry: 38.9%

services: 59.4% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

barley, wheat, potatoes; pork, beef, veal, milk; fish

Industries

petroleum and gas, shipping, fishing, aquaculture, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles

Industrial production growth rate 164/202

0% (2015 est.)

Labor force 106/233

2.777 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 2.2%

industry: 20.2%

services: 77.6% (2012)

Unemployment rate 43/207

4.4% (2015 est.)

3.5% (2014 est.)

Population below poverty line

NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.9%

highest 10%: 21% (2008)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 132/144

26.8 (2010)

25.8 (1995)

Budget

revenues: $220.2 billion

expenditures: $193.9 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 10/219

55.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 6/220

6.6% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 115/176

39.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

38.6% of GDP (2014 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data exclude treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 109/226

2% (2015 est.)

2% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 59/156

6.25% (31 December 2010)

1.75% (31 December 2009)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 176/184

2.1% (31 December 2015 est.)

2.25% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 33/192

$107.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$120.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 32/193

$323.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$310 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 23/191

$549.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$590.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 33/121

$252.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$219.2 billion (31 December 2011)

$250.9 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance 13/197

$27.73 billion (2015 est.)

$47.13 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 35/224

$106.2 billion (2015 est.)

$141.4 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

petroleum and petroleum products, machinery and equipment, metals, chemicals, ships, fish

Exports - partners

UK 22.9%, Germany 16.9%, Netherlands 12.9%, France 6%, Sweden 5.7%, Belgium 4.8% (2014)

Imports 38/223

$71.95 billion (2015 est.)

$91.13 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, foodstuffs

Imports - partners

Sweden 12.3%, Germany 11.9%, China 9.4%, UK 6.5%, US 6.2%, Denmark 6.1% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 33/170

$64.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$58.28 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Debt - external 22/206

$661.2 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$730.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

note: Norway is a net external creditor

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 23/120

$290.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$285.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 24/105

$256.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$256.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

Norwegian kroner (NOK) per US dollar -

7.88 (2015 est.)

6.3 (2014 est.)

6.3 (2013 est.)

5.82 (2012 est.)

5.61 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 28/220

134 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - consumption 28/219

119.5 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - exports 12/218

15.14 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 23/219

10.14 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 28/214

32.28 million kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 204/214

4.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 155/214

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 13/214

88.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 74/212

2.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 16/214

1.568 million bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 14/214

1.218 million bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports 57/214

37,080 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 23/215

5.497 billion bbl (1 January 2010 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 40/214

349,600 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 56/212

225,200 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 22/214

358,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 51/213

101,600 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production 8/216

112.6 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 55/215

6.075 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - exports 3/215

106.6 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - imports 111/214

0 cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 17/212

2.09 trillion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 67/212

41.06 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 72/219

total subscriptions: 1.16 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 22 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 111/217

total: 5.9 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 115 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: modern in all respects; one of the most advanced telecommunications networks in Europe

domestic: Norway has a domestic satellite system; the prevalence of rural areas encourages the wide use of mobile-cellular systems

international: country code - 47; 2 buried coaxial cable systems; submarine cables provide links to other Nordic countries and Europe; satellite earth stations - NA Eutelsat, NA Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Norway shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden) (2011)

Broadcast media

state-owned public radio-TV broadcaster operates 3 nationwide TV stations, 3 nationwide radio stations, and 16 regional radio stations; roughly a dozen privately owned television stations broadcast nationally and roughly another 25 local TV stations broadcasting; nearly 75% of households have access to multi-channel cable or satellite TV; 2 privately owned radio stations broadcast nationwide and another 240 stations operate locally (2008)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 5, FM 160, shortwave 1 (2008)

Television broadcast stations

69 (2008)

Internet country code

.no

Internet hosts 29/232

3.588 million (2012)

Internet users 70/217

total: 4.9 million

percent of population: 96.2% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 61/236

95 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 67

2,438 to 3,047 m: 14

1,524 to 2,437 m: 10

914 to 1,523 m: 22

under 914 m: 21 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 28

914 to 1,523 m: 6

under 914 m: 22 (2013)

Heliports

1 (2013)

Pipelines

condensate 578 km; condensate/gas 220 km; gas 8,044 km; oil 3,794 km; oil/gas/water 457 km; water 96 km (2013)

Railways 39/136

total: 4,250 km

standard gauge: 4,250 km 1.435-m gauge (2,518 km electrified) (2014)

Roadways 51/223

total: 93,870 km (includes 393 km of expressways)

paved: 75,754 km

unpaved: 18,116 km (2013)

Waterways 51/107

1,577 km (2010)

Merchant marine 19/156

total: 585

by type: bulk carrier 55, cargo 105, carrier 5, chemical tanker 121, combination ore/oil 12, liquefied gas 47, passenger 3, passenger/cargo 121, petroleum tanker 54, refrigerated cargo 9, roll on/roll off 4, vehicle carrier 49

foreign-owned: 81 (Bermuda 24, Canada 1, Cyprus 1, Denmark 7, France 5, Iceland 2, Lithuania 1, Saudi Arabia 3, Sweden 27, US 10)

registered in other countries: 974 (Antigua and Barbuda 9, Bahamas 186, Barbados 38, Belize 2, Bermuda 5, Brazil 3, Canada 4, Chile 1, Comoros 1, Cook Islands 8, Croatia 2, Curacao 2, Cyprus 14, Denmark 2, Dominica 1, Equatorial Guinea 1, Estonia 2, Faroe Islands 13, Gibraltar 46, Hong Kong 48, Indonesia 3, Isle of Man 30, Italy 6, Liberia 38, Libya 1, Malta 96, Marshall Islands 75, Netherlands 19, Panama 81, Portugal 2, Saint Kitts and Nevis 3, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 13, Singapore 153, Spain 10, Sweden 3, UK 32, US 17, Vanuatu 1, unknown 3) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Bergen, Haugesund, Maaloy, Mongstad, Narvik, Sture

LNG terminal(s) (export): Kamoy, Kollsnes, Melkoya Island

LNG terminal(s) (import): Fredrikstad, Mosjoen

Military and Security

Military branches

Norwegian Army (Haeren), Royal Norwegian Navy (Kongelige Norske Sjoeforsvaret, RNoN; includes Coastal Rangers and Coast Guard (Kystvakt)), Royal Norwegian Air Force (Kongelige Norske Luftforsvaret, RNoAF), Home Guard (Heimevernet, HV) (2013)

Military service age and obligation

19-35 years of age for male compulsory military service; 16 years of age in wartime; 17 years of age for male volunteers; 18 years of age for women; 1-year service obligation followed by 4-5 refresher training periods through ages 35-60, totalling 18 months (2012)

Military expenditures 72/132

1.4% of GDP (2012)

1.47% of GDP (2011)

1.4% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Norway asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Queen Maud Land and its continental shelf); Denmark (Greenland) and Norway have made submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental shelf (CLCS) and Russia is collecting additional data to augment its 2001 CLCS submission; Norway and Russia signed a comprehensive maritime boundary agreement in 2010

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 8,901 (Somalia); 11,202 (Eritrea); 5,190 (Iraq); 5,454 (Afghanistan) (2014)

stateless persons: 1,997 (2014)