Pakistan

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The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world and dating back at least 5,000 years, spread over much of what is presently Pakistan. During the second millennium B.C., remnants of this culture fused with the migrating Indo-Aryan peoples. The area underwent successive invasions in subsequent centuries from the Persians, Greeks, Scythians, Arabs (who brought Islam), Afghans, and Turks. The Mughal Empire flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries; the British came to dominate the region in the 18th century. The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with West and East sections) and largely Hindu India was never satisfactorily resolved, and India and Pakistan fought two wars - in 1947-48 and 1965 - over the disputed Kashmir territory. A third war between these countries in 1971 - in which India capitalized on Islamabad's marginalization of Bengalis in Pakistani politics - resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. In response to Indian nuclear weapons testing, Pakistan conducted its own tests in 1998. India-Pakistan relations have been rocky since the November 2008 Mumbai attacks, but both countries are taking steps to put relations back on track. Nawaz SHARIF took office as Prime Minister in 2013, marking the first time in Pakistani history that a democratically elected government completed a full term and transitioned to a successive democratically elected government.

Geography

Location

Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north

Geographic coordinates

30.00° N, 70.00° E

Area 36/257

total: 796,095 sq km

land: 770,875 sq km

water: 25,220 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly more than five times the size of Georgia; slightly less than twice the size of California

Land boundaries

total: 7,257 km

border countries (4): Afghanistan 2,670 km, China 438 km, India 3,190 km, Iran 959 km

Coastline

1,046 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate

mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north

Terrain

flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest; Balochistan plateau in west

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611 m

Natural resources

arable land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone

Land use

agricultural land: 35.2%

arable land 27.6%; permanent crops 1.1%; permanent pasture 6.5%

forest: 2.1%

other: 62.7% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

202,000 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

246.8 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 183.5 cu km/yr (5%/1%/94%)

per capita: 1,038 cu m/yr (2008)

Natural hazards

frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)

Environment - current issues

water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural freshwater resources; most of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note

controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Pakistani(s)

adjective: Pakistani

Ethnic groups

Punjabi 44.68%, Pashtun (Pathan) 15.42%, Sindhi 14.1%, Sariaki 8.38%, Muhajirs 7.57%, Balochi 3.57%, other 6.28%

Languages

Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Saraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashto (alternate name, Pashtu) 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official; lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski, and other 8%

Religions

Muslim (official) 96.4% (Sunni 85-90%, Shia 10-15%), other (includes Christian and Hindu) 3.6% (2010 est.)

Population 7/238

199,085,847 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 32.65% (male 33,396,847/female 31,611,641)

15-24 years: 21.44% (male 22,016,207/female 20,673,562)

25-54 years: 36.28% (male 37,526,930/female 34,701,271)

55-64 years: 5.28% (male 5,254,347/female 5,253,526)

65 years and over: 4.35% (male 4,036,727/female 4,614,789) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 65.3%

youth dependency ratio: 57.9%

elderly dependency ratio: 7.4%

potential support ratio: 13.5% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 23 years

male: 22.9 years

female: 23 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 82/233

1.46% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 72/224

22.58 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 149/225

6.49 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 157/222

-1.54 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 38.8% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 2.81% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

Karachi 16.618 million; Lahore 8.741 million; Faisalabad 3.567 million; Rawalpindi 2.506 million; Multan 1.921 million; ISLAMABAD (capital) 1.365 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.08 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female

total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

23.4

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012/13 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 44/184

178 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 26/224

total: 55.67 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 58.84 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 52.35 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 167/224

total population: 67.39 years

male: 65.47 years

female: 69.4 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 67/224

2.75 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

35.4% (2012/13)

Health expenditures 183/191

2.8% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

0.83 physicians/1,000 population (2010)

Hospital bed density

0.6 beds/1,000 population (2012)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 93.9% of population

rural: 89.9% of population

total: 91.4% of population

unimproved:

urban: 6.1% of population

rural: 10.1% of population

total: 8.6% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 83.1% of population

rural: 51.1% of population

total: 63.5% of population

unimproved:

urban: 16.9% of population

rural: 48.9% of population

total: 36.5% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.09% (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

93,900 (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

2,800 (2014 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 153/191

4.8% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight 11/138

31.6% (2013)

Education expenditures 164/173

2.5% of GDP (2013)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 8 years

male: 8 years

female: 7 years (2013)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 115/134

total: 7.7%

male: 7%

female: 10.5% (2008 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Pakistan

conventional short form: Pakistan

local long form: Jamhuryat Islami Pakistan

local short form: Pakistan

former: West Pakistan

etymology: the word "pak" means "pure" in Persian or Pashto, while the Persian suffix "-stan" means "place of" or "country," so the word Pakistan literally means "Land of the pure"

Government type

federal republic

Capital

name: Islamabad

geographic coordinates: 33.41° N, 73.03° E

time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital territory**; Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas*, Islamabad Capital Territory**, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (formerly North-West Frontier Province), Punjab, Sindh

note: the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region consists of 2 administrative entities: Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan

Independence

14 August 1947 (from British India)

National holiday

Pakistan Day (also referred to as Pakistan Resolution Day or Republic Day), 23 March (1940); note - commemorates both the adoption of the Lahore Resolution by the All-India Muslim League during its 22-24 March 1940 session, which called for the creation of independent Muslim states, and the adoption of the first constitution of Pakistan on 23 March 1956 during the transition to the Islamic Republic of Pakistan

Constitution

several previous; latest endorsed 12 April 1973, passed 19 April 1973, entered into force 14 August 1973 (suspended and restored several times); amended many times, last in 2015 (2015)

Legal system

common law system with Islamic law influence

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent: at least one parent must be a citizen of Pakistan

dual citizenship recognized: yes, but limited to select countries

residency requirement for naturalization: 4 out of the previous 7 years and including the 12 months preceding application

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal; note - there are joint electorates and reserved parliamentary seats for women and non-Muslims

Executive branch

chief of state: President Mamnoon HUSSAIN (since 9 September 2013)

head of government: Prime Minister Mohammad Nawaz SHARIF (since 5 June 2013)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president upon the advice of the prime minister

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the Electoral College consisting of members of the Senate, National Assembly, and provincial assemblies for a 5-year term (eligible for reelection); election last held on 9 September 2013 (next to be held in 2018); prime minister selected by the National Assembly

election results: Mamnoon HUSSAIN elected president; Mamnoon HUSSAIN (PML-N) 432 votes, Wajihuddin AHMED (PTI) 77 votes

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora consists of the Senate (104 seats; members indirectly elected by the 4 provincial assemblies and the territories' representatives by proportional representation vote; members serve 6-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years) and the National Assembly (342 seats; 272 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 70 members - 60 women and 10 non-Muslims - directly elected by proportional representation vote; all members serve 5-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held on 5 March 2015 (next to be held in March 2018); National Assembly - last held on 11 May 2013 (next to be held by 2018)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PPPP 27, PML-N 26, MQM 8, ANP 6, PTI 7, JUI-F 5, PML-Q 4, BNP-A 2, NP 1, PML-F 1, other 7, independent 10; National Assembly - percent of votes by party - NA; seats by party as of June 2013 - PML-N 126, PPPP 31, PTI 28, MQM 18, JUI-F 10, PML-F 5, other 22, independent 25, unfilled seats 7; 60 seats reserved for women, 10 seats reserved for non-Muslims; seats by party as of August 2015 (includes women and non-Muslim seats) - PML-N 188, PPPP 46, PTI 33, MQM 24, JUI-F 13, PML-F 5, other 24, independent 9

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Pakistan (consists of the chief justice and 16 judges)

judge selection and term of office: justices nominated by an 8-member parliamentary committee upon the recommendation of the Judicial Commission (a 9-member body of judges and other judicial professionals), and appointed by the president of Pakistan; justices can serve until age 65

subordinate courts: High Courts; Federal Shariat Court; provincial and district civil and criminal courts; specialized courts for issues such as taxation, banking, customs, etc.

Political parties and leaders

Awami National Party or ANP [Mian Iftikhar HUSSAIN]

Balochistan National Party-Awami or BNP-A [Mir Israr Ullah ZEHRI]

Balochistan National Party-Mengal or BNP-M [Sardar Akhtar Jan MENGAL]

Jamaat-i Islami or JI [Sirajul HAQ]

Jamiat-i Ulema-i Islam Fazl-ur Rehman or JUI-F [Fazlur REHMAN]

Muttahida Qaumi Movement or MQM [Altaf HUSSAIN]

Pakhtun khwa Milli Awami Party or PkMAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]

Pakistan Muslim League-Functional or PML-F [Pir PAGARO or Syed Shah Mardan SHAH-II]

Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz or PML-N [Nawaz SHARIF]

Pakistan Peoples Party Parliamentarians or PPPP [Bilawal Bhutto ZARDARI and Asif Ali ZARDARI]

Pakistan Tehrik-e Insaaf or PTI [Imran KHAN]

Quami Watan Party or QWP [Aftab Ahmed Khan SHERPAO]

note: political alliances in Pakistan shift frequently

Political pressure groups and leaders

other: military; ulema (clergy); landowners; industrialists; small merchants

International organization participation

ADB, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), C, CICA, CP, D-8, ECO, FAO, G-11, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, PCA, SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Flag description

green with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam

National symbol(s)

star and crescent, jasmine; national colors: green, white

National anthem

name: "Qaumi Tarana" (National Anthem)

lyrics/music: Abu-Al-Asar Hafeez JULLANDHURI/Ahmed Ghulamali CHAGLA

note: adopted 1954; also known as "Pak sarzamin shad bad" (Blessed Be the Sacred Land)

Economy

Economy - overview

Decades of internal political disputes and low levels of foreign investment have led to slow growth and underdevelopment in Pakistan. Agriculture accounts for more than one-fourth of output and two-fifths of employment. Textiles account for most of Pakistan's export earnings, and Pakistan's failure to diversify its exports has left the country vulnerable to shifts in world demand. Pakistan's human development continues to lag behind most of the region. Official unemployment was 6.5% in 2015, but this fails to capture the true picture, because much of the economy is informal and underemployment remains high.

As a result of political and macroeconomic instability, the Pakistani rupee has depreciated more than 40% since 2007. The government agreed to an International Monetary Fund Standby Arrangement in November 2008 to prevent a balance of payments crisis, but the IMF ended the Arrangement early because of Pakistan's failure to implement required reforms. Although the economy has stabilized, it continues to underperform. Foreign investment has not returned to levels seen during the mid-2000s due to investor concerns related to governance, electricity shortages, and a slow-down in the global economy. Remittances from overseas workers, averaging more than $1 billion a month, remain a bright spot for Pakistan.

After a small current account surplus in fiscal year 2011 (July 2010/June 2011), Pakistan's current account turned to a deficit spurred by higher prices for imported oil and lower prices for exported cotton. Falling global oil prices in 2015 contributed to a narrowing current account deficit and decreasing inflation, despite weak export performance. In September 2013, after facing balance of payments concerns, Pakistan entered into a three-year, $6.7 billion IMF Extended Fund Facility. The SHARIF government has since made modest progress implementing fiscal and energy reforms, and in December 2015 the IMF described Pakistan's near-term economic outlook as “broadly favorable.”

Pakistan remains stuck in a low-income, low-growth trap, with growth averaging about 3.5% per year from 2008 to 2014. Pakistan must address long standing issues related to government revenues and the electricity and natural gas sectors in order to spur the amount of economic growth that will be necessary to employ its growing and rapidly urbanizing population, more than half of which is under 22. Other long term challenges include expanding investment in education and healthcare, adapting to the effects of climate change and natural disasters, and reducing dependence on foreign donors..

GDP (purchasing power parity) 27/230

$930.8 billion (2015 est.)

$884.2 billion (2014 est.)

$836.3 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$247.8 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 59/225

4.2% (2015 est.)

4.1% (2014 est.)

3.7% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 171/230

$4,900 (2015 est.)

$4,700 (2014 est.)

$4,600 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 123/179

14.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

13.7% of GDP (2014 est.)

13.9% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 79.2%

government consumption: 11.8%

investment in fixed capital: 13.5%

investment in inventories: 1.6%

exports of goods and services: 10.9%

imports of goods and services: -17.1%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 25.5%

industry: 19%

services: 55.5% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs

Industries

textiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer, shrimp

Industrial production growth rate 67/202

3.6% (2015 est.)

Labor force 10/233

63.34 million

note: extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of child labor (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 43.7%

industry: 22.4%

services: 33.9% (FY2013 est.)

Unemployment rate 77/207

6.5% (2015 est.)

6.7% (2014 est.)

note: substantial underemployment exists

Population below poverty line

22.3% (FY2011 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 4.2%

highest 10%: 25.6% (FY2011)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 123/144

29.6 (FY2011)

31.4 (FY2008)

Budget

revenues: $38.75 billion

expenditures: $53.11 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 188/219

15.6% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 179/220

-5.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 55/176

64.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

65.1% of GDP (2014 est.)

Fiscal year

1 July - 30 June

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 167/226

4.5% (2015 est.)

8.6% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 63/156

6% (18 December 2014)

9.5% (31 December 2013)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 126/184

6.46% (31 December 2015 est.)

9.74% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 39/192

$87.01 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$77.03 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 54/193

$107 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$97.95 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 51/191

$112 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$100 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 55/121

$43.68 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$32.76 billion (31 December 2011)

$38.17 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance 154/197

-$2.627 billion (2015 est.)

-$3.13 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 68/224

$23.67 billion (2015 est.)

$25.11 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, yarn), rice, leather goods, sporting goods, chemicals, manufactures, carpets and rugs

Exports - partners

US 15.6%, China 9.2%, Afghanistan 8.3%, UK 6.7%, Germany 4.9%, UAE 4.3% (2014)

Imports 219/223

$45.83 million (2015 est.)

$45.07 million (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, transportation equipment, edible oils, paper and paperboard, iron and steel, tea

Imports - partners

China 22.7%, UAE 14.7%, Saudi Arabia 7.8%, Kuwait 5.4%, Indonesia 4.5% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 60/170

$18.68 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$14.41 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 58/206

$63.58 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$61.97 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 68/120

$31.17 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$29.37 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 79/105

$1.897 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$1.847 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

Pakistani rupees (PKR) per US dollar -

101.45 (FY2015 est.)

102.89 (FY2014 est.)

101.1 (FY2013 est.)

93.4 (2012 est.)

86.3434 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 35/220

97.8 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 38/219

78.89 billion kWh (FY2013 est.)

Electricity - exports 183/218

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 78/219

392 million kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 201/214

24,380 kW (FY2013 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 119/214

67.1% of total installed capacity (FY2013 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 26/214

3.2% of total installed capacity (FY2013 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 79/214

29.2% of total installed capacity (FY2013 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 102/212

0.4% of total installed capacity (FY2013 est.)

Crude oil - production 46/214

98,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 175/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - imports 25/214

372,800 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 55/215

371 million bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 49/214

228,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 36/212

434,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 77/214

16,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 30/213

210,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Natural gas - production 22/216

38.55 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 22/215

41.22 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports 163/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports 120/214

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 28/212

754.6 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 34/212

146.9 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 31/219

total subscriptions: 4.9 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 11/217

total: 135.8 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 69 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: the telecommunications infrastructure is improving dramatically with foreign and domestic investments in fixed-line and mobile-cellular networks; system consists of microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, cellular, and satellite networks;

domestic: mobile-cellular subscribership has skyrocketed, exceeding 110 million by the end of 2011, up from only about 300,000 in 2000; more than 90 percent of Pakistanis live within areas that have cell phone coverage, and more than half of all Pakistanis have access to a cell phone; fiber systems are being constructed throughout the country to aid in network growth; fixed line availability has risen only marginally over the same period, and there are still difficulties getting fixed-line service to rural areas

international: country code - 92; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable systems that provide links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); 3 operational international gateway exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at Islamabad); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries (2011)

Broadcast media

media is government regulated; 1 dominant state-owned TV broadcaster, Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV), operates a network consisting of 5 channels; private TV broadcasters are permitted; to date 69 foreign satellite channels are operational; the state-owned radio network operates more than 40 stations; nearly 100 commercially licensed privately owned radio stations provide programming mostly limited to music and talk shows (2007)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 31, FM 68, shortwave NA (2006)

Television broadcast stations

20 (5 state-run channels and 15 privately-owned satellite channels) (2006)

Internet country code

.pk

Internet hosts 57/232

365,813 (2012)

Internet users 27/217

total: 21.3 million

percent of population: 10.8% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 37/236

151 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 108

over 3,047 m: 15

2,438 to 3,047 m: 20

1,524 to 2,437 m: 43

914 to 1,523 m: 20

under 914 m: 10 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 43

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 9

914 to 1,523 m: 9

under 914 m: 24 (2013)

Heliports

23 (2013)

Pipelines

gas 12,646 km; oil 2,576 km; refined products 1,087 km (2013)

Railways 27/136

total: 7,789 km

broad gauge: 7,477 km 1.676-m gauge (293 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 312 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)

Roadways 20/223

total: 262,256 km

paved: 189,218 km (includes 708 km of expressways)

unpaved: 73,038 km (2010)

Merchant marine 111/156

total: 11

by type: bulk carrier 5, cargo 3, petroleum tanker 3

registered in other countries: 11 (Comoros 5, Marshall Islands 1, Moldova 1, Panama 3, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Karachi, Port Muhammad Bin Qasim

container port(s) (TEUs): Karachi (1,545,434)

LNG terminal(s) (import): Port Qasim

Military and Security

Military branches

Pakistan Army (includes National Guard), Pakistan Navy (includes Maritime Security Agency), Pakistan Air Force (Pakistan Fiza'ya) (2015)

Military service age and obligation

16-23 years of age for voluntary military service; soldiers cannot be deployed for combat until age 18; the Pakistani Air Force and Pakistani Navy have inducted their first female pilots and sailors; the Pakistan Air Force recruits aviation technicians at age 15; service obligation (Navy) 10-18 years; retirement required after 18-30 years service or age 40-52 (2012)

Military expenditures 21/132

3.5% of GDP (2013)

3.5% of GDP (2012)

3.2% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

various talks and confidence-building measures cautiously have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, particularly since the October 2005 earthquake in the region; Kashmir nevertheless remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; India and Pakistan have maintained their 2004 cease-fire in Kashmir and initiated discussions on defusing the armed standoff in the Siachen glacier region; Pakistan protests India's fencing the highly militarized Line of Control and construction of the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River in Jammu and Kashmir, which is part of the larger dispute on water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries; to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show the Junagadh claim in India's Gujarat State; since 2002, with UN assistance, Pakistan has repatriated 3.8 million Afghan refugees, leaving about 2.6 million; Pakistan has sent troops across and built fences along some remote tribal areas of its treaty-defined Durand Line border with Afghanistan, which serve as bases for foreign terrorists and other illegal activities; Afghan, Coalition, and Pakistan military meet periodically to clarify the alignment of the boundary on the ground and on maps

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 3 million (1.6 million registered, 1.4 million undocumented) (Afghanistan) (2015)

IDPs: more than 1.8 million (primarily those who remain displaced by counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency operations and violent conflict between armed non-state groups in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Khyber-Paktunkwa Province; more than 1 million displaced in Northern Waziristan in 2014; individuals also have been displaced by repeated monsoon floods) (2015)

Illicit drugs

significant transit area for Afghan drugs, including heroin, opium, morphine, and hashish, bound for Iran, Western markets, the Gulf States, Africa, and Asia; financial crimes related to drug trafficking, terrorism, corruption, and smuggling remain problems; opium poppy cultivation estimated to be 2,300 hectares in 2007 with 600 of those hectares eradicated; federal and provincial authorities continue to conduct anti-poppy campaigns that utilizes forced eradication, fines, and arrests