Peru

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Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by Spanish conquistadors in 1533. Peruvian independence was declared in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces were defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime, which led to his resignation in 2000. A caretaker government oversaw a new election in the spring of 2001, which installed Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique as the new head of government - Peru's first democratically elected president of indigenous ethnicity. The presidential election of 2006 saw the return of Alan GARCIA Perez who, after a disappointing presidential term from 1985 to 1990, oversaw a robust economic rebound. In June 2011, former army officer Ollanta HUMALA Tasso was elected president; he has carried on the sound, market-oriented economic policies of the three preceding administrations.

Geography

Location

Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador

Geographic coordinates

10.00° S, 76.00° W

Area 20/257

total: 1,285,216 sq km

land: 1,279,996 sq km

water: 5,220 sq km

Area - comparative

almost twice the size of Texas; slightly smaller than Alaska

Land boundaries

total: 7,062 km

border countries (5): Bolivia 1,212 km, Brazil 2,659 km, Chile 168 km, Colombia 1,494 km, Ecuador 1,529 km

Coastline

2,414 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm

Climate

varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes

Terrain

western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m

Natural resources

copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas

Land use

agricultural land: 18.8%

arable land 3.1%; permanent crops 1.1%; permanent pasture 14.6%

forest: 53%

other: 28.2% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

25,800 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

1,913 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 19.34 cu km/yr (8%/10%/82%)

per capita: 727.6 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards

earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity

volcanism: volcanic activity in the Andes Mountains; Ubinas (elev. 5,672 m), which last erupted in 2009, is the country's most active volcano; other historically active volcanoes include El Misti, Huaynaputina, Sabancaya, and Yucamane

Environment - current issues

deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes

Environment - international agreements

party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia; a remote slope of Nevado Mismi, a 5,316 m peak, is the ultimate source of the Amazon River

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Peruvian(s)

adjective: Peruvian

Ethnic groups

Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%

Languages

Spanish (official) 84.1%, Quechua (official) 13%, Aymara (official) 1.7%, Ashaninka 0.3%, other native languages (includes a large number of minor Amazonian languages) 0.7%, other (includes foreign languages and sign language) 0.2% (2007 est.)

Religions

Roman Catholic 81.3%, Evangelical 12.5%, other 3.3%, none 2.9% (2007 est.)

Population 44/238

30,444,999 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 26.95% (male 4,174,434/female 4,029,691)

15-24 years: 18.93% (male 2,884,314/female 2,877,403)

25-54 years: 39.65% (male 5,801,997/female 6,268,941)

55-64 years: 7.45% (male 1,103,641/female 1,164,821)

65 years and over: 7.03% (male 1,013,806/female 1,125,951) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 53.2%

youth dependency ratio: 42.7%

elderly dependency ratio: 10.5%

potential support ratio: 9.6% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 27.3 years

male: 26.6 years

female: 28.1 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 120/233

0.97% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 100/224

18.28 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 164/225

6.01 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 174/222

-2.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 78.6% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 1.69% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

LIMA (capital) 9.897 million; Arequipa 850,000; Trujillo 798,000 (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

22.2

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 90/184

68 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 89/224

total: 19.59 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 21.79 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 17.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 130/224

total population: 73.48 years

male: 71.45 years

female: 75.6 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 99/224

2.18 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

75.5% (2012)

Health expenditures 140/191

5.3% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

1.13 physicians/1,000 population (2012)

Hospital bed density

1.5 beds/1,000 population (2012)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 91.4% of population

rural: 69.2% of population

total: 86.7% of population

unimproved:

urban: 8.6% of population

rural: 30.8% of population

total: 13.3% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 82.5% of population

rural: 53.2% of population

total: 76.2% of population

unimproved:

urban: 17.5% of population

rural: 46.8% of population

total: 23.8% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.36% (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

71,900 (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

2,500 (2014 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 117/191

20.4% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight 103/138

3.5% (2012)

Education expenditures 145/173

3.3% of GDP (2013)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 13 years

male: 13 years

female: 13 years (2010)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 101/134

total: 8.8%

male: 8.3%

female: 9.3% (2013 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Peru

conventional short form: Peru

local long form: Republica del Peru

local short form: Peru

etymology: exact meaning is obscure, but the name may derive from a native word "biru" meaning "river"

Government type

constitutional republic

Capital

name: Lima

geographic coordinates: 12.03° S, 77.03° W

time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

25 regions (regiones, singular - region) and 1 province* (provincia); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Lima*, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali

note: Callao, the largest port in Peru, is also referred to as a constitutional province, the only province of the the Callao region

Independence

28 July 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday

Independence Day, 28 July (1821)

Constitution

several previous; latest promulgated 29 December 1993, enacted 31 December 1993; amended several times, last in 2009 (2015)

Legal system

civil law system

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent: yes

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 2 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 70

Executive branch

chief of state: President Ollanta HUMALA Tasso (since 28 July 2011); First Vice President Marisol ESPINOZA Cruz (since 28 July 2011); Second Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Ollanta HUMALA Tasso (since 28 July 2011); First Vice President Marisol ESPINOZA Cruz (since 28 July 2011); Second Vice President (vacant)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for nonconsecutive terms); election last held on 10 April 2011 with runoff on 6 June 2011 (next to be held in April 2016)

election results: Ollanta HUMALA Tasso elected president; percent of vote - Ollanta HUMALA Tasso (Peruvian Nationalist Party) 51.5%, Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi (Fuerza Popular) 48.5%

note: Prime Minister Pedro CATERIANO Bellido (since 2 April 2015) does not exercise executive power; this power rests with the president; note - Prime Minister Ana JARA was removed from office by Congress in a vote of no confidence on 30 March 2015

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la Republica del Peru (130 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 10 April 2011 with run-off election on 6 June 2011 (next to be held in April 2016)

election results: percent of vote by party - Gana Peru 25.3%, Fuerza 2011 23%, PP 14.8%, Alliance for Great Change 14.4%, National Solidarity 10.2%, Peruvian Aprista Party 6.4%, other 5.9%; seats by party - Gana Peru 47, Fuerza 2011 37, PP 21, Alliance for Great Change 12, National Solidarity 9, Peruvian Aprista Party 4; seats by bloc party as of 10 March 2014 - Gana Peru 43, Fuerza Popular (formerly Fuerza 2011) 36, PP 10, Accion Popular-Frente Amplio 10, National Solidarity 9, Union Regional 8, Partido Popular Cristiano-Alianza Para el Progreso 7, Concertacion Parlamentaria 6, Independent 1; note - defections by members of the National Assembly are commonplace, resulting in the formation of new blocs and frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the various blocs

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 16 judges and divided into civil, criminal, and constitutional-social sectors)

judge selection and term of office: justices proposed by the National Council of the Judiciary or National Judicial Council (a 7-member independent body), nominated by the president, and confirmed by the Congress (all appointments reviewed by the Council every 7 years); justices appointed for life or until age 70

subordinate courts: Court of Constitutional Guarantees; Superior Courts or Cortes Superiores; specialized civil, criminal, and mixed courts; 2 types of peace courts in which professional judges and selected members of the local communities preside

Political parties and leaders

Alliance for Progress (Alianza para el Progreso) or APP [Cesar ACUNA Peralta]

Fuerza Popular (formerly Fuerza 2011) [Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi]

National Solidarity (Solidaridad Nacional) or SN [Luis CASTANEDA Lossio]

Peru Posible or PP (a coalition of Accion Popular and Somos Peru) [Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique]

Peruvian Aprista Party (Partido Aprista Peruano) or PAP [Alan GARCIA Perez] (also referred to by its original name Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana or APRA)

Peruvian Nationalist Party [Ollanta HUMALA]

Popular Christian Party (Partido Popular Cristiano) or PPC [Lourdes FLORES Nano]

Wide Front (Frente Amplio), a coalition of left-of-center parties including Tierra y Libertad [Marco ARANA Zegarra], Ciudadanos por el Gran Cambio [Salomon LERNER Ghitis], and Fuerza Social [Susana VILLARAN de la Puente]

Political pressure groups and leaders

General Workers Confederation of Peru (Confederacion General de Trabajadores del Peru) or CGTP [Mario HUAMAN]

Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) or SL [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Victor QUISPE Palomino (top leader at-large)] (leftist guerrilla group)

International organization participation

APEC, BIS, CAN, CD, CELAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Flag description

three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna (representing fauna), a cinchona tree (the source of quinine, signifying flora), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out coins (denoting mineral wealth); red recalls blood shed for independence, white symbolizes peace

National symbol(s)

vicuna (a camelid related to the llama); national colors: red, white

National anthem

name: "Himno Nacional del Peru" (National Anthem of Peru)

lyrics/music: Jose DE LA TORRE Ugarte/Jose Bernardo ALZEDO

note: adopted 1822; the song won a national anthem contest

Economy

Economy - overview

Peru's economy reflects its varied topography - an arid lowland coastal region, the central high sierra of the Andes, the dense forest of the Amazon, with tropical lands bordering Colombia and Brazil. A wide range of important mineral resources are found in the mountainous and coastal areas, and Peru's coastal waters provide excellent fishing grounds. Peru is the world's second largest producer of silver and third largest producer of copper.

The Peruvian economy grew by an average of 5.6% from 2009-13 with a stable exchange rate and low inflation, which in 2013 was just below the upper limit of the Central Bank target range of 1 to 3%. This growth was due partly to high international prices for Peru's metals and minerals exports, which account for almost 60% of the country's total exports. Growth slipped in 2014 and 2015, due to weaker world prices for these resources. Despite Peru's strong macroeconomic performance, dependence on minerals and metals exports and imported foodstuffs makes the economy vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices.

Peru's rapid expansion coupled with cash transfers and other programs have helped to reduce the national poverty rate by 28 percentage points since 2002, but inequality persists and continues to pose a challenge for the Ollanta HUMALA administration, which has championed a policy of social inclusion and a more equitable distribution of income. Poor infrastructure hinders the spread of growth to Peru's non-coastal areas. The HUMALA administration passed several economic stimulus packages in 2014 to bolster growth, including reforms to environmental regulations in order to spur investment in Peru’s lucrative mining sector, a move that was opposed by some environmental groups. However, in 2015, mining investment fell as global commodity prices remained low and social conflicts plagued the sector.

Peru's free trade policy has continued under the HUMALA administration; since 2006, Peru has signed trade deals with the US, Canada, Singapore, China, Korea, Mexico, Japan, the EU, the European Free Trade Association, Chile, Thailand, Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela, concluded negotiations with Guatemala and the Trans-Pacific Partnership, and begun trade talks with Honduras, El Salvador, India, Indonesia, and Turkey. Peru also has signed a trade pact with Chile, Colombia, and Mexico, called the Pacific Alliance, that seeks integration of services, capital, investment and movement of people. Since the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement entered into force in February 2009, total trade between Peru and the United States has doubled.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 48/230

$385.4 billion (2015 est.)

$376.3 billion (2014 est.)

$367.7 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$179.9 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 127/225

2.4% (2015 est.)

2.4% (2014 est.)

5.8% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 124/230

$12,300 (2015 est.)

$12,000 (2014 est.)

$11,700 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 71/179

21.6% of GDP (2015 est.)

22.2% of GDP (2014 est.)

23.6% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 63.2%

government consumption: 12.7%

investment in fixed capital: 23.8%

investment in inventories: 1.1%

exports of goods and services: 22.4%

imports of goods and services: -23.2%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 7%

industry: 34.5%

services: 58.5% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

artichokes, asparagus, avocados, blueberries, coffee, cocoa, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges, pineapples, guavas, bananas, apples, lemons, pears, coca, tomatoes, mangoes, barley, medicinal plants, quinoa, palm oil, marigold, onion, wheat, dry beans; poultry, beef, pork, dairy products; guinea pigs; fish

Industries

mining and refining of minerals; steel, metal fabrication; petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas and natural gas liquefaction; fishing and fish processing, cement, glass, textiles, clothing, food processing, beer, soft drinks, rubber, machinery, electrical machinery, chemicals, furniture

Industrial production growth rate 165/202

-0.3% (2015 est.)

Labor force 38/233

16.8 million

note: individuals older than 14 years of age (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 25.8%

industry: 17.4%

services: 56.8% (2011)

Unemployment rate 70/207

6.1% (2015 est.)

5.5% (2014 est.)

note: data are for metropolitan Lima; widespread underemployment

Population below poverty line

25.8% (2012 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 1.4%

highest 10%: 36.1% (2010 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 42/144

45.3 (2012)

51 (2005)

Budget

revenues: $62.34 billion

expenditures: $63.34 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 64/219

34.6% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 48/220

-0.6% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 153/176

19.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

20.1% of GDP (2014 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued by government entities other than the treasury; the data exclude treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 144/226

3.6% (2015 est.)

3.2% (2014 est.)

note: data are for metropolitan Lima, annual average

Central bank discount rate 74/156

5.05% (31 December 2012)

5.05% (31 December 2011)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 32/184

15.9% (31 December 2015 est.)

15.74% (31 December 2014 est.)

note: domestic currency lending rate, 90 day maturity

Stock of narrow money 60/192

$32.08 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$32.81 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 57/193

$91.26 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$84.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 63/191

$48.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$48.24 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 39/121

$153.4 billion (31 December 2012)

$121.6 billion (31 December 2011)

$160.9 billion (31 December 2010)

Current account balance 175/197

-$6.687 billion (2015 est.)

-$8.03 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 59/224

$36.35 billion (2015 est.)

$39.53 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

copper, gold, lead, zinc, tin, iron ore, molybdenum, silver; crude petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas; coffee, asparagus and other vegetables, fruit, apparel and textiles, fishmeal, fish, chemicals, fabricated metal products and machinery, alloys

Exports - partners

China 18.3%, US 16.1%, Switzerland 6.9%, Canada 6.6%, Brazil 4.2%, Japan 4.1% (2014)

Imports 55/223

$38.97 billion (2015 est.)

$40.81 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, plastics, machinery, vehicles, TV sets, power shovels, front-end loaders, telephones and telecommunication equipment, iron and steel, wheat, corn, soybean products, paper, cotton, vaccines and medicines

Imports - partners

China 21%, US 21%, Brazil 4.7%, Mexico 4.6%, Ecuador 4.2% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 36/170

$58.99 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$62.51 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 60/206

$61.27 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$56.51 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 49/120

$87.13 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$79.65 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 75/105

$3.037 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$3.561 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

nuevo sol (PEN) per US dollar -

3.19 (2015 est.)

2.84 (2014 est.)

2.84 (2013 est.)

2.64 (2012 est.)

2.75 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 59/220

39.07 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 59/219

35.69 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 94/218

2 million kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - imports 189/219

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 56/214

9.705 million kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 125/214

63.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 163/214

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 64/214

35.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 95/212

0.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 51/214

69,300 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 55/214

27,500 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - imports 44/214

110,600 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 43/215

741.2 million bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 50/214

223,500 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 55/212

226,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 46/214

87,600 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 75/213

57,590 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Natural gas - production 39/216

12.2 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 56/215

5.9 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports 28/215

5.6 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports 119/214

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 32/212

435.4 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 57/212

53.58 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 48/219

total subscriptions: 3.03 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 10 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 38/217

total: 31.7 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 105 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: adequate for most requirements; nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations

domestic: fixed-line teledensity is only about 12 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity, spurred by competition among multiple providers, exceeds 100 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 51; the South America-1 (SAM-1) and Pan American (PAN-AM) submarine cable systems provide links to parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2010)

Broadcast media

10 major TV networks of which only one, Television Nacional de Peru, is state owned; multi-channel cable TV services are available; in excess of 2,000 radio stations including a substantial number of indigenous language stations (2010)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 472, FM 198, shortwave 189 (1999)

Television broadcast stations

13 (plus 112 repeaters) (1997)

Internet country code

.pe

Internet hosts 70/232

234,102 (2012)

Internet users 39/217

total: 12.3 million

percent of population: 40.9% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 30/236

191 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 59

over 3,047 m: 5

2,438 to 3,047 m: 21

1,524 to 2,437 m: 16

914 to 1,523 m: 12

under 914 m: 5 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 132

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 19

914 to 1,523 m: 30

under 914 m: 82 (2013)

Heliports

5 (2013)

Pipelines

extra heavy crude 786 km; gas 1,526 km; liquid petroleum gas 679 km; oil 1,033 km; refined products 15 km (2013)

Railways 74/136

total: 1,854.4 km

standard gauge: 1,730.4 km 1.435-m gauge (34 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 124 km 0.914-m gauge (2014)

Roadways 35/223

total: 140,672 km (18,699 km paved)

note: includes 24,593 km of national roads (14,748 km paved), 24,235 km of departmental roads (2,340 km paved), and 91,844 km of local roads (1,611 km paved) (2012)

Waterways 14/107

8,808 km (8,600 km of navigable tributaries on the Amazon system and 208 km on Lago Titicaca) (2011)

Merchant marine 92/156

total: 22

by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 5, liquefied gas 2, petroleum tanker 13

foreign-owned: 8 (Chile 6, Ecuador 1, Spain 1)

registered in other countries: 9 (Panama 9) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Callao, Matarani, Paita

river port(s): Iquitos, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas (Amazon)

oil terminals: Conchan oil terminal, La Pampilla oil terminal

container port(s) (TEUs): Callao (1,616,365)

Military and Security

Military branches

Peruvian Army (Ejercito Peruano), Peruvian Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru, MGP; includes naval air, naval infantry, and Coast Guard), Air Force of Peru (Fuerza Aerea del Peru, FAP) (2013)

Military service age and obligation

18-50 years of age for male and 18-45 years of age for female voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)

Military expenditures 78/132

1.28% of GDP (2012)

1.15% of GDP (2011)

1.28% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Chile and Ecuador rejected Peru's November 2005 unilateral legislation to shift the axis of their joint treaty-defined maritime boundaries along the parallels of latitude to equidistance lines which favor Peru; organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia have penetrated Peru's shared border; Peru rejects Bolivia's claim to restore maritime access through a sovereign corridor through Chile along the Peruvian border

Refugees and internally displaced persons

IDPs: at least 150,000 (civil war from 1980-2000; most IDPs are indigenous peasants in Andean and Amazonian regions; as of 2011, no new information on the situation of these IDPs) (2014)

Illicit drugs

until 1996 the world's largest coca leaf producer, Peru is now the world's second largest producer of coca leaf, though it lags far behind Colombia; cultivation of coca in Peru was estimated at 40,000 hectares in 2009, a slight decrease over 2008; second largest producer of cocaine, estimated at 225 metric tons of potential pure cocaine in 2009; finished cocaine is shipped out from Pacific ports to the international drug market; increasing amounts of base and finished cocaine, however, are being moved to Brazil, Chile, Argentina, and Bolivia for use in the Southern Cone or transshipment to Europe and Africa; increasing domestic drug consumption