Philippines

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The Philippine Islands became a Spanish colony during the 16th century; they were ceded to the US in 1898 following the Spanish-American War. In 1935 the Philippines became a self-governing commonwealth. Manuel QUEZON was elected president and was tasked with preparing the country for independence after a 10-year transition. In 1942 the islands fell under Japanese occupation during World War II, and US forces and Filipinos fought together during 1944-45 to regain control. On 4 July 1946 the Republic of the Philippines attained its independence. A 20-year rule by Ferdinand MARCOS ended in 1986, when a "people power" movement in Manila ("EDSA 1") forced him into exile and installed Corazon AQUINO as president. Her presidency was hampered by several coup attempts that prevented a return to full political stability and economic development. Fidel RAMOS was elected president in 1992. His administration was marked by increased stability and by progress on economic reforms. In 1992, the US closed its last military bases on the islands. Joseph ESTRADA was elected president in 1998. He was succeeded by his vice-president, Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO, in January 2001 after ESTRADA's stormy impeachment trial on corruption charges broke down and another "people power" movement ("EDSA 2") demanded his resignation. MACAPAGAL-ARROYO was elected to a six-year term as president in May 2004. Her presidency was marred by several corruption allegations but the Philippine economy was one of the few to avoid contraction following the 2008 global financial crisis, expanding each year of her administration. Benigno AQUINO III was elected to a six-year term as president in May 2010. The Philippine Government faces threats from several groups, some of which are on the US Government's Foreign Terrorist Organization list. Manila has waged a decades-long struggle against ethnic Moro insurgencies in the southern Philippines, which has led to a peace accord with the Moro National Liberation Front and ongoing peace talks with the Moro Islamic Liberation Front. The decades-long Maoist-inspired New People's Army insurgency also operates through much of the country. The Philippines faces increased tension with China over disputed territorial and maritime claims in the South China Sea.

Geography

Location

Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea, east of Vietnam

Geographic coordinates

13.00° N, 122.00° E

Area 73/257

total: 300,000 sq km

land: 298,170 sq km

water: 1,830 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly less than twice the size of Georgia; slightly larger than Arizona

Land boundaries

0 km

Coastline

36,289 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: irregular polygon extending up to 100 nm from coastline as defined by 1898 treaty; since late 1970s has also claimed polygonal-shaped area in South China Sea as wide as 285 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: to the depth of exploitation

Climate

tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April); southwest monsoon (May to October)

Terrain

mostly mountains with narrow to extensive coastal lowlands

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Philippine Sea 0 m

highest point: Mount Apo 2,954 m

Natural resources

timber, petroleum, nickel, cobalt, silver, gold, salt, copper

Land use

agricultural land: 41%

arable land 18.2%; permanent crops 17.8%; permanent pasture 5%

forest: 25.9%

other: 33.1% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

16,270 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

479 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 81.56 cu km/yr (8%/10%/82%)

per capita: 859.9 cu m/yr (2009)

Natural hazards

astride typhoon belt, usually affected by 15 and struck by five to six cyclonic storms each year; landslides; active volcanoes; destructive earthquakes; tsunamis

volcanism: significant volcanic activity; Taal (elev. 311 m), which has shown recent unrest and may erupt in the near future, has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Mayon (elev. 2,462 m), the country's most active volcano, erupted in 2009 forcing over 33,000 to be evacuated; other historically active volcanoes include Biliran, Babuyan Claro, Bulusan, Camiguin, Camiguin de Babuyanes, Didicas, Iraya, Jolo, Kanlaon, Makaturing, Musuan, Parker, Pinatubo and Ragang

Environment - current issues

uncontrolled deforestation especially in watershed areas; soil erosion; air and water pollution in major urban centers; coral reef degradation; increasing pollution of coastal mangrove swamps that are important fish breeding grounds

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Geography - note

the Philippine archipelago is made up of 7,107 islands; favorably located in relation to many of Southeast Asia's main water bodies: the South China Sea, Philippine Sea, Sulu Sea, Celebes Sea, and Luzon Strait

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Filipino(s)

adjective: Philippine

Ethnic groups

Tagalog 28.1%, Cebuano 13.1%, Ilocano 9%, Bisaya/Binisaya 7.6%, Hiligaynon Ilonggo 7.5%, Bikol 6%, Waray 3.4%, other 25.3% (2000 census)

Languages

Filipino (official; based on Tagalog) and English (official); eight major dialects - Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray, Pampango, and Pangasinan

Religions

Catholic 82.9% (Roman Catholic 80.9%, Aglipayan 2%), Muslim 5%, Evangelical 2.8%, Iglesia ni Kristo 2.3%, other Christian 4.5%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.6%, none 0.1% (2000 census)

Population 13/238

100,998,376 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 34.02% (male 17,531,370/female 16,828,067)

15-24 years: 19.18% (male 9,891,032/female 9,484,089)

25-54 years: 36.72% (male 18,810,887/female 18,273,641)

55-64 years: 5.8% (male 2,673,756/female 3,183,809)

65 years and over: 4.28% (male 1,802,632/female 2,519,093) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 57.6%

youth dependency ratio: 50.3%

elderly dependency ratio: 7.2%

potential support ratio: 13.9% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 23.2 years

male: 22.8 years

female: 23.7 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 74/233

1.61% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 59/224

24.27 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 160/225

6.11 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 169/222

-2.09 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 44.4% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 1.32% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

MANILA (capital) 12.946 million; Davao 1.63 million; Cebu City 951,000; Zamboanga 936,000 (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

23

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 74/184

114 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 80/224

total: 22.34 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 25.27 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 19.27 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 160/224

total population: 68.96 years

male: 65.47 years

female: 72.62 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 53/224

3.09 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

48.9% (2011)

Health expenditures 150/191

4.4% of GDP (2013)

Hospital bed density

1 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 93.7% of population

rural: 90.3% of population

total: 91.8% of population

unimproved:

urban: 6.3% of population

rural: 9.7% of population

total: 8.2% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 77.9% of population

rural: 70.8% of population

total: 73.9% of population

unimproved:

urban: 22.1% of population

rural: 29.2% of population

total: 26.1% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.06% (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

35,600 (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

500 (2014 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 148/191

4.7% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight 29/138

20.2% (2011)

Education expenditures 149/173

2.7% of GDP (2009)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 11 years

male: 11 years

female: 11 years (2009)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 74/134

total: 16.2%

male: 15.1%

female: 17.8% (2013 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of the Philippines

conventional short form: Philippines

local long form: Republika ng Pilipinas

local short form: Pilipinas

etymology: named in honor of King Phillip II of Spain by Spanish explorer Ruy LOPEZ de VILLALOBOS, who visited some of the islands in 1543

Government type

republic

Capital

name: Manila

geographic coordinates: 14.36° N, 120.58° E

time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

80 provinces and 39 chartered cities

provinces: Abra, Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Aklan, Albay, Antique, Apayao, Aurora, Basilan, Bataan, Batanes, Batangas, Biliran, Benguet, Bohol, Bukidnon, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Camiguin, Capiz, Catanduanes, Cavite, Cebu, Compostela, Cotabato, Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental, Dinagat Islands, Eastern Samar, Guimaras, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Iloilo, Isabela, Kalinga, Laguna, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, La Union, Leyte, Maguindanao, Marinduque, Masbate, Mindoro Occidental, Mindoro Oriental, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, Mountain, Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental, Northern Samar, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Palawan, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Quirino, Rizal, Romblon, Samar, Sarangani, Siquijor, Sorsogon, South Cotabato, Southern Leyte, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Tarlac, Tawi-Tawi, Zambales, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga Sibugay

chartered cities: Angeles, Antipolo, Bacolod, Baguio, Butuan, Cagayan de Oro, Caloocan, Cebu, Cotabato, Dagupan, Davao, General Santos, Iligan, Iloilo, Lapu-Lapu, Las Pinas, Lucena, Makati, Malabon, Mandaluyong, Mandaue, Manila, Marikina, Muntinlupa, Naga, Navotas, Olongapo, Ormoc, Paranaque, Pasay, Pasig, Puerto Princesa, Quezon, San Juan, Santiago, Tacloban, Taguig, Valenzuela, Zamboanga (2012)

Independence

4 July 1946 (from the US)

National holiday

Independence Day, 12 June (1898); note - 12 June 1898 was date of declaration of independence from Spain; 4 July 1946 was date of independence from the US

Constitution

several previous; latest ratified 2 February 1987, effective 11 February 1987 (2015)

Legal system

mixed legal system of civil, common, Islamic, and customary law

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Philippines

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Benigno AQUINO (since 30 June 2010); Vice President Jejomar BINAY (since 30 June 2010); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Benigno AQUINO (since 30 June 2010)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with the consent of the Commission of Appointments, an independent body of 25 Congressional members including the Senate president (ex officio chairman), appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on separate ballots by simple majority popular vote for a single 6-year term; election last held on 10 May 2010 (next to be held in May 2016)

election results: Benigno AQUINO elected president; percent of vote - Benigno AQUINO (LP) 42.1%, Joseph ESTRADA (PMP) 26.3%, Gilberto EODORA (LAKAS-CMD) 11.3%, other 20.3% ; Jejomar BINAY elected vice president; percent of vote Jejomar BINAY 41.6%, Manuel "Mar" ROXAS (LP) 39.6%, six others 18.8%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Congress or Kongreso consists of the Senate or Senado (24 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by majority vote; members serve 6-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years) and the House of Representatives or Kapulungan Ng Mga Kinatawan (287 seats; 230 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 57 representing minorities directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 3-year terms)

elections: Senate - elections last held on 13 May 2013 (next to be held in May 2016); House of Representatives - elections last held on 13 May 2013 (next to be held in May 2016)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party for 2013 election - UNA 26.94%, NP 15.3%, LP 11.32%, NPC 10.15%, LDP 5.38%, PDP-Laban 4.95%, others 9.72%, independents 16.24%; seats by party after 2013 election - UNA 5, NP 5, LP 4, Lakas 2, NPC 2, LDP 1, PDP-Laban 1, PRP 1, independents 3; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - LP 38.3%, NPC 17.4%, UNA 11.4%, NUP 8.7%, NP 8.5%, Lakas 5.3%, independents 6.0%, others 4.4%; seats by party - LP 110, NPC 43, NUP 24, NP 17, Lakas 14, UNA 8, independents 6, others 12; party-list 57

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of a chief justice and 14 associate justices)

judge selection and term of office: justices are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial and Bar Council, a constitutionally-created, 6-member body that recommends Supreme Court nominees; justices serve until age 70

subordinate courts: Court of Appeals; Sandiganbayan (special court for corruption cases of government officials); Court of Tax Appeals; regional, metropolitan, and municipal trial courts; sharia courts

Political parties and leaders

Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino (Struggle of Filipino Democrats) or LDP [Edgardo ANGARA]

Lakas ng EDSA-Christian Muslim Democrats or Lakas-CMD [Ferdinand Martin ROMUALDEZ, President]

Liberal Party or LP [Joseph Emilio ABAYA, President]

Nacionalista Party or NP [Manuel "Manny" VILLAR]

Nationalist People's Coalition or NPC [Eduardo COJUNGCO, Jr.]

PDP-Laban [Aquilino PIMENTEL III]

People's Reform Party [Miriam Defensor SANTIAGO]

Puwersa ng Masang Pilipino (Force of the Philippine Masses) or PMP [Joseph ESTRADA]

United Nationalist Alliance or UNA [Toby TIANGCO (acting)] - PDP-Laban and PMP coalition for the 2013 election

Political pressure groups and leaders

Black and White Movement [Vicente ROMANO]

Kilosbayan [Jovito SALONGA]

International organization participation

ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, CD, CICA (observer), CP, EAS, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS (observer), OPCW, PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMOGIP, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Flag description

two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red; a white equilateral triangle is based on the hoist side; the center of the triangle displays a yellow sun with eight primary rays; each corner of the triangle contains a small, yellow, five-pointed star; blue stands for peace and justice, red symbolizes courage, the white equal-sided triangle represents equality; the rays recall the first eight provinces that sought independence from Spain, while the stars represent the three major geographical divisions of the country: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao; the design of the flag dates to 1897

note: in wartime the flag is flown upside down with the red band at the top

National symbol(s)

three stars and sun, Philippine eagle; national colors: red, white, blue, yellow

National anthem

name: "Lupang Hinirang" (Chosen Land)

lyrics/music: Jose PALMA (revised by Felipe PADILLA de Leon)/Julian FELIPE

note: music adopted 1898, original Spanish lyrics adopted 1899, Filipino (Tagalog) lyrics adopted 1956; although the original lyrics were written in Spanish, later English and Filipino versions were created; today, only the Filipino version is used

Economy

Economy - overview

The economy has weathered global economic shocks better than its regional peers due to less exposure to troubled international securities, lower dependence on exports, relatively resilient domestic consumption, large remittances from four- to five-million overseas Filipino workers, and a rapidly expanding outsourcing industry. The current account balance has recorded consecutive surpluses since 2003, international reserves remain at comfortable levels, and the banking system is stable; the stock market resumed an upward trajectory in 2014, climbing to new record highs during the first four months of 2015.

Efforts to improve tax administration and management of expenditures have helped ease the Philippines' tight fiscal situation and reduce debt levels. Nevertheless, government taxation and spending remain weak. The Philippines has received investment-grade credit ratings on its sovereign debt under the AQUINO administration and has had little difficulty financing its deficits. Economic growth has accelerated, averaging 6.0% per year from 2011-2014, compared with 4.5% under the MACAPAGAL-ARROYO government; competitiveness has improved; and foreign direct investment hit a historic high in 2014, although it continues to lag compared with the rest of the region.

Unemployment has remained high, hovering at around 7% of the population, and underemployment is nearly 20%. At least 40% of the employed work in the informal sector and poverty afflicts about a quarter of the population. The AQUINO administration has been working to boost expenditures for education, health, transfers to the poor, and other social spending programs.

Infrastructure remains underfunded and the government is relying on the private sector to help with major projects under its Public-Private Partnership program. Other long term challenges include reforming governance, the judicial system, and the regulatory environment, and improving the ease of doing business. The Philippine Constitution and other laws restrict foreign ownership in important activities/sectors - such as land ownership and public utilities. Some progress has been made in establishing a Customs Modernization Act to meet international standards and commitments.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 30/230

$742.2 billion (2015 est.)

$700.2 billion (2014 est.)

$659.8 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$299.3 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 29/225

6% (2015 est.)

6.1% (2014 est.)

7.1% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 152/230

$7,500 (2015 est.)

$7,000 (2014 est.)

$6,600 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 46/179

25.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

25.4% of GDP (2014 est.)

24.2% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 71.5%

government consumption: 10.2%

investment in fixed capital: 21.7%

investment in inventories: -0.6%

exports of goods and services: 28%

imports of goods and services: -30.8%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 10.7%

industry: 31.6%

services: 57.6% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

sugarcane, coconuts, rice, corn, bananas, cassava (manioc, tapioca), pineapples, mangoes; pork, eggs, beef; fish

Industries

electronics assembly, garments, footwear, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products, food processing, petroleum refining, fishing

Industrial production growth rate 20/202

6.5% (2015 est.)

Labor force 16/233

41.75 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 30%

industry: 16%

services: 54% (2014 est.)

Unemployment rate 76/207

6.5% (2015 est.)

6.8% (2014 est.)

Population below poverty line

25.2% (2012 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.9%

highest 10%: 30.5% (2012 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 34/144

46 (2012)

46.4 (2009)

Budget

revenues: $45.37 billion

expenditures: $51.17 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 190/219

15.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 69/220

-1.9% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 96/176

45.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

45.4% of GDP (2014 est.)

note: data cover debt issued by the national government, and excludes debt instruments issued by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by social security institutions, government-owned and controlled corporations, the Central Bank, and local government units

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 105/226

1.8% (2015 est.)

4.2% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 61/156

6.13% (31 December 2014)

5.63% (31 December 2013)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 135/184

5.8% (31 December 2015 est.)

5.53% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 50/192

$55.46 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$51.92 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 45/193

$173.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$165.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 46/191

$172 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$158.2 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 27/121

$318.7 billion (31 December 2014)

$268.8 billion (31 December 2013)

$266.3 billion (31 December 2012)

Current account balance 17/197

$14.9 billion (2015 est.)

$12.65 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 55/224

$43.94 billion (2015 est.)

$47.76 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

semiconductors and electronic products, transport equipment, garments, copper products, petroleum products, coconut oil, fruits

Exports - partners

Japan 22.5%, US 14.1%, China 13%, Hong Kong 9.1%, Singapore 7.2%, Germany 4.3%, South Korea 4.1% (2014)

Imports 44/223

$59.6 billion (2015 est.)

$63.61 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

electronic products, mineral fuels, machinery and transport equipment, iron and steel, textile fabrics, grains, chemicals, plastic

Imports - partners

China 15%, US 8.7%, Japan 8.1%, South Korea 7.8%, Singapore 7%, Thailand 5.3%, Saudi Arabia 5%, Malaysia 4.8%, Indonesia 4.7%, Germany 4.2% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 28/170

$80.74 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$79.54 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 56/206

$77.67 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$78.49 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 55/120

$60.99 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$57.09 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 47/105

$39.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$35.6 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

Philippine pesos (PHP) per US dollar -

45.45 (2015 est.)

44.4 (2014 est.)

44.4 (2013 est.)

42.23 (2012 est.)

43.31 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 39/220

69.67 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 41/219

61.31 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 187/218

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 193/219

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 45/214

16.91 million kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 116/214

68% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 171/214

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 91/214

20.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 32/212

11.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 67/214

21,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 61/214

13,990 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - imports 7/214

1.503 million bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 69/215

138.5 million bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 16/214

1.373 million bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 41/212

314,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 32/214

219,800 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 4/213

1.577 million bbl/day (2014 est.)

Natural gas - production 55/216

3.691 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 66/215

3.557 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - exports 169/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports 125/214

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 52/212

98.54 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 46/212

83.95 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 47/219

total subscriptions: 3.09 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 13/217

total: 111.3 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 112 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: good international radiotelephone and submarine cable services; domestic and interisland service adequate

domestic: telecommunications infrastructure includes the following platforms: fixed line, mobile cellular, cable TV, over-the-air TV, radio and Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT), fiber-optic cable, and satellite; mobile-cellular communications now dominate the industry

international: country code - 63; a series of submarine cables together provide connectivity to Asia, US, the Middle East, and Europe; multiple international gateways (2011)

Broadcast media

multiple national private TV and radio networks; multi-channel satellite and cable TV systems available; more than 350 TV stations - 4 major TV networks operating nationwide with 1 being government owned; some 1,100 cable TV providers and some 1,200 radio stations broadcasting; the Philippines is scheduled to complete the switch from analog to digital broadcasting by the end of 2015 (2012)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 383, FM 659, shortwave 4 (2008)

Television broadcast stations

297 (plus 873 CATV networks) (2008)

Internet country code

.ph

Internet hosts 52/232

425,812 (2012)

Internet users 17/217

total: 39.2 million

percent of population: 39.4% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 24/236

247 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 89

over 3,047 m: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 8

1,524 to 2,437 m: 33

914 to 1,523 m: 34

under 914 m: 10 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 158

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 56

under 914 m: 99 (2013)

Heliports

2 (2013)

Pipelines

gas 567 km; oil 138 km; refined products 185 km (2013)

Railways 88/136

total: 897 km

narrow gauge: 897 km 1.067-m gauge (only about 100 km are in operation) (2014)

Roadways 23/223

total: 216,387 km

paved: 61,093 km

unpaved: 155,294 km (2014)

Waterways 30/107

3,219 km (limited to vessels with draft less than 1.5 m) (2011)

Merchant marine 23/156

total: 446

by type: bulk carrier 76, cargo 152, carrier 12, chemical tanker 27, container 17, liquefied gas 5, passenger 7, passenger/cargo 65, petroleum tanker 44, refrigerated cargo 20, roll on/roll off 11, vehicle carrier 10

foreign-owned: 159 (Bermuda 47, China 4, Denmark 2, Germany 2, Greece 5, Japan 77, Malaysia 1, Netherlands 17, Singapore 1, South Korea 1, Taiwan 1, UAE 1)

registered in other countries: 7 (Cyprus 1, Panama 5, unknown 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Batangas, Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Davao, Liman, Manila

container port(s) (TEUs): Manila (3,342,200)

Military and Security

Military branches

Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP): Army, Navy (includes Marine Corps), Air Force (2013)

Military service age and obligation

17-23 years of age (officers 20-24) for voluntary military service; no conscription; applicants must be single male or female Philippine citizens with either 72 college credit hours (enlisted) or a baccalaureate degree (officers) (2013)

Military expenditures 83/132

1.19% of GDP (2012)

1.21% of GDP (2011)

1.19% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Philippines claims sovereignty over Scarborough Reef (also claimed by China together with Taiwan) and over certain of the Spratly Islands, known locally as the Kalayaan (Freedom) Islands, also claimed by China, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Vietnam; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea," has eased tensions in the Spratly Islands but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; in March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; Philippines retains a dormant claim to Malaysia's Sabah State in northern Borneo based on the Sultanate of Sulu's granting the Philippines Government power of attorney to pursue a sovereignty claim on his behalf; maritime delimitation negotiations continue with Palau

Refugees and internally displaced persons

IDPs: about 127,000 displaced by conflict and at least 327,000 displaced by natural disasters (government troops fighting the Moro Islamic Liberation Front, the Abu Sayyaf Group, and the New People's Army; clan feuds; natural disasters including typhoon Bopha (December 2012), the Bohol earthquake (October 2013), typhoon Haiyan (November 2013), and typhoon Hagupit (December 2014)) (2015)

stateless persons: 6,370 (2014); note - stateless persons are descendants of Indonesian migrants

Illicit drugs

domestic methamphetamine production has been a growing problem in recent years despite government crackdowns; major consumer of amphetamines; longstanding marijuana producer mainly in rural areas where Manila's control is limited