Portugal

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Following its heyday as a global maritime power during the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal lost much of its wealth and status with the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence of Brazil, its wealthiest colony, in 1822. A 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy; for most of the next six decades, repressive governments ran the country. In 1974, a left-wing military coup installed broad democratic reforms. The following year, Portugal granted independence to all of its African colonies. Portugal is a founding member of NATO and entered the EC (now the EU) in 1986.

Geography

Location

Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain

Geographic coordinates

39.30° N, 8.00° W

Area 111/257

total: 92,090 sq km

land: 91,470 sq km

water: 620 sq km

note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries

total: 1,224 km

border countries (1): Spain 1,224 km

Coastline

1,793 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate

maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south

Terrain

mountainous north of the Tagus River, rolling plains in south

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Ponta do Pico (Pico or Pico Alto) on Ilha do Pico in the Azores 2,351 m

Natural resources

fish, forests (cork), iron ore, copper, zinc, tin, tungsten, silver, gold, uranium, marble, clay, gypsum, salt, arable land, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 39.7%

arable land 11.9%; permanent crops 7.8%; permanent pasture 20%

forest: 37.8%

other: 22.5% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

5,400 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

68.7 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 8.46 cu km/yr (12%/18%/69%)

per capita: 812 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards

Azores subject to severe earthquakes

volcanism: limited volcanic activity in the Azores Islands; Fayal or Faial (elev. 1,043 m) last erupted in 1958; most volcanoes have not erupted in centuries; historically active volcanoes include Agua de Pau, Furnas, Pico, Picos Volcanic System, San Jorge, Sete Cidades, and Terceira

Environment - current issues

soil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in coastal areas

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Environmental Modification

Geography - note

Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Portuguese (singular and plural)

adjective: Portuguese

Ethnic groups

homogeneous Mediterranean stock; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000; since 1990 East Europeans have entered Portugal

Languages

Portuguese (official), Mirandese (official, but locally used)

Religions

Roman Catholic 81%, other Christian 3.3%, other (includes Jewish, Muslim, other) 0.6%, none 6.8%, unspecified 8.3%

notes: represents population 15 years of age and older (2011 est.)

Population 81/238

10,825,309 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 15.68% (male 884,389/female 812,685)

15-24 years: 11.41% (male 655,259/female 580,020)

25-54 years: 42.05% (male 2,303,473/female 2,248,914)

55-64 years: 11.97% (male 604,549/female 691,216)

65 years and over: 18.89% (male 836,679/female 1,208,125) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 53.5%

youth dependency ratio: 21.6%

elderly dependency ratio: 31.9%

potential support ratio: 3.1% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 41.5 years

male: 39.4 years

female: 43.6 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 189/233

0.09% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 205/224

9.27 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 33/225

11.02 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 39/222

2.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 63.5% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 0.97% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

LISBON (capital) 2.884 million; Porto 1.299 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.09 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.13 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

29.5 (2012 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 162/184

10 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 185/224

total: 4.43 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 4.86 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 49/224

total population: 79.16 years

male: 75.92 years

female: 82.62 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 192/224

1.52 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

86.8% (2005/06)

Health expenditures 29/191

9.7% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

4.1 physicians/1,000 population (2012)

Hospital bed density

3.4 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 99.6% of population

rural: 99.8% of population

total: 99.7% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0.4% of population

rural: 0.2% of population

total: 0.3% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths

NA

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 69/191

22.1% (2014)

Education expenditures 55/173

5.3% of GDP (2011)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 16 years

male: 16 years

female: 17 years (2012)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 16/134

total: 38.1%

male: 36.7%

female: 39.6% (2013 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Portuguese Republic

conventional short form: Portugal

local long form: Republica Portuguesa

local short form: Portugal

etymology: name derives from the Roman designation "Portus Cale" meaning "Port of Cale"; Cale was an ancient Celtic town and port in present-day northern Portugal

Government type

republic; parliamentary democracy

Capital

name: Lisbon

geographic coordinates: 38.43° N, 9.08° W

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

18 districts (distritos, singular - distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas, singular - regiao autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa (Lisbon), Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu

Independence

1143 (Kingdom of Portugal recognized); 5 October 1910 (republic proclaimed)

National holiday

Portugal Day (Dia de Portugal), 10 June (1580); note - also called Camoes Day, the day that revered national poet Luis de Camoes (1524-80) died

Constitution

several previous; latest adopted 2 April 1976, effective 25 April 1976; amended several times, last in 2005 (2015)

Legal system

civil law system; Constitutional Court review of legislative acts

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Portugal

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years; 6 years if from a Portuguese speaking country

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Anibal CAVACO SILVA (since 9 March 2006)

head of government: Prime Minister Antonio Luis Santos da COSTA (since 24 November 2015)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 January 2016 (next to be held in January 2021); following legislative elections which must be held by October 2015, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president

election results: Marcelo Rebelo de SOUSA elected president; percent of vote - Marcelo Rebelo de SOUSA (PSD) 52%, Antonio Sampaio da NOVA (independent) 22.9%, Marisa MATISA (BE) 10.1%, Maria de BELEM (independent) 4.2%, other 1.5%; note - de SOUSA will be inaugurated on 9 March 2016

note: there is also a Council of State that acts as a consultative body to the president

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (230 seats; 226 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 4 members - 2 each in 2 constituencies representing Portuguese living abroad - directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 4 October 2015 (next to be held by October 2019)

election results: percent of vote by party - Portugal Ahead Coalition (PAF) 36.9%, PS 32.3%, B.E. 10.2%, CDU 8.2%, PPD/PSD (Azores and Madeira) 1.5%, PAN 1.4%, other 9.5%; seats by party - PAF 102, PS 86, B.E. 19, CDU 17, PPD/PSD (Azores and Madeira) 5, PAN 1

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (consists of 12 justices); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 13 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices nominated by the president and appointed by the Assembly of the Republic; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Court judges - 10 elected by the Assembly and 3 elected by the other Constitutional Court judges; judges elected for 6-year non-renewable terms

subordinate courts: Supreme Administrative Court (Supremo Tribunal Administrativo); Audit Court (Tribunal de Contas); appellate, district, and municipal courts

Political parties and leaders

Democratic and Social Center/Popular Party or CDS/PP [Paulo PORTAS]

Ecologist Party (The Greens) or PEV [Heloisa APOLONIA]

Portuguese Communist Party or PCP [Jeronimo DE SOUSA]

Portugal Ahead Coalition or PAF (includes PSD and CDS/PP)

Social Democratic Party or PPD/PSD [Pedro PASSOS COELHO]

Socialist Party or PS [Antonio COSTA]

The Left Bloc or BE [Catarina Soares MARTINS]

Unitarian Democratic Coalition or CDU [Jeronimo DE SOUSA] (includes Portuguese Communist Party or PCP and Ecologist Party ("The Greens") or PEV)

Political pressure groups and leaders

Armed Forces Officers' Association or AOFA [Colonel Pereira CRACEL]

the Desperate Generation (youth movement protesting against low wages, precarious labor conditions, and unemployment)

General Workers Union or General Confederation of Portuguese Workers or UGT [Carlos SILVA]

Portuguese National Workers' Conference or CGTP [Armenio CARLOS]

TugaLeaks (a website that has become a mouthpiece for publicizing diverse protest action)

other: the media; labor unions

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CERN, CPLP, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINUSMA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Flag description

two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red (three-fifths) with the national coat of arms (armillary sphere and Portuguese shield) centered on the dividing line; explanations for the color meanings are ambiguous, but a popular interpretation has green symbolizing hope and red the blood of those defending the nation

National symbol(s)

armillary sphere (a spherical astrolabe modeling objects in the sky and representing the Republic); national colors: red, green

National anthem

name: "A Portugesa" (The Song of the Portuguese)

lyrics/music: Henrique LOPES DE MENDOCA/Alfredo KEIL

note: adopted 1910; "A Portuguesa" was originally written to protest the Portuguese monarchy's acquiescence to the 1890 British ultimatum forcing Portugal to give up areas of Africa; the lyrics refer to the "insult" that resulted from the event

Economy

Economy - overview

Portugal has become a diversified and increasingly service-based economy since joining the European Community - the EU's predecessor - in 1986. Over the following two decades, successive governments privatized many state-controlled firms and liberalized key areas of the economy, including the financial and telecommunications sectors. The country joined the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) in 1999 and began circulating the euro on 1 January 2002 along with 11 other EU members.

The economy grew by more than the EU average for much of the 1990s, but the rate of growth slowed in 2001-08. The economy contracted in 2009, and fell again from 2011 to 2014, as the government implemented spending cuts and tax increases to comply with conditions of an EU-IMF financial rescue package, signed in May 2011. A modest recovery began in 2013 and gathered steam in in 2014 due to strong export performance and a rebound in private consumption. Although austerity measures were instituted to reduce the large budget deficit, they contributed to record unemployment and a wave of emigration not seen since the 1960s.

A continued reduction in private- and public-sector debt could weigh on consumption and investment in 2016, holding back a stronger recovery. The prior center-right government passed legislation aimed at reducing labor market rigidity, and, this, along with sustained fiscal discipline, could make Portugal more attractive to foreign direct investment. During this time, the budget deficit fell from 11.2% of GDP in 2010 to 3.5% in 2015, reaching the EU-IMF target of 4%, but still above its EU fiscal obligations, under the excessive deficit procedure. EU-IMF financing expired in May 2014. The new center-left Socialist government, however, has signaled that it will unwind spending cuts associated with austerity while remaining within EU fiscal targets.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 54/230

$288.6 billion (2015 est.)

$284.1 billion (2014 est.)

$281.6 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$197.5 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 159/225

1.6% (2015 est.)

0.9% (2014 est.)

-1.6% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 66/230

$27,800 (2015 est.)

$27,300 (2014 est.)

$27,100 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 116/179

15.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

15.4% of GDP (2014 est.)

15% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 66.2%

government consumption: 18.5%

investment in fixed capital: 15.3%

investment in inventories: 0.3%

exports of goods and services: 41.4%

imports of goods and services: -41.7%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 2.3%

industry: 21.6%

services: 76.1% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

grain, potatoes, tomatoes, olives, grapes; sheep, cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, dairy products; fish

Industries

textiles, clothing, footwear, wood and cork, paper and pulp, chemicals, lubricants, automobiles and auto parts, base metals, minerals, porcelain and ceramics, glassware, technology, telecommunications; dairy products, wine, other foodstuffs; ship construction and refurbishment; tourism, plastics, financial services, optics

Industrial production growth rate 112/202

2% (2015 est.)

Labor force 77/233

5.223 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 8.6%

industry: 23.9%

services: 67.5% (2014 est.)

Unemployment rate 136/207

12.6% (2015 est.)

13.9% (2014 est.)

Population below poverty line

18.7% (2012 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.1%

highest 10%: 28.4% (1995 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 96/144

34.2 (2013 est.)

34.2 (2012 est.)

Budget

revenues: $89.94 billion

expenditures: $96.84 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 23/219

45.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 132/220

-3.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 6/176

129% of GDP (2015 est.)

130.2% of GDP (2014 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 56/226

0.6% (2015 est.)

-0.2% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 147/156

0.05% (31 December 2014)

0.25% (31 December 2013)

note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

Commercial bank prime lending rate 145/184

5.1% (31 December 2015 est.)

5.3% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 48/192

$61.64 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$66.76 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

Stock of broad money 34/193

$296.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$316.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 36/191

$335.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$366.2 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 40/121

$126.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$57.04 billion (31 December 2013)

$65.53 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Current account balance 35/197

$1.364 billion (2015 est.)

$1.268 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 46/224

$57.2 billion (2015 est.)

$62.92 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

agricultural products, foodstuffs, wine, oil products, chemical products, plastics and rubber, hides, leather, wood and cork, wood pulp and paper, textile materials, clothing, footwear, machinery and tools, base metals

Exports - partners

Spain 23.7%, France 11.8%, Germany 11.8%, Angola 6.5%, UK 6.1%, US 4.2%, Netherlands 4% (2014)

Imports 41/223

$66.44 billion (2015 est.)

$74.81 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

agricultural products, chemical products, vehicles and other transport material, optical and precision instruments, computer accessories and parts, semiconductors and related devices, oil products, base metals, food products, textile materials

Imports - partners

Spain 32.6%, Germany 12.4%, France 7.1%, Italy 5.3%, Netherlands 5.1% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 59/170

$19.62 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$17.55 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Debt - external 27/206

$493.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$531.6 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 32/120

$169.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$157.3 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 32/105

$99.55 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$99.55 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

0.89 (2015 est.)

0.75 (2014 est.)

0.76 (2013 est.)

0.78 (2012 est.)

0.72 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 52/220

51.67 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - consumption 51/219

46.25 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - exports 28/218

5.324 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 29/219

8.1 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 41/214

19.62 million kW (2013 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 164/214

42.4% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 166/214

0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 82/214

28.2% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 5/212

29.4% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Crude oil - production 181/214

0 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 177/214

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports 28/214

282,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 100/215

538,100 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 45/214

285,300 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 50/212

244,200 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 38/214

168,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 57/213

86,720 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production 119/216

0 cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 65/215

4.005 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - exports 165/215

0 cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - imports 35/214

4.069 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 185/212

0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 50/212

68.8 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 34/219

total subscriptions: 4.59 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 42 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 76/217

total: 11.9 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 110 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: Portugal's telephone system has a state-of-the-art network with broadband, high-speed capabilities

domestic: integrated network of coaxial cables, open-wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth stations

international: country code - 351; a combination of submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, North and East Africa, South Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and the US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to Azores (2010)

Broadcast media

Radio e Televisao de Portugal (RTP), the publicly owned TV broadcaster, operates 2 domestic channels and external service channels to Africa; overall, roughly 40 domestic TV stations; viewers have widespread access to international broadcasters with more than half of all households connected to multi-channel cable or satellite TV systems; publicly owned radio operates 3 national networks and provides regional and external services; several privately owned national radio stations and some 300 regional and local commercial radio stations (2008)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 2, FM 63, shortwave 1 (2008)

Television broadcast stations

42 (2008)

Internet country code

.pt

Internet hosts 28/232

3.748 million (2012)

Internet users 52/217

total: 7.2 million

percent of population: 66.1% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 77/236

64 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 43

over 3,047 m: 5

2,438 to 3,047 m: 7

1,524 to 2,437 m: 8

914 to 1,523 m: 15

under 914 m: 8 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 21

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 20 (2013)

Pipelines

gas 1,344 km; oil 11 km; refined products 188 km (2013)

Railways 53/136

total: 3,075.1 km

broad gauge: 2,439 km 1.668-m gauge (1,633.4 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 108.1 km 1.000-m gauge

other: 528 km (gauge unspecified) (2014)

Roadways 57/223

total: 82,900 km

paved: 71,294 km (includes 2,613 km of expressways)

unpaved: 11,606 km (2008)

Waterways 95/107

210 km (on Douro River from Porto) (2011)

Merchant marine 48/156

total: 109

by type: bulk carrier 8, cargo 35, carrier 1, chemical tanker 21, container 7, liquefied gas 6, passenger 13, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 1, vehicle carrier 9

foreign-owned: 81 (Belgium 8, Colombia 1, Denmark 4, Germany 14, Greece 2, Italy 12, Japan 9, Mexico 1, Norway 2, Spain 18, Sweden 3, Switzerland 3, US 4)

registered in other countries: 15 (Cyprus 2, Malta 3, Panama 10) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Leixoes, Lisbon, Setubal, Sines

LNG terminal (import): Sines

Military and Security

Military branches

Portuguese Army (Exercito Portuguesa), Portuguese Navy (Marinha Portuguesa; includes Marine Corps), Portuguese Air Force (Forca Aerea Portuguesa, FAP) (2013)

Military service age and obligation

18-30 years of age for voluntary military service; no compulsory military service, but conscription possible if insufficient volunteers available; women serve in the armed forces, on naval ships since 1993, but are prohibited from serving in some combatant specialties; reserve obligation to age 35 (2012)

Military expenditures 77/132

1.29% of GDP (2014)

1.2% of GDP (2013)

1.78% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz

Refugees and internally displaced persons

stateless persons: 14 (2014)

Illicit drugs

seizing record amounts of Latin American cocaine destined for Europe; a European gateway for Southwest Asian heroin; transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to Europe; consumer of Southwest Asian heroin