Romania

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The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; they were de facto linked in 1859 and formally united in 1862 under the new name of Romania. The country gained recognition of its independence in 1878. It joined the Allied Powers in World War I and acquired new territories - most notably Transylvania - following the conflict. In 1940, Romania allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a communist "people's republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU, who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Romania joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.

Geography

Location

Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine

Geographic coordinates

46.00° N, 25.00° E

Area 83/257

total: 238,391 sq km

land: 229,891 sq km

water: 8,500 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries

total: 2,844 km

border countries (5): Bulgaria 605 km, Hungary 424 km, Moldova 683 km, Serbia 531 km, Ukraine 601 km

Coastline

225 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate

temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms

Terrain

central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Moldavian Plateau on the east by the Eastern Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Black Sea 0 m

highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m

Natural resources

petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 60.7%

arable land 39.1%; permanent crops 1.9%; permanent pasture 19.7%

forest: 28.7%

other: 10.6% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

31,490 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

211.9 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 6.88 cu km/yr (22%/61%/17%)

per capita: 320.8 cu m/yr (2009)

Natural hazards

earthquakes, most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides

Environment - current issues

soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Romanian(s)

adjective: Romanian

Ethnic groups

Romanian 83.4%, Hungarian 6.1%, Roma 3.1%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.2%, other 0.7%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 est.)

Languages

Romanian (official) 85.4%, Hungarian 6.3%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.2%, other 1%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 est.)

Religions

Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 81.9%, Protestant (various denominations including Reformed and Pentecostal) 6.4%, Roman Catholic 4.3%, other (includes Muslim) 0.9%, none or atheist 0.2%, unspecified 6.3% (2011 est.)

Population 58/238

21,666,350 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 14.49% (male 1,612,090/female 1,526,432)

15-24 years: 10.94% (male 1,215,309/female 1,154,618)

25-54 years: 45.92% (male 5,030,926/female 4,919,140)

55-64 years: 12.92% (male 1,308,475/female 1,491,858)

65 years and over: 15.73% (male 1,376,634/female 2,030,868) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 48.9%

youth dependency ratio: 23.1%

elderly dependency ratio: 25.8%

potential support ratio: 3.9% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 40.2 years

male: 38.8 years

female: 41.7 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 220/233

-0.3% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 208/224

9.14 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 27/225

11.9 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 122/222

-0.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 54.6% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 0.01% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

BUCHAREST (capital) 1.868 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

26 (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 127/184

31 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 139/224

total: 9.89 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 11.23 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 8.47 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 109/224

total population: 74.92 years

male: 71.46 years

female: 78.59 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 215/224

1.33 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

69.8%

note: percent of women aged 18-49 (2005)

Health expenditures 138/191

5.3% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

2.45 physicians/1,000 population (2012)

Hospital bed density

6.1 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 92.2% of population

rural: 63.3% of population

total: 79.1% of population

unimproved:

urban: 7.8% of population

rural: 36.7% of population

total: 20.9% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.11% (2013 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

16,200 (2013 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

500 (2013 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 101/191

23.4% (2014)

Education expenditures 104/173

3.1% of GDP (2011)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 14 years

male: 14 years

female: 15 years (2011)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 45/134

total: 23.6%

male: 23.5%

female: 23.9% (2013 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Romania

local long form: none

local short form: Romania

etymology: the name derives from the Latin "Romanus" meaning "citizen of Rome" and was used to stress the common ancient heritage of Romania's three main regions - Moldavia, Transylvania, and Wallachia - during their gradual unification between the mid-19th century and early 20th century

Government type

republic

Capital

name: Bucharest

geographic coordinates: 44.26° N, 26.06° E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti (Bucharest)*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dambovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Valcea, Vrancea

Independence

9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from the Ottoman Empire; independence recognized on 13 July 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin); 26 March 1881 (kingdom proclaimed); 30 December 1947 (republic proclaimed)

National holiday

Unification Day (of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December (1918)

Constitution

several previous; latest adopted 21 November 1991, approved by referendum and effective 8 December 1991; amended 2003 (2015)

Legal system

civil law system

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Romania

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Klaus IOHANNIS (since 21 December 2014)

head of government: Prime Minister Dacian CIOLOS (since 17 November 2015); Deputy Prime Ministers Costin Grigore BORC and Vasile DANCU (since 17 November 2015)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 2 November 2014 with a runoff on 16 November 2014 (next to be held on 16 November 2019); prime minister appointed by the president with consent of Parliament

election results: Klaus IOHANNIS elected president; percent of vote in runoff - Klaus IOHANNIS (PNL) 54.4%, Victor PONTA (PSD) 45.6%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (176 seats; 137 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote and 39 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera Deputatilor (412 seats; 315 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote and 97 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms); note - in the Chamber of Deputies, seats are reserved for minority parties that receive at least 10 percent of total valid votes cast

elections: Senate - last held on 9 December 2012 (next to be held by December 2016); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 9 December 2012 (next to be held by December 2016)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by alliance/party - USL 60.1%, ARD 16.7%, PP-DD 14.7%, UDMR 5.2%, other 3.3%; seats by alliance/party - USL 122, ARD 24, PP-DD 21, UDMR 9; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by alliance/party - USL 58.6%, ARD 16.5%, PP-DD 14%, UDMR 5.1%, ethnic minorities 2.7%, other 3.1%; seats by alliance/party - USL 273, ARD 56, PP-DD 47, UDMR 18, ethnic minorities 18

Judicial branch

highest court(s): High Court of Cassation and Justice (consists of 111 judges organized into civil, penal, commercial, contentious administrative and fiscal business, and joint sections); Supreme Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)

judge selection and term of office: High Court of Cassation and Justice judges appointed by the president upon nomination by the Superior Council of Magistracy, a 19-member body of judges, prosecutors, and law specialists; judges appointed for 6-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court members - 6 elected by Parliament and 3 appointed by the president; members serve 9-year, non-renewable terms

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; regional tribunals; first instance courts; military and arbitration courts

Political parties and leaders

Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party or PNT-CD [Aurelian PAVELESCU] (formerly part of the ARD coalition)

Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Hunor KELEMEN]

Green Party [Remus CERNEA]

National Liberal Party or PNL [Alina GORGHIU and Vasile BLAGA] - merged with former PDL and FC

National Union for Romania's Progress or UNPR [Gabriel OPREA]- merged with former PP-DD

New Republic Party or NR [George MIOC]

Popular Movement Party [Traian BASESCU]

Party of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats or ALDE [Calin POPESCU TARICEANU, Daniel CONSTANTIN]

Social Democratic Party or PSD [Liviu DRAGNEA]

Social Liberal Union or USL (coalition of PSD, PC, and UNPR)

Political pressure groups and leaders

other: various human rights and professional associations

International organization participation

Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Flag description

three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; modeled after the flag of France, the colors are those of the principalities of Walachia (red and yellow) and Moldavia (red and blue), which united in 1862 to form Romania; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed

note: now similar to the flag of Chad, whose blue band is darker; also resembles the flags of Andorra and Moldova

National symbol(s)

golden eagle; national colors: blue, yellow, red

National anthem

name: "Desteapta-te romane!" (Wake up, Romanian!)

lyrics/music: Andrei MURESIANU/Anton PANN

note: adopted 1990; the anthem was written during the 1848 Revolution

Economy

Economy - overview

Romania, which joined the EU on 1 January 2007, began the transition from Communism in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country's needs. Romania's macroeconomic gains have only recently started to spur creation of a middle class and to address Romania's widespread poverty. Corruption and red tape continue to permeate the business environment.

In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, Romania signed on to a $26 billion emergency assistance package from the IMF, the EU, and other international lenders, but GDP contracted until 2011. In March 2011, Romania and the IMF/EU/World Bank signed a 24-month precautionary stand-by agreement, worth $6.6 billion, to promote fiscal discipline, encourage progress on structural reforms, and strengthen financial sector stability. In September 2013, Romanian authorities and the IMF/EU agreed to a follow-on stand-by agreement, worth $5.4 billion, to continue with reforms, but this agreement expired in September 2015, and no funds were drawn. Progress on structural reforms has been uneven, and the economy still is vulnerable to external shocks.

Economic growth rebounded in 2013-15, driven by strong industrial exports and excellent agricultural harvests, and the current account deficit was reduced substantially. Industry outperformed other sectors of the economy in 2015. Exports remained the engine of economic growth, led by trade with the EU, which accounts for roughly 70% of Romania trade. In 2015, the Government of Romania succeeded in meeting its annual target for the budget deficit, the external deficit remained low, and inflation - -0.8% - was the lowest since 1989, allowing a gradual loosening of the monetary policy throughout the year.

An ageing population, weak domestic demand, tax evasion, and insufficient health-care represent the economy's top vulnerabilities.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 46/230

$411.1 billion (2015 est.)

$397.7 billion (2014 est.)

$386.9 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$174.9 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 84/225

3.4% (2015 est.)

2.8% (2014 est.)

3.4% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 86/230

$20,600 (2015 est.)

$19,900 (2014 est.)

$19,400 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 59/179

23.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

22.6% of GDP (2014 est.)

23.7% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 68.5%

government consumption: 7.4%

investment in fixed capital: 22.2%

investment in inventories: 1.1%

exports of goods and services: 43%

imports of goods and services: -42.2%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 11.8%

industry: 36.1%

services: 52.1% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, grapes; eggs, sheep

Industries

electric machinery and equipment, textiles and footwear, light machinery, auto assembly, mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining

Industrial production growth rate 61/202

4% (2015 est.)

Labor force 54/233

9.266 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 27.9%

industry: 28.2%

services: 43.9% (2013)

Unemployment rate 72/207

6.3% (2015 est.)

6.8% (2014 est.)

Population below poverty line

22.4% (2011 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 14.5%

highest 10%: 7.7% (2013 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 130/144

27.3 (2012)

28.2 (2010)

Budget

revenues: $55.84 billion

expenditures: $59.92 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 80/219

31.9% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 82/220

-2.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 112/176

39.9% of GDP (2015 est.)

39.8% of GDP (2014 est.)

note: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the subsectors: central government, state government, local government, and social security funds

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 17/226

-0.6% (2015 est.)

1.1% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 120/156

1.75% (31 December 2014)

2.75% (31 December 2013)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 122/184

6.9% (31 December 2015 est.)

8.45% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 59/192

$33.25 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$32.16 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 62/193

$67.93 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$70.95 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 57/191

$66.06 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$68.72 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 57/121

$37.26 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$43.67 billion (31 December 2013)

$31.71 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Current account balance 148/197

-$2.189 billion (2015 est.)

-$967.4 million (2014 est.)

Exports 48/224

$56.87 billion (2015 est.)

$62.13 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

machinery and equipment, metals and metal products, textiles and footwear, chemicals, agricultural products, minerals and fuels

Exports - partners

Germany 19.6%, Italy 12.1%, France 6.9%, Hungary 5.2%, Turkey 4.6%, UK 4.2% (2014)

Imports 42/223

$64.07 billion (2015 est.)

$69.27 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels and minerals, metals, textile and products, agricultural products

Imports - partners

Germany 19.2%, Italy 10.9%, Hungary 7.9%, France 5.7%, Poland 4.7% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 48/170

$37.33 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$43.16 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 49/206

$114.5 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$135.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 50/120

$82.07 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$77.07 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 74/105

$3.139 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$2.939 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

lei (RON) per US dollar -

3.97 (2015 est.)

3.35 (2014 est.)

3.35 (2013 est.)

3.47 (2012 est.)

3.05 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 50/220

55.78 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - consumption 48/219

49.69 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - exports 42/218

2.466 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 75/219

450 million kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 35/214

24 million kW (2013 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 150/214

50% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 24/214

5.8% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 77/214

29.7% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 23/212

14.5% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Crude oil - production 47/214

83,350 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 78/214

2,077 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - imports 45/214

104,900 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 47/215

600 million bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 54/214

197,300 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 60/212

188,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 53/214

72,960 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 77/213

53,810 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Natural gas - production 41/216

11.4 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 45/215

12.1 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - exports 42/215

241.7 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - imports 61/214

801 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 51/212

105.5 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 45/212

86.06 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 33/219

total subscriptions: 4.6 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 21 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 53/217

total: 22.9 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 105 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: the telecommunications sector is being expanded and modernized; domestic and international service improving rapidly, especially mobile-cellular services

domestic: more than 90% of telephone network is automatic; fixed-line teledensity exceeds 20 telephones per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 110 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 40; the Black Sea Fiber Optic System provides connectivity to Bulgaria and Turkey; satellite earth stations - 10; digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest (2011)

Broadcast media

a mixture of public and private TV stations; the public broadcaster operates multiple stations; roughly 100 private national, regional, and local stations; more than 75% of households are connected to multi-channel cable or satellite TV systems that provide access to Romanian, European, and international stations; state-owned public radio broadcaster operates 4 national networks and regional and local stations; more than 100 private radio stations (2008)

Radio broadcast stations

698 (station frequency type NA) (2006)

Television broadcast stations

623 (plus 200 repeaters) (2006)

Internet country code

.ro

Internet hosts 35/232

2.667 million (2012)

Internet users 44/217

total: 11.2 million

percent of population: 51.7% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 96/236

45 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 26

over 3,047 m: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 10

1,524 to 2,437 m: 11

under 914 m: 1 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 19

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 14 (2013)

Heliports

2 (2013)

Pipelines

gas 3,726 km; oil 2,451 km (2013)

Railways 22/136

total: 11,268 km

broad gauge: 60 km 1.524-m gauge

standard gauge: 10,781 km 1.435-m gauge (3,292 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 427 km 0.760-m gauge (2014)

Roadways 55/223

total: 84,185 km

paved: 49,873 km (includes 337 km of expressways)

unpaved: 34,312 km (2012)

Waterways 45/107

1,731 km (includes 1,075 km on the Danube River, 524 km on secondary branches, and 132 km on canals) (2010)

Merchant marine 127/156

total: 5

by type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1

foreign-owned: 1 (Russia 1)

registered in other countries: 31 (Georgia 7, Liberia 3, Malta 7, Marshall Islands 2, Moldova 2, Panama 3, Russia 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Sierra Leone 2, Tanzania 1, Togo 1, unknown 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Constanta, Midia

river port(s): Braila, Galati (Galatz), Mancanului (Giurgiu), Tulcea (Danube River)

Military and Security

Military branches

Land Forces, Naval Forces (Fortele Naval, FN), Romanian Air Force (Fortele Aeriene Romane, FAR) (2013)

Military service age and obligation

conscription ended 2006; 18 years of age for male and female voluntary service; all military inductees (including women) contract for an initial 5-year term of service, with subsequent successive 3-year terms until age 36 (2015)

Military expenditures 69/132

1.4% of GDP (2015)

1.42% of GDP (2014 est.)

1.3% of GDP (2013)

1.29% of GDP (2012)

1.3% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

the ICJ ruled largely in favor of Romania in its dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; Romania opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea

Refugees and internally displaced persons

stateless persons: 299 (2014)

Illicit drugs

major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route and small amounts of Latin American cocaine bound for Western Europe; although not a significant financial center, role as a narcotics conduit leaves it vulnerable to laundering, which occurs via the banking system, currency exchange houses, and casinos