Russia

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Founded in the 12th century, the Principality of Muscovy was able to emerge from over 200 years of Mongol domination (13th-15th centuries) and to gradually conquer and absorb surrounding principalities. In the early 17th century, a new ROMANOV Dynasty continued this policy of expansion across Siberia to the Pacific. Under PETER I (ruled 1682-1725), hegemony was extended to the Baltic Sea and the country was renamed the Russian Empire. During the 19th century, more territorial acquisitions were made in Europe and Asia. Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05 contributed to the Revolution of 1905, which resulted in the formation of a parliament and other reforms. Repeated devastating defeats of the Russian army in World War I led to widespread rioting in the major cities of the Russian Empire and to the overthrow in 1917 of the imperial household. The communists under Vladimir LENIN seized power soon after and formed the USSR. The brutal rule of Iosif STALIN (1928-53) strengthened communist rule and Russian dominance of the Soviet Union at a cost of tens of millions of lives. After defeating Germany in World War II as part of an alliance with the US (1939-1945), the USSR expanded its territory and influence in Eastern Europe and emerged as a global power. The USSR was the principal adversary of the US during the Cold War (1947-1991). The Soviet economy and society stagnated in the decades following Stalin’s rule, until General Secretary Mikhail GORBACHEV (1985-91) introduced glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to modernize communism, but his initiatives inadvertently released forces that by December 1991 splintered the USSR into Russia and 14 other independent republics.

Following economic and political turmoil during President Boris YELTSIN's term (1991-99), Russia shifted toward a centralized semi-authoritarian state in which the leadership seeks to legitimize its rule through managed elections, populist appeals by President Vladimir PUTIN, foreign policy focused on enhancing the country's geopolitical influence - particularly in the former Soviet Union - and continued economic growth. Russia faces a largely subdued rebel movement in Chechnya and some other surrounding regions, although violence still occurs throughout the North Caucasus.

Geography

Location

North Asia bordering the Arctic Ocean, extending from Europe (the portion west of the Urals) to the North Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates

60.00° N, 100.00° E

Area 1/257

total: 17,098,242 sq km

land: 16,377,742 sq km

water: 720,500 sq km

Area - comparative

approximately 1.8 times the size of the US

Land boundaries

total: 22,408 km

border countries (14): Azerbaijan 338 km, Belarus 1,312 km, China (southeast) 4,133 km, China (south) 46 km, Estonia 324 km, Finland 1,309 km, Georgia 894 km, Kazakhstan 7,644 km, North Korea 18 km, Latvia 332 km, Lithuania (Kaliningrad Oblast) 261 km, Mongolia 3,452 km, Norway 191 km, Poland (Kaliningrad Oblast) 210 km, Ukraine 1,944 km

Coastline

37,653 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate

ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast

Terrain

broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and tundra in Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern border regions

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m

highest point: Gora El'brus 5,633 m (highest point in Europe)

Natural resources

wide natural resource base including major deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, and many strategic minerals, reserves of rare earth elements, timber

note: formidable obstacles of climate, terrain, and distance hinder exploitation of natural resources

Land use

agricultural land: 13.1%

arable land 7.3%; permanent crops 0.1%; permanent pasture 5.7%

forest: 49.4%

other: 37.5% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

43,000 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

4,508 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 66.2 cu km/yr (20%/60%/20%)

per capita: 454.9 cu m/yr (2001)

Natural hazards

permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development; volcanic activity in the Kuril Islands; volcanoes and earthquakes on the Kamchatka Peninsula; spring floods and summer/autumn forest fires throughout Siberia and parts of European Russia

volcanism: significant volcanic activity on the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands; the peninsula alone is home to some 29 historically active volcanoes, with dozens more in the Kuril Islands; Kliuchevskoi (elev. 4,835 m), which erupted in 2007 and 2010, is Kamchatka's most active volcano; Avachinsky and Koryaksky volcanoes, which pose a threat to the city of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy, have been deemed Decade Volcanoes by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Bezymianny, Chikurachki, Ebeko, Gorely, Grozny, Karymsky, Ketoi, Kronotsky, Ksudach, Medvezhia, Mutnovsky, Sarychev Peak, Shiveluch, Tiatia, Tolbachik, and Zheltovsky

Environment - current issues

air pollution from heavy industry, emissions of coal-fired electric plants, and transportation in major cities; industrial, municipal, and agricultural pollution of inland waterways and seacoasts; deforestation; soil erosion; soil contamination from improper application of agricultural chemicals; scattered areas of sometimes intense radioactive contamination; groundwater contamination from toxic waste; urban solid waste management; abandoned stocks of obsolete pesticides

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulfur 94

Geography - note

largest country in the world in terms of area but unfavorably located in relation to major sea lanes of the world; despite its size, much of the country lacks proper soils and climates (either too cold or too dry) for agriculture; Mount El'brus is Europe's tallest peak; Lake Baikal, the deepest lake in the world, is estimated to hold one fifth of the world's fresh water

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Russian(s)

adjective: Russian

Ethnic groups

Russian 77.7%, Tatar 3.7%, Ukrainian 1.4%, Bashkir 1.1%, Chuvash 1%, Chechen 1%, other 10.2%, unspecified 3.9%

note: nearly 200 national and/or ethnic groups are represented in Russia's 2010 census (2010 est.)

Languages

Russian (official) 85.7%, Tatar 3.2%, Chechen 1%, other 10.1%

note: data represent native language spoken (2010 est.)

Religions

Russian Orthodox 15-20%, Muslim 10-15%, other Christian 2% (2006 est.)

note: estimates are of practicing worshipers; Russia has large populations of non-practicing believers and non-believers, a legacy of over seven decades of Soviet rule; Russia officially recognizes Orthodox Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Buddhism as traditional religions

Population 10/238

142,423,773 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 16.68% (male 12,204,992/female 11,556,764)

15-24 years: 10.15% (male 7,393,188/female 7,064,060)

25-54 years: 45.54% (male 31,779,688/female 33,086,346)

55-64 years: 14.01% (male 8,545,371/female 11,409,076)

65 years and over: 13.61% (male 5,978,578/female 13,405,710) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 43.1%

youth dependency ratio: 24%

elderly dependency ratio: 19.1%

potential support ratio: 5.2% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 39.1 years

male: 36.2 years

female: 42.1 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 203/233

-0.04% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 169/224

11.6 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 11/225

13.69 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 54/222

1.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 74% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: -0.13% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

MOSCOW (capital) 12.166 million; Saint Petersburg 4.993 million; Novosibirsk 1.497 million; Yekaterinburg 1.379 million; Nizhniy Novgorod 1.212 million; Samara 1.164 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.75 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.45 male(s)/female

total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

24.6 (2009 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 119/184

25 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 159/224

total: 6.97 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 7.81 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 6.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 153/224

total population: 70.47 years

male: 64.7 years

female: 76.57 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 179/224

1.61 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

68%

note: percent of women aged 15-44 (2011)

Health expenditures 106/191

6.5% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

4.31 physicians/1,000 population (2006)

Hospital bed density

9.7 beds/1,000 population (2006)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 98.9% of population

rural: 91.2% of population

total: 96.9% of population

unimproved:

urban: 1.1% of population

rural: 8.8% of population

total: 3.1% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 77% of population

rural: 58.7% of population

total: 72.2% of population

unimproved:

urban: 23% of population

rural: 41.3% of population

total: 27.8% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths

NA

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 46/191

26.2% (2014)

Education expenditures 110/173

4.1% of GDP (2008)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 15 years

male: 14 years

female: 15 years (2012)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 78/134

total: 13.8%

male: 13.3%

female: 14.5% (2013 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Russian Federation

conventional short form: Russia

local long form: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya

local short form: Rossiya

former: Russian Empire, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

etymology: Russian lands were generally referred to as Muscovy until PETER I officially declared the Russian Empire in 1721; the new name sought to invoke the patrimony of the medieval eastern European Rus state centered on Kyiv in present-day Ukraine; the Rus were a Varangian (eastern Viking) elite that imposed their rule and eventually their name on their Slavic subjects

Government type

federation

Capital

name: Moscow

geographic coordinates: 55.45° N, 37.36° E

time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

note: Russia has 11 time zones, which includes two that were added in 2014

Administrative divisions

46 provinces (oblastey, singular - oblast), 21 republics (respublik, singular - respublika), 4 autonomous okrugs (avtonomnykh okrugov, singular - avtonomnyy okrug), 9 krays (krayev, singular - kray), 2 federal cities (goroda, singular - gorod), and 1 autonomous oblast (avtonomnaya oblast')

oblasts: Amur (Blagoveshchensk), Arkhangel'sk, Astrakhan', Belgorod, Bryansk, Chelyabinsk, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Kaliningrad, Kaluga, Kemerovo, Kirov, Kostroma, Kurgan, Kursk, Leningrad, Lipetsk, Magadan, Moscow, Murmansk, Nizhniy Novgorod, Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orenburg, Orel, Penza, Pskov, Rostov, Ryazan', Sakhalin (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), Samara, Saratov, Smolensk, Sverdlovsk (Yekaterinburg), Tambov, Tomsk, Tula, Tver', Tyumen', Ul'yanovsk, Vladimir, Volgograd, Vologda, Voronezh, Yaroslavl'

republics: Adygeya (Maykop), Altay (Gorno-Altaysk), Bashkortostan (Ufa), Buryatiya (Ulan-Ude), Chechnya (Groznyy), Chuvashiya (Cheboksary), Dagestan (Makhachkala), Ingushetiya (Magas), Kabardino-Balkariya (Nal'chik), Kalmykiya (Elista), Karachayevo-Cherkesiya (Cherkessk), Kareliya (Petrozavodsk), Khakasiya (Abakan), Komi (Syktyvkar), Mariy-El (Yoshkar-Ola), Mordoviya (Saransk), North Ossetia (Vladikavkaz), Sakha [Yakutiya] (Yakutsk), Tatarstan (Kazan'), Tyva (Kyzyl), Udmurtiya (Izhevsk)

autonomous okrugs: Chukotka (Anadyr'), Khanty-Mansi-Yugra (Khanty-Mansiysk), Nenets (Nar'yan-Mar), Yamalo-Nenets (Salekhard)

krays: Altay (Barnaul), Kamchatka (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy), Khabarovsk, Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk, Perm', Primorskiy [Maritime] (Vladivostok), Stavropol', Zabaykal'sk (Chita)

federal cities: Moscow [Moskva], Saint Petersburg [Sankt-Peterburg]

autonomous oblast: Yevreyskaya [Jewish] (Birobidzhan)

note 1: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)

note 2: the United States does not recognize Russia's annexation of Ukraine's Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the municipality of Sevastopol, nor their redesignation as the Republic of Crimea and the Federal City of Sevastopol

Independence

24 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union); notable earlier dates: 1157 (Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal created); 16 January 1547 (Tsardom of Muscovy established); 22 October 1721 (Russian Empire proclaimed); 30 December 1922 (Soviet Union established)

National holiday

Russia Day, 12 June (1990)

Constitution

several previous (during Russian Empire and Soviet eras); latest drafted 12 July 1993, adopted by referendum 12 December 1993, effective 25 December 1993; amended 2008, 2014 (2015)

Legal system

civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Russia

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 3-5 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN (since 7 May 2012)

head of government: Premier Dmitriy Anatolyevich MEDVEDEV (since 8 May 2012); First Deputy Premier Igor Ivanovich SHUVALOV (since 12 May 2008); Deputy Premiers Arkadiy Vladimirovich DVORKOVICH (since 21 May 2012), Olga Yuryevna GOLODETS (since 21 May 2012), Aleksandr Gennadiyevich KHLOPONIN (since 19 January 2010), Dmitriy Nikolayevich KOZAK (since 14 October 2008), Dmitriy Olegovich ROGOZIN (since 23 December 2011), Sergey Eduardovich PRIKHODKO (since 22 May 2013), Yuriy Petrovich TRUTNEV (since 31 August 2013)

cabinet: the "Government" is composed of the premier, his deputies, and ministers, all appointed by the president; the premier is also confirmed by the Duma

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 4 March 2012 (next to be held in March 2018); note - term length extended to 6 years from 4 years in late 2008, effective after the 2012 election; there is no vice president; premier appointed by the president with the approval of the Duma

election results: Vladimir PUTIN elected president; percent of vote - Vladimir PUTIN (United Russia) 63.6%, Gennadiy ZYUGANOV (CPRF) 17.2%, Mikhail PROKHOROV(Civic Platform) 8%, Vladimir ZHIRINOVSKIY (LDPR) 6.2%, Sergey MIRONOV (A Just Russia) 3.9%, other 1.1%; Dmitriy MEDVEDEV (United Russia) approved as premier by Duma; vote - 299 to 144

note: there is also a Presidential Administration that provides staff and policy support to the president, drafts presidential decrees, and coordinates policy among government agencies; a Security Council also reports directly to the president

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Federal Assembly or Federalnoye Sobraniye consists of the Federation Council or Sovet Federatsii (166 seats; 2 members in each of the 83 federal administrative units - oblasts, krays, republics, autonomous okrugs and oblasts, and the federal cities of Moscow and Saint Petersburg - appointed by the top executive and legislative officials; members serve 4-year terms) and the State Duma or Gosudarstvennaya Duma (450 seats; as of February 2014, the electoral system reverted to a mixed electoral system for the 2016 election in which one-half of the members are directly elected by simple majority vote and one-half directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: State Duma - last held on 4 December 2011 (next to be held in December 2016)

election results: State Duma - United Russia 49.3%, CPRF 19.2%, A Just Russia 13.2%, LDPR 11.7%, other 6.6%; seats by party - United Russia 238, CPRF 92, A Just Russia 64, LDPR 56

note: the State Duma now includes 2 representatives each from the Republic of Crimea and Federal City of Sevastopol, two annexed Ukrainian regions that the US does not recognize as part of Russia

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of the Russian Federation (consists of 170 members organized into the Judicial Panel for Civil Affairs, the Judicial Panel for Criminal Affairs, and the Military Panel); Constitutional Court (consists of 19 members); note - in February 2014, Russia’s Superior Court of Arbitration was abolished and its former authorities transferred to the Supreme Court, which in addition to being the country’s highest judicial authority for appeals, civil, criminal, administrative cases, and military cases, and the disciplinary judicial board, now has jurisdiction over economic disputes

judge selection and term of office: all members of Russia's 3 highest courts nominated by the president and appointed by the Federation Council (the upper house of the legislature); members of all 3 courts appointed for life

subordinate courts: Higher Arbitration Court; regional (kray) and provincial (oblast) courts; Moscow and St. Petersburg city courts; autonomous province and district courts; note - the 14 Russian Republics have court systems specified by their own constitutions

Political parties and leaders

A Just Russia [Sergey MIRONOV]

Communist Party of the Russian Federation or CPRF [Gennadiy ZYUGANOV]

Liberal Democratic Party of Russia or LDPR [Vladimir ZHIRINOVSKIY]

United Russia [Dmitriy MEDVEDEV]

note: 78 political parties are registered with Russia's Ministry of Justice (as of October 2015), but only four parties maintain representation in Russia's national legislature

Political pressure groups and leaders

Confederation of Labor of Russia or KTR

Federation of Independent Trade Unions of Russia

Golos Association in Defense of Voters' Rights

Memorial

Movement Against Illegal Migration

Russkiye

Solidarnost

The World Russian People's Congress

Union of the Committees of Soldiers' Mothers

Union of Russian Writers

other: business associations; environmental organizations; religious groups (especially those with Orthodox or Muslim affiliation); veterans groups

International organization participation

APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BRICS, BSEC, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN (observer), CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAEU, EAPC, EAS, EBRD, FAO, FATF, G-20, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNSC (permanent), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red

note: the colors may have been based on those of the Dutch flag; despite many popular interpretations, there is no official meaning assigned to the colors of the Russian flag; this flag inspired several other Slav countries to adopt horizontal tricolors of the same colors but in different arrangements, and so red, blue, and white became the Pan-Slav colors

National symbol(s)

bear, double-headed eagle; national colors: white, blue, red

National anthem

name: "Gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii" (National Anthem of the Russian Federation)

lyrics/music: Sergey Vladimirovich MIKHALKOV/Aleksandr Vasilyevich ALEKSANDROV

note: in 2000, Russia adopted the tune of the anthem of the former Soviet Union (composed in 1939); the lyrics, also adopted in 2000, were written by the same person who authored the Soviet lyrics in 1943

Economy

Economy - overview

Russia has undergone significant changes since the collapse of the Soviet Union, moving from a centrally-planned economy towards a more market-based economy, but stalling as a partially reformed, statist economy with a high concentration of wealth in officials' hands. Economic reforms in the 1990s privatized most industry, with notable exceptions in the energy and defense-related sectors. The protection of property rights is still weak and the private sector remains subject to heavy state interference.

Russia is one of the world's leading producers of oil and natural gas, and is also a top exporter of metals such as steel and primary aluminum. Russia's manufacturing sector is generally uncompetitive on world markets and is geared toward domestic consumption. Russia's reliance on commodity exports makes it vulnerable to boom and bust cycles that follow the volatile swings in global prices.

The economy, which had averaged 7% growth during 1998-2008 as oil prices rose rapidly, has seen diminishing growth rates since that time due to the exhaustion of Russia’s commodity-based growth model. The Russian Economic Development Ministry estimates that GDP growth would be limited to 1.5-2% per year during the next five years without major structural and institutional reforms.

A combination of falling oil prices, international sanctions, and structural limitations pushed Russia into a deep recession in 2015, with the GDP falling by close to 4%, and most economists expect this downturn will continue into a least the first quarter of 2016. Although the Russian Ministry of Economic Development is forecasting a modest growth of 0.7% for 2016 as a whole, the Central Bank of Russia (CBR) is more pessimistic and expects the recovery to begin later in the year and a decline of 0.5 to 1.0% for the full year. Russia is heavily dependent on the movement of world commodity prices and the CBR estimates that if oil prices fell below $40 per barrel in 2016, the resulting shock would cause GDP to fall by 5% or more.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 7/230

$3.471 trillion (2015 est.)

$3.612 trillion (2014 est.)

$3.59 trillion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$1.236 trillion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 213/225

-3.9% (2015 est.)

0.6% (2014 est.)

1.3% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 79/230

$23,700 (2015 est.)

$24,700 (2014 est.)

$24,500 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 57/179

23.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

23.1% of GDP (2014 est.)

23.3% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 53.2%

government consumption: 20.2%

investment in fixed capital: 19.1%

investment in inventories: -3.3%

exports of goods and services: 32.2%

imports of goods and services: -21.4%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 4.4%

industry: 35.8%

services: 59.7% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, vegetables, fruits; beef, milk

Industries

complete range of mining and extractive industries producing coal, oil, gas, chemicals, and metals; all forms of machine building from rolling mills to high-performance aircraft and space vehicles; defense industries (including radar, missile production, advanced electronic components), shipbuilding; road and rail transportation equipment; communications equipment; agricultural machinery, tractors, and construction equipment; electric power generating and transmitting equipment; medical and scientific instruments; consumer durables, textiles, foodstuffs, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate 183/202

-3.5% (2015 est.)

Labor force 8/233

74.89 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 9.4%

industry: 27.6%

services: 63% (2012)

Unemployment rate 59/207

5.4% (2015 est.)

5.2% (2014 est.)

Population below poverty line

11.2% (2013 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 5.7%

highest 10%: 42.4% (2011 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 54/144

42 (2012)

41.7 (2011)

Budget

revenues: $216.3 billion

expenditures: $251.6 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 177/219

17.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 106/220

-2.9% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 160/176

13.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

10.4% of GDP (2014 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment, debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 216/226

15.4% (2015 est.)

7.8% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 17/156

11% (2014 est.)

17% (31 December 2011)

note: this is the so-called refinancing rate, but in Russia banks do not get refinancing at this rate; this is a reference rate used primarily for fiscal purposes

Commercial bank prime lending rate 33/184

15.9% (31 December 2015 est.)

11.14% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 24/192

$171.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$201.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 19/193

$926.8 billion (31 October 2014 est.)

$1.087 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 20/191

$676.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$664.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 17/121

$874.7 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$796.4 billion (31 December 2011)

$1.005 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance 8/197

$61.85 billion (2015 est.)

$59.46 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 15/224

$337.8 billion (2015 est.)

$497.8 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, metals, wood and wood products, chemicals, and a wide variety of civilian and military manufactures

Exports - partners

Netherlands 14%, China 7.5%, Italy 7.4%, Germany 7.3%, Turkey 5% (2014)

Imports 23/223

$197.3 billion (2015 est.)

$308 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery, vehicles, pharmaceutical products, plastic, semi-finished metal products, meat, fruits and nuts, optical and medical instruments, iron, steel

Imports - partners

China 17.6%, Germany 11.5%, US 6.6%, Italy 4.4%, Belarus 4.2%, Ukraine 4% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 7/170

$377.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$385.5 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 23/206

$599 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$728.9 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 20/120

$360.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$353.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 19/105

$404.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$388.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

Russian rubles (RUB) per US dollar -

61.27 (2015 est.)

38.38 (2014 est.)

38.38 (2013 est.)

30.84 (2012 est.)

29.38 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 4/220

1.064 trillion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - consumption 4/219

1.065 trillion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - exports 24/218

8.12 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 25/219

8.87 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 6/214

242.2 million kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 111/214

68.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 18/214

10.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 92/214

20.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 103/212

0.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 1/214

10.84 million bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 2/214

4.594 million bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports 62/214

29,650 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 7/215

103.2 billion bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 4/214

6.053 million bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 8/212

2.8 million bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 1/214

3.3 million bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 83/213

44,600 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production 2/216

578.7 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 2/215

409.2 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - exports 1/215

201.9 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - imports 15/214

24.2 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 67/212

32.6 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 5/212

1.782 billion Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 7/219

total subscriptions: 39.43 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 28 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 7/217

total: 221 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 155 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: the telephone system is experiencing significant changes; more than 1,000 companies licensed to offer communication services; access to digital lines has improved, particularly in urban centers; progress made toward building the telecommunications infrastructure necessary for a market economy; the estimated number of mobile subscribers jumped from fewer than 1 million in 1998 to more than 235 million in 2011; fixed-line service has improved but a large demand remains

domestic: cross-country digital trunk lines run from Saint Petersburg to Khabarovsk, and from Moscow to Novorossiysk; the telephone systems in 60 regional capitals have modern digital infrastructures; cellular services, both analog and digital, are available in many areas; in rural areas, telephone services are still outdated, inadequate, and low-density

international: country code - 7; connected internationally by undersea fiber optic cables; satellite earth stations provide access to Intelsat, Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Orbita systems (2011)

Broadcast media

6 national TV stations with the federal government owning 1 and holding a controlling interest in a second; state-owned Gazprom maintains a controlling interest in a third national channel; government-affiliated Bank Rossiya owns controlling interest in a fourth and fifth, while the sixth national channel is owned by the Moscow city administration; roughly 3,300 national, regional, and local TV stations with over two-thirds completely or partially controlled by the federal or local governments; satellite TV services are available; 2 state-run national radio networks with a third majority-owned by Gazprom; roughly 2,400 public and commercial radio stations (2007)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 323, FM about 1,500, shortwave 62 (2004)

Television broadcast stations

7,306 (1998)

Internet country code

.ru; note - Russia also has responsibility for a legacy domain ".su" that was allocated to the Soviet Union and is being phased out

Internet hosts 10/232

14.865 million (2012)

Internet users 7/217

total: 84.4 million

percent of population: 59.3% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 5/236

1,218 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 594

over 3,047 m: 54

2,438 to 3,047 m: 197

1,524 to 2,437 m: 123

914 to 1,523 m: 95

under 914 m: 125 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 624

over 3,047 m: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 13

1,524 to 2,437 m: 69

914 to 1,523 m: 81

under 914 m: 457 (2013)

Heliports

49 (2013)

Pipelines

condensate 122 km; gas 163,872 km; liquid petroleum gas 1,378 km; oil 80,820 km; oil/gas/water 40 km; refined products 13,658 km; water 23 km (2013)

Railways 2/136

total: 87,157 km

broad gauge: 86,200 km 1.520-m gauge (40,300 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 957 km 1.067-m gauge (on Sakhalin Island)

note: an additional 30,000 km of non-common carrier lines serve industries (2014)

Roadways 5/223

total: 1,283,387 km

paved: 927,721 km (includes 39,143 km of expressways)

unpaved: 355,666 km (2012)

Waterways 2/107

102,000 km (including 48,000 km with guaranteed depth; the 72,000-km system in European Russia links Baltic Sea, White Sea, Caspian Sea, Sea of Azov, and Black Sea) (2009)

Merchant marine 11/156

total: 1,143

by type: bulk carrier 20, cargo 642, carrier 3, chemical tanker 57, combination ore/oil 42, container 13, passenger 15, passenger/cargo 7, petroleum tanker 244, refrigerated cargo 84, roll on/roll off 13, specialized tanker 3

foreign-owned: 155 (Belgium 4, Cyprus 13, Estonia 1, Ireland 1, Italy 14, Latvia 2, Netherlands 2, Romania 1, South Korea 1, Switzerland 3, Turkey 101, Ukraine 12)

registered in other countries: 439 (Antigua and Barbuda 3, Belgium 1, Belize 30, Bulgaria 2, Cambodia 50, Comoros 12, Cook Islands 1, Cyprus 46, Dominica 3, Georgia 6, Hong Kong 1, Kiribati 1, Liberia 109, Malaysia 2, Malta 45, Marshall Islands 5, Moldova 5, Mongolia 2, Panama 49, Romania 1, Saint Kitts and Nevis 13, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 11, Sierra Leone 7, Singapore 2, Spain 6, Vanuatu 7, unknown 19) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Kaliningrad, Nakhodka, Novorossiysk, Primorsk, Vostochnyy

river port(s): Saint Petersburg (Neva River)

oil terminal(s): Kavkaz oil terminal

container port(s) (TEUs): Saint Petersburg (2,365,174)

LNG terminal(s) (export): Sakhalin Island

Military and Security

Military branches

Ground Troops (Sukhoputnyye Voyskia, SV), Navy (Voyenno-Morskoy Flot, VMF), Air Forces (Voyenno-Vozdushniye Sily, VVS); Airborne Troops (Vozdushno-Desantnyye Voyska, VDV), Missile Troops of Strategic Purpose (Raketnyye Voyska Strategicheskogo Naznacheniya, RVSN) referred to commonly as Strategic Rocket Forces, and Aerospace Defense Troops (Voyska Vozdushno-Kosmicheskoy Oborony or Voyska VKO) are independent "combat arms," not subordinate to any of the three branches; Russian Ground Troops include the following combat arms: motorized-rifle troops, tank troops, missile and artillery troops, air defense of the Ground Troops (2014)

Military service age and obligation

18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; males are registered for the draft at 17 years of age; 1-year service obligation (conscripts can only be sent to combat zones after 6 months of training); reserve obligation for non-officers to age 50; enrollment in military schools from the age of 16, cadets classified as members of the armed forces

note: the chief of the General Staff Mobilization Directorate announced in May 2013 that for health reasons, only 65% of draftees called up during the spring 2013 draft campaign were fit for military service, and over 12% of these were sent for an additional medical examination (by way of comparison, 69.9% in 2012 and 57.7% in 2011 were deemed fit for military service); approximately 50% of draft-age Russian males receive some type of legal deferment each draft cycle (2014)

Military expenditures 16/132

3.49% of GDP (2014)

3.18% of GDP (2013)

2.92% of GDP (2012)

2.71% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Russia remains concerned about the smuggling of poppy derivatives from Afghanistan through Central Asian countries

China and Russia have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and in the Argun River in accordance with the 2004 Agreement, ending their centuries-long border disputes

the sovereignty dispute over the islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan, and the Habomai group, known in Japan as the "Northern Territories" and in Russia as the "Southern Kurils," occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by Russia, and claimed by Japan, remains the primary sticking point to signing a peace treaty formally ending World War II hostilities

Russia's military support and subsequent recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia independence in 2008 continue to sour relations with Georgia

Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea

Norway and Russia signed a comprehensive maritime boundary agreement in 2010

various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia (Kareliya) and other areas ceded to the Soviet Union following World War II but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands

Russia and Estonia signed a technical border agreement in May 2005, but Russia recalled its signature in June 2005 after the Estonian parliament added to its domestic ratification act a historical preamble referencing the Soviet occupation and Estonia's pre-war borders under the 1920 Treaty of Tartu

Russia contends that the preamble allows Estonia to make territorial claims on Russia in the future, while Estonian officials deny that the preamble has any legal impact on the treaty text

Russia demands better treatment of the Russian-speaking population in Estonia and Latvia

Lithuania and Russia committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999

Lithuania operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Russia, while still conforming, as an EU member state with an EU external border, where strict Schengen border rules apply

preparations for the demarcation delimitation of land boundary with Ukraine have commenced

the dispute over the boundary between Russia and Ukraine through the Kerch Strait and Sea of Azov is suspended due to the occupation of Crimea by Russia

Kazakhstan and Russia boundary delimitation was ratified on November 2005 and field demarcation should commence in 2007

Russian Duma has not yet ratified 1990 Bering Sea Maritime Boundary Agreement with the US

Denmark (Greenland) and Norway have made submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental shelf (CLCS) and Russia is collecting additional data to augment its 2001 CLCS submission

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 383,323 asylum seekers and 911,549 applicants for other forms of legal stay (Ukraine) (2015)

IDPs: at least 25,378 (armed conflict, human rights violations, generalized violence in North Caucasus, particularly Chechnya and North Ossetia) (2014)

stateless persons: 113,474 (2014); note - Russia's stateless population consists of Roma, Meskhetian Turks, and ex-Soviet citizens from the former republics; between 2003 and 2010 more than 600,000 stateless people were naturalized; most Meskhetian Turks, followers of Islam with origins in Georgia, fled or were evacuated from Uzbekistan after a 1989 pogrom and have lived in Russia for more than the required five-year residency period; they continue to be denied registration for citizenship and basic rights by local Krasnodar Krai authorities on the grounds that they are temporary illegal migrants

Illicit drugs

limited cultivation of illicit cannabis and opium poppy and producer of methamphetamine, mostly for domestic consumption; government has active illicit crop eradication program; used as transshipment point for Asian opiates, cannabis, and Latin American cocaine bound for growing domestic markets, to a lesser extent Western and Central Europe, and occasionally to the US; major source of heroin precursor chemicals; corruption and organized crime are key concerns; major consumer of opiates